Top 100 European Sculptures

Top 100 European Sculptures

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  1. David by Michelangelo (1504)

           Michelangelo’s David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created from 1501 to 1504. The 5.17 m (17 ft.) marble statue portrays the Biblical hero David at a moment of contemplation. The most widely accepted interpretation is that the statue represents David immediately before his battle with Goliath, unlike previous depictions which portray the hero after his victory. The statue came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. This interpretation was encouraged by the original setting of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence. The completed sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504. The eyes of David, with a warning glare, were turned towards Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Michelangelo Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Michelangelo),
  2. Laocoön and His Sons (50-200 BC)

           This is a Roman copy of a Hellenistic original from 200 BC, marble, height 1.84 m, Vatican. Trojan priest Laocoön and his two sons are attacked at an altar by giant snakes. Pliny said it was the work of three sculptors from Rhodes, Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athenodoros. The date of the Laocoon is controversial, some scholars arguing for the late second century BC, others for 50 BC. The statue of Laocoön and His Sons (Italian: Gruppo del Laocoonte), also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental sculpture in marble now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. The statue is attributed by the Roman author Pliny the Elder to three sculptors from the island of Rhodes: Agesander, Athenodoros and Polyclitus. It shows the Trojan priest Laocoön and his sons Antiphantes and Thymbraeus being strangled by sea serpents.
    Links: Top Ten Roman Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laoco%C3%B6n_and_his_Sons,
  3. Winged Victory of Samothrace (190 BC)

           Hellenistic Greece, Samothrace (island in the North Aegean Sea), Nike on the Prow of a Ship, called the “Winged Victory of Samothrace,” gray Lartos marble for the ship’s prow, white Paros marble for the statue, height  3.28 m (floor to top of wings) (10 feet 9 inches), Louvre. An original Greek statue probably destroyed by an earthquake, this work was found in countless pieces in 1863 on the island of Samothrace, in the northeast Aegean. The right wing is a plaster copy of the left wing, the only one to have survived. The cement base beneath its feet is also modern; the statue initially stood on the sculpted prow of the ship. It loomed out of a hilltop sanctuary at an angle, which explains why less attention was paid to carving the right-hand side. The Victory, “Nike” in Greek, is shown as if she were just alighting on the prow of the ship to which she is bringing divine favor. Discovered in 1950, her right hand enabled her original gesture to be restored: with her raised hand, she announces the coming event. Staged in spectacular fashion very much in keeping with Hellenistic taste, she could be seen from afar by ships approaching the island. The proportions, the rendering of the bodily forms, the manner in which the drapery flapping in the wind is handled, and the expansiveness of the highly theatrical gesture all bear witness to the search for realism in sculpture dating from this period. After examining certain stylistic details, scholars believe that this monument might be a votive offering from the Rhodians to thank the gods for a naval victory around 190 BC, but André Malraux was delighted with the accidental mutilation of this statue, which turned it into a timeless icon of Western art, “a masterpiece of destiny.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_Victory_of_Samothrace,
  4. Statue of the Republic

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    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Angelo Zanelli,
  5. The Wounded (1940) by Arno Breker

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    Links: Top Ten Arno Breker Sculptures,
  6. Venus de Milo (130-100 BC)

           Aphrodite of Milos, better known as the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. Created at some time between 130 and 100 BC, it is believed to depict Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) the Greek goddess of love and beauty. It is a marble sculpture, slightly larger than life size at 203 cm (6 ft 8 in) high. Its arms and original plinth have been lost. From an inscription that was on its plinth, it is thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch; it was earlier mistakenly attributed to the master sculptor Praxiteles. It is at present on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus_de_Milo,
  7. La Pieta by Michelangelo (1499)

           La Pietà is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by the renowned artist Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same theme by the artist. The statue was commissioned for the French cardinal Jean de Billheres, who was a representative in Rome. The statue was made for the cardinal’s funeral monument, but was moved to its current location, the first chapel on the right as one enters the basilica, in the 18th century. This famous work of art depicts the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifixion. The theme is of Northern origin, popular by that time in France but not yet in Italy. Michelangelo’s interpretation of the Pietà is unique to the precedents. It is an important work as it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism. The statue is one of the most highly finished works by Michelangelo.
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  8. Moses by Michelangelo

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    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_(Michelangelo),
  9. Ecstasy of Saint Theresa by Gian Lorenzo Bernini

           The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa (alternatively Saint Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of Saint Teresa) is the central sculptural group in white marble set in an elevated aedicule in the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. It was designed and completed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the leading sculptor of his day, who also designed the setting of the Chapel in marble, stucco and paint. It is generally considered to be one of the sculptural masterpieces of the High Roman Baroque.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecstasy_of_St_Theresa,
  10. Archangel Michael, Ukraine and Germany

           Michael is an archangel in Jewish, Christian and Islamic teachings. Roman Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans and Lutherans refer to him as Saint Michael the Archangel and also simply as Saint Michael. Orthodox Christians refer to him as the Taxiarch Archangel Michael or simply Archangel Michael. In Hebrew, Michael means “who is like God,” which is traditionally interpreted as a rhetorical question: “Who is like God?” (which expects an answer in the negative) to imply that no one is like God. In this way, Michael is reinterpreted as a symbol of humility before God. In the Hebrew Bible Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, once as a “great prince who stands up for the children of your people.” The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God’s armies against Satan’s forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as an “archangel.” Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches. Over time, teachings on Michael began to vary among Christian denominations.
    Links: Top Ten German AttractionsTop Ten Angels, Top Ten Statues of Angelshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archangel_Michael,
  11. Basilica of St. John Lateran Statues, Rome, Italy

           The Papal Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, commonly known as St. John Lateran’s Archbasilica and St. John Lateran’s Basilica, is the cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome and the official ecclesiastical seat of the Bishop of Rome, who is the Pope. The official name, in Latin, is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris et Sanctorum Iohannes Baptista et Evangelista in Laterano, which translates in English as Archbasilica of the Most Holy Saviour and Ss. John the Baptist and the Evangelist at the Lateran, and in Italian as Arcibasilica del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano. It is the oldest and ranks first among the four Papal Basilicas or major basilicas of Rome (having the cathedra of the Bishop of Rome). It claims the title of ecumenical mother church among Roman Catholics. The current archpriest of St. John Lateran is Agostino Vallini, Cardinal Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The President of the French Republic, currently Nicolas Sarkozy, is ex officio the “first and only honorary canon” of the basilica, a title inherited from the Kings of France, who have held it since Henry IV of France. An inscription on the façade, Christo Salvatori, indicates the church’s dedication to “Christ the Saviour,” for the cathedrals of all patriarchs are dedicated to Christ himself. As the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, it ranks above all other churches in the Catholic Church, including St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City. For that reason, unlike all other Roman Basilicas, it holds the title of Archbasilica. The cathedral itself is located outside of the Vatican boundaries, within the city of Rome. However it has been granted a special extraterritorial status as one of the properties of the Holy See. This is also the case with several other buildings, after the solving of the Roman Question with the Lateran Treaty. The Lateran Basilica is adjacent to the Lateran Palace.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_St._John_Lateran,
  12. Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, Rome (1651)

           The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi or “Fountain of the Four Rivers” is a fountain in Rome, Italy, located in the Piazza Navona. It is a masterpiece of Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s and emblematic of the dynamic and dramatic effects sought by high Baroque artists. It was erected in 1651 in front of the church of Sant’Agnese in Agone, and yards from the Pamphilj Palace belonging to this fountain’s patron, Innocent X (1644-1655). The four gods on the corners of the fountain represent the four major rivers of the world known at the time: the Nile, Danube, Ganges, and Plate. The design of each god figure has symbolic importance.
    Links: Top Ten Fountains, Top Ten Sculptures by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Top Ten Obelisks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fontana_dei_Quattro_Fiumi,
  13. Perseus with the Head of Medusa by Benvenuto Cellini (1554)

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    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Benvenuto Cellini,
  14. Heroes Square, Budapest, Hungary

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    Links: Top Ten Hungarian Attractions,
  15. Cloaked Statue, Prague, Czech Republic

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    Links: Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions,
  16. David by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1623-1624)

           David is a life-size marble sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The sculpture was part of a commission to decorate the villa of Bernini’s patron Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the Galleria Borghese, where it still resides. It was completed in the course of seven months from 1623 to 1624.
    Links: Top Ten Gian Lorenzo Bernini Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Bernini),
  17. Palaise Garnier Statues, Paris, France

           The Paris Opera is the primary opera company of Paris, France. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d’Opéra and shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and renamed the Académie Royale de Musique. Classical ballet as we know it today arose within the Paris Opera as the Paris Opera Ballet and has remained an integral and important part of the company. Currently called the Opéra National de Paris, it primarily produces operas at its modern theatre Opéra Bastille which opened in 1989, and ballets and smaller scale and classical operas at the older Palais Garnier which opened in 1875.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Opera Houses, Top Ten Operas,
  18. Statue Outside the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

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    Links: Top Ten Austrian Attractions, Museums and Galleries, Top Ten European Museums,
  19. David by Donatello

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    Links: Top Ten Donatello Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(Donatello),
  20. The Motherland Calls

           The Motherland Calls, also called Mother Motherland, Mother Motherland Is Calling, simply The Motherland, or The Mamayev Monument, is a statue in Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad. It was the tallest sculpture in the world when it was dedicated, and the model who posed for it was still recognized for the resemblance over forty years after posing.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother_Motherland_Is_Calling,
  21. Rape of Proserpine by Gian Lorenzo Bernini

           The Rape of Proserpina is a large baroque marble sculptural group by Bernini executed between 1621 and 1622 while Bernini was only 23 years old at its completion. It depicts Proserpina being seized and taken to the underworld by Pluto, depicting “rape” in its archaic definition of “kidnapping.”
    Links: Top Ten Gian Lorenzo Bernini Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_Proserpina_(Bernini),
  22. Ponte Sant’Angelo Staues, Rome Italy

           Ponte Sant’Angelo, once the Aelian Bridge or Pons Aelius, meaning the Bridge of Hadrian, is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, completed in 134 AD by Roman Emperor Hadrian, to span the Tiber, from the city center to his newly constructed mausoleum, now the towering Castel Sant’Angelo. The bridge is faced with travertine marble and spans the Tiber with three arches; it was approached by means of ramp from the river. The bridge is now solely pedestrian, and provides a photogenic vista of the Castel Sant’Angelo. It links the rioni of Ponte (which was named after the bridge itself) and Borgo.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Castles, Top Ten European Castles, Top Ten Bridges, Top Ten Mausoleums, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponte_Sant%E2%80%99Angelo,
  23. Victor Emmanuel II Monument, Rome, Italy

           The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Motherland) is a monument built to honor Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill. The monument was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Leonardo Bistolfi and Angelo Zanelli. It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1935. The monument is built of white marble from Botticino, Brescia, and features stairways, Corinthian columns, fountains, an equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas. The structure is 135 m (443 ft.) wide and 70 m (230 ft.) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft.). The base of the structure houses the museum of Italian Reunification. In 2007, a panoramic elevator was added to the structure, allowing visitors to ride up to the roof for 360 degree views of Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Sculptures by Angelo Zanelli, Top Ten Sculptures by Leonardo Bistolfi, Top Ten Architectural Works by Giuseppe Sacconi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monument_to_Vittorio_Emanuele_II,
  24. Victory Column, Berlin by Heinrich Strack and Friedrich Drake (1873)

           The Victory Column is a famous monument in Berlin, Germany. Designed by Heinrich Strack after 1864 to commemorate the Prussian victory in the Danish-Prussian War, by the time it was inaugurated on 2 September 1873, Prussia had also defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), giving the statue a new purpose. Different from the original plans, these later victories in the so-called unification wars inspired the addition of the bronze sculpture of Victoria, 8.3 meters high and weighing 35 tonnes, designed by Friedrich Drake. Berliners, with their fondness for giving nicknames to famous buildings, call the statue Goldelse, meaning “Golden Lizzy.”
    Links: Top Ten Victory Columns, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_victory_column,
  25. Brandenburg Gate Quadriga, Berlin, Germany

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    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top Ten Gates,
  26. Millennium of Russia Monument (1862)

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    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions,
  27. Athena

           In Greek religion and mythology, Athena or Athene, is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts and skill. Minerva, Athena’s Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes. Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavor. She is the virgin patron of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honor. Athena’s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times, and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias, “Athena of the city.” The city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, “Athena” meaning “[many] Athenas.”
    Links: Top Ten Greek Godshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena,
  28. Bronze Statuette of a Veiled and Masked Dancer (3rd–2nd Century BC)

           The complex motion of this dancer is conveyed exclusively through the interaction of the body with several layers of dress. Over an undergarment that falls in deep folds and trails heavily, the figure wears a lightweight mantle, drawn taut over her head and body by the pressure applied to it by her right arm, left hand, and right leg. Its substance is conveyed by the alternation of sharp pleats and flat surfaces as well as by their contrast to both the tubular folds pushing through from below and the freely curling softness of the fringe. The woman’s face is covered by the sheerest of veils, discernible at its edge below her hairline and at the cutouts for the eyes. Her extended right foot shows a laced slipper. This dancer has been convincingly identified as one of the professional entertainers, a combination of mime and dancer, for which the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria was famous in antiquity. The statue currently resides in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    Links: Top Ten Bronze Sculptures,
  29. Apollo Belvedere (330 BC)

           The Apollo Belvedere or Apollo of the Belvedere — also called the Pythian Apollo — is a celebrated marble sculpture from Classical Antiquity. It was rediscovered in the late 15th century, during the Renaissance. From the mid-18th century, it was considered the greatest ancient sculpture by ardent neoclassicists and for centuries epitomized ideals of aesthetic perfection for Europeans and westernized parts of the world.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Belvedere,
  30. Cloaked Warrior

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    Links: Top Ten Greek Statues, Top Ten Greek Artifacts,
  31. Artemision Bronze

           The Artemision Bronze (often called the God from the Sea) is an ancient Greek sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape Artemision, in northern Euboea (Modern Greek Εύβοια, Évia). It represents either Zeus or Poseidon, slightly over lifesize, brandishing a missing thunderbolt (if Zeus) or trident (if Poseidon) with his raised right hand and sighting over his extended left hand.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Gods, Top Ten Bronze Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poseidon_of_Cape_Artemision,
  32. Zeus

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    Links: Top Ten Greek Sculptures, Top Ten Roman Sculptures, Top Ten Greek Gods,
  33. The Bronze Horseman

           The Bronze Horseman is an equestrian statue of Peter the Great by Étienne Maurice Falconet in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It is also the name of a narrative poem written by Aleksandr Pushkin about the statue in 1833, widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. The statue came to be known as the Bronze Horseman because of the great influence of the poem. The statue is now one of the symbols of Saint Petersburg, in much the same way that the Statue of Liberty is a symbol of New York City. The statue’s pedestal is the enormous Thunder Stone, sometimes claimed to be the largest stone ever moved by man.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Bronze_Horseman.jpg,
  34. Athena, Parliament Building, Austria

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    Links: Top Ten Austrian Attractions,
  35. Eros, Piccadilly Circus, London, England

           Eros, “Intimate Love,” in Greek mythology, was the primordial god of sexual love and beauty. He was also worshipped as a fertility deity. His Roman counterpart was Cupid (“desire”). In the Theogony Hesiod makes him a primordial god, while in some myths, he was the son of the deities Aphrodite and Ares.
    Links: Top Ten English Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eros,
  36. Datoteka: Centre d’Andorra la Vella, Andorra

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    Links: Top Ten Andorran Attractions, Top Ten Fountains,
  37. King Leonidas Statue

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    Links: Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Warriorshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonidas_I,
  38. Chelmno Memorial, Czech Republic

           This is a memorial to 82 Lidice children murdered by the Nazi Germans in Chelmno.
    Links: Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions,
  39. Cervantes, Greece

           Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 – 22 April 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes (“the language of Cervantes”). He was dubbed El Príncipe de los Ingenios (“The Prince of Wits”). In 1569, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he served as a valet to Giulio Acquaviva, a wealthy priest who was elevated to cardinal the next year. By then, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Algerian corsairs. After five years he was released on ransom from his captors by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order. He subsequently returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel named La Galatea. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605, he was in Valladolid, just when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer; he published the Novelas ejemplares (Exemplary Novels) in 1613, the Journey to Parnassus (Viaje al Parnaso) in 1614, and in 1615, the Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes noted that, “Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written.”
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervantes,
  40. Hermannsdenkmal

           The Hermannsdenkmal is a monument located in North Rhine Westphalia in Germany in the Southern part of the Teutoburg Forest, which is southwest of Detmold in the district of Lippe. It stands on the densely forested and 386 m tall Teutberg in the ring fortification located there, which is called Grotenburg. The monument commemorates the Cherusci war chief Hermann or Armin (Latin: Arminius) and the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in which the Germanic tribes under Arminius recorded a decisive victory in 9 AD over three Roman legions under Varus. The sword has the following inscription: “Deutsche Einigkeit, meine Stärke – meine Stärke, Deutschlands Macht.” “German unity (is) my strength – my strength (is) Germany’s might.”
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  41. Mother Motherland by Yevgeny Vuchetich

           Mother Motherland is a monumental statue of the “Mother Motherland” in Kiev, Ukraine. The sculpture is a part of Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Kiev. Built by Yevgeny Vuchetich, the titanium statue stands 62 meters tall upon the museum building with the overall structure measuring 102 m and weighing 530 tons. The sword in the statue’s right hand is 16 m long weighing 9 tons, with the left hand holding up a 13 m by 8 m shield with the Coat of arms of the Soviet Union. The Memorial hall of the Museum displays marble plaques with carved names of more than 11,600 soldiers and over 200 workers of the home-front honored during the war with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Hero of Socialist Labor. On the hill beneath the museum, traditional flower shows are held.
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  42. Monument of Liberty by Arnoldo Zocchi

           The Monument of Liberty in Rousse, Bulgaria, was built at the beginning of the 20th century by the Italian sculptor Arnoldo Zocchi. As time went by, it gained significance as one of the city’s symbols and now forms a part of her coat of arms.
    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Arnoldo Zocchi,
  43. Antikythera Ephebe (340 BC)

           The Antikythera Ephebe is a bronze statue of a young man of languorous grace that was found in 1900 by sponge-divers in the area of an ancient shipwreck off the island of Antikythera, Greece. It was the first of the series of Greek bronze sculptures that the Aegean and Mediterranean yielded up in the twentieth century which have fundamentally altered the modern view of Ancient Greek sculpture. The wreck site, which is dated about 70–60 BC, also yielded the Antikythera Mechanism, an astronomical calculating device, a characterful head of a Stoic philosopher, and a hoard of coins. The coins included a disproportionate quantity of Pergamene cistophoric tetradrachms and Ephesian coins, leading scholars to surmise that it had begun its journey on the Ionian coast, perhaps at Ephesus; none of its recovered cargo has been identified as from mainland Greece.
    Links: Top Ten Out of Place Artifacts,
  44. Borghese Gladiator (100 BC)

           Antium (Italy), 100 BC, Nude Male Combatant, called the “Borghese Gladiator”, marble, height 157 cm, Louvre.
    Links: Top Ten Gladiators,
  45. James Larkin

           James (Big Jim) Larkin (21 January 1876 – 30 January 1947) was an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, born to Irish parents in Liverpool, England. He and his family later moved to a small cottage in Burren, southern County Down. Growing up in poverty, he received little formal education and began working in a variety of jobs while still a child. He became a full-time trade union organizer in 1905. Larkin moved to Belfast in 1907 and founded the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union, the Irish Labour Party, and later the Workers’ Union of Ireland. Perhaps best known for his role in the 1913 Dublin Lockout, “Big Jim” continues to occupy a significant place in Dublin’s collective memory.
    Links: Top Ten Social Activists, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Larkin,
  46. Athena Parthenos

           Athena Parthenos, “Athena the Virgin” was the title of a massive chryselephantine sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena made by Phidias and housed in the Parthenon in Athens. Its epithet was an essential character of the goddess herself. A number of replicas and works inspired by it, both ancient and modern, have been made. It was the most renowned cult image of Athens, considered one of the greatest achievements of the most acclaimed sculptor of ancient Greece. Phidias began his work around 447 BC. Lachares removed the gold sheets in 296 BC to pay his troops, and the bronze replacements for them were probably gilded thereafter; it was damaged by a fire about 165 BC but repaired. It continued to stand in the Parthenon in the fifth century AD, when it may have been lost in another fire. An account mentions it in Constantinople in the tenth century, however.
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  47. Victoria Memorial, London

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  48. Athena Promachos

           This Roman statue of Athena as goddess of warfare offers another view of the goddess, usually identified with wisdom and crafts. Although she championed military skill and courage, Athena frowned on violence and bloodshed. Visitors to Athens were taken to see Athena’s olive tree and the rock that Poseidon had struck. Despite her virgin status, Athena ended up raising a child. According to one myth, Hephaestus became attracted to her and tried to force his attentions on her. The powerful Athena resisted him, and Hephaestus’s semen fell to the ground. From that seed was born the half-man, half-snake Erichthonius. Athena put the baby in a box and gave him to the daughters of Cecrops, king of Athens. She told them to care for him but not to look in the box. Two of the daughters looked inside and, driven mad, jumped off the Acropolis to their deaths. Athena then took Erichthonius to her temple and reared him herself. Later he became king of Athens and honored her greatly.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena_Promachos,
  49. Hermes

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  50. Bacchus by Michelangelo (1497)

           Bacchus (1497) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet Michelangelo. The statue is somewhat over life-size and depicts Bacchus, the Roman god of wine, in a revolutionary inebriated state. Along with the Pietà it is one of only two sculptures that can be attributed with any certainty to the artist’s first period in Rome.
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  51. The Deposition by Michelangelo (1550)

            The Deposition, also known as the Florence Pietà, the Pietà del Duomo or The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo. The sculpture, on which Michelangelo worked between 1547 and 1553, depicts four figures – the dead body of Jesus Christ, newly taken down from the Cross, Nicodemus (or possibly Joseph of Arimathea), Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Mary. The sculpture is housed in the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo in Florence.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Deposition_(Michelangelo)
  52. Julius Caesar by Nicolas Coustou

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    Links: Top Ten Emperors,
  53. Ares

    Description:
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ares,
  54. Hades with Cerberus

    Description:
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hades,
  55. Seine et Marne, at the Tuileries by Nicolas Coustou

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    Links:
  56. The Unsubdued Man, Minsk, Belarus

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Belarusian Attractions,
  57. The Farnese Atlas

            The Farnese Atlas is a 2nd century Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic sculpture of Atlas kneeling with a globe weighing heavily on his shoulders. It is the oldest extant statue of the Titan of Greek mythology, who is represented in earlier vase-painting, and more importantly the oldest known representation of the celestial sphere. The sculpture is at the National Archaeological Museum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale) in Naples, Italy. It stands seven feet (2.1 m) tall, and the globe is 65 cm in diameter. The name Farnese Atlas reflects its acquisition by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in the early 16th century, and its subsequent exhibition in the Villa Farnese. Atlas labors under the weight because he had been sentenced by Zeus to hold up the sky. The globe shows a depiction of the night sky as seen from outside the outermost celestial sphere, with low reliefs depicting 41 (some sources say 42) of the 48 classical Greek constellations distinguished by Ptolemy, including; Aries the ram, Cygnus the swan and Hercules the hero. The Farnese Atlas is the oldest surviving pictorial record of Western constellations. It dates to Roman times, around AD 150, but has long been presumed to represent constellations mapped in earlier Greek work.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Gods, Top 100 Maps, Top Ten Constellations, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farnese_Atlas,
  58. Popmay

            Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great (September 29th, 106 BC – September 29th, 48 BC), was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and established himself in the ranks of Roman nobility by successful leadership in several military campaigns. Sulla addressed him by the cognomen Magnus (the Great), and he was awarded three triumphs. Pompey joined his rival Marcus Licinius Crassus and his ally Julius Caesar in the unofficial military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. The first triumvirate was validated by the marriage between Julia Caesaris (daughter of Julius Caesar) and Pompey. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative and aristocratic faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome’s subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompey,
  59. Apollo Pursuing Daphne by Nicolas Coustou

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  60. Cristo della Minerva by Michelangelo

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    Links: Top Ten Statues of Jesus,
  61. Alexander the Great

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Generalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great,
  62. Vulcan

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    Links:
  63. Spartacus

           Spartacus (109 BC – 71 BC) was famous leader of the slaves in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Little is known about Spartacus beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory and may not always be reliable. He was an accomplished military leader. Spartacus’ struggle, often seen as oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning aristocracy, has found new meaning for modern writers since the 19th century. The rebellion of Spartacus has proven inspirational to many modern literary and political writers, making Spartacus a folk hero among cultures both ancient and modern.
    Links: Top Ten Gladiators, Top Ten Slaves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spartacus,
    Products: Spartacus (Film),
  64. Statue of Tsar Kaloyan, Varna, Bulgaria

           Kaloyan the Romanslayer, ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria 1197-1207. He is the 3rd and youngest brother of Peter IV and Ivan Asen I who managed to restore the Bulgarian Empire. Kaloyan is notable for managing to stabilize the tsar’s power and the Second Bulgarian Empire’s position as a regional power thanks to his successful campaigns against the Latin Empire.
    Links: Top Ten Tsars, Top Ten Bulgarian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaloyan,
  65. Skanderbeg Monument

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    Links: Top Ten Albanian Attractions, Top Ten Sculptures by George Kastrioti,
  66. Statue of Ogir, Kronberg Castle, Denmark

           According to a legend linked to Arthurian myth, a Danish king known as Ogir the Dane, was taken to Avalon by Morgan le Fay. He returned to rescue France from danger, then travelled Kronborg castle, where he sleeps until he is needed to save his homeland. His beard has grown to extend along the ground. A statue of the sleeping Ogier has been placed in the castle.
    Links: Top Ten Castles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holger_Danske,
  67. Psyche Revived by Cupid’s Kiss by Antonio Canova (1787)

           Antonio Canova’s statue Psyche Revived by Cupid’s Kiss, first commissioned in 1787, exemplifies the Neoclassical devotion to love and emotion. It represents the god Cupid in the height of love and tenderness, immediately after awakening the lifeless Psyche with a kiss, a scene excerpted from Lucius Apuleius’ The Golden Ass. A masterpiece of its period, it appeals to the senses of sight and touch, yet simultaneously alludes to the Romantic interest in emotion co-existing with Neoclassicism. Joachim Murat donated the first version to the Louvre Museum in Paris, France in 1824; Prince Yusupov, a Russian nobleman who acquired the piece in Rome in 1796, gave a later version (created in 1796) to the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. The plaster cast for this later version is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Antonio Canova, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psyche_Revived_by_Cupid%27s_Kiss,
  68. Medea

           Medea is a woman in Greek mythology. She was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios, and later wife to the hero Jason, with whom she had two children, Mermeros and Pheres. In Euripides’s play Medea, Jason leaves Medea when Creon, king of Corinth, offers him his daughter, Glauce. The play tells of how Medea gets her revenge on her husband for this betrayal. The myths involving Jason have been interpreted by specialists as part of a class of myths that tell how the Hellenes of the distant heroic age, before the Trojan War, faced the challenges of the pre-Greek “Pelasgian” cultures of mainland Greece, the Aegean and Anatolia. Jason, Perseus, Theseus, and above all Heracles, are all “liminal” figures, poised on the threshold between the old world of shamans, chthonic earth deities, and the new Bronze Age Greek ways. Medea figures in the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, a myth known best from a late literary version worked up by Apollonius of Rhodes in the 3rd century BC and called the Argonautica. However, for all its self-consciousness and researched archaic vocabulary, the late epic was based on very old, scattered materials. Medea is known in most stories as an enchantress and is often depicted as being a priestess of the goddess Hecate or a witch. The myth of Jason and Medea is very old, originally written around the time Hesiod wrote the Theogony. It was known to the composer of the Little Iliad, part of the Epic Cycle.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medea,
  69. Columbus, Barcelona, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Explorers,
  70. King Vakhtang

           Vakhtang I “Gorgasali” (439 or 443 — 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (modern eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century. Gorgasali is a sobriquet meaning in Iranian “wolf’s head.” He led his people, in an ill-fated alliance with the Eastern Roman Empire, into a lengthy struggle against Sassanid Iranian hegemony, which ended in Vakhtang’s defeat and weakening of the kingdom of Iberia. Tradition also ascribes him reorganization of the Georgian church and foundation of Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital. Dating Vakhtang’s reign is problematic. Professor Ivane Javakhishvili assigns to Vakhtang’s rule the dates 449–502 and Professor Cyril Toumanoff the dates 447–522. Furthermore, Toumanoff identifies Vakhtang with the Iberian king Gurgenes known from Procopius’ Wars of Justinian. Vakhtang is a subject of the 8th or 11th century vita attributed to Juansher which intertwines history and legend into an epic narrative, hyperbolizing Vakhtang’s personality and biography. This literary work has been a primary source of Vakhtang’s image as an example warrior-king and statesman, which has preserved in popular memory to this day. He emerged as one of the most popular figures in Georgia’s history already in the Middle Ages and has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.
    Links: Top Ten Kings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vakhtang_I_of_Iberia,
  71. Alexander the Great

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 People, Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Generals,
  72. Tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton (5th Century BC)

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    Links:
  73. Church of the Madeleine Statues, Paris, French

           L’église de la Madeleine is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It was designed in its present form as a temple to the glory of Napoleon’s army. To its south lies the Place de la Concorde, to the east is the Place Vendôme, and to the west L’église Saint-Augustin.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Churches, Top Ten European Churches, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_the_Madeleine,
  74. Achilles
    Achilles2
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    Links: Top Ten Warriors,
  75. Praça de Luís de Camões Statue, Lisbon, Portugal

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  76. Saint Paul Statue in front of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, Rome, Italy

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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas,
  77. Angel of Freedom, Szczecin, Poland

           This monument known as the “Angel of Freedom,” was created by Czesław Dźwigaj and dedicated to the workers killed during the 1970 anti-communist protests.
    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions,
  78. Statues at the Praco do Comercio Arch, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Links: Top Ten Portuguese Attractions, Top Ten Clocks,
  79. Birth of the New World, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions,
  80. Giotto’s Campanile Statues

           Giotto’s Campanile is a free-standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy. Standing adjacent the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Baptistry of St. John, the tower is one of the showpieces of the Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and the polychrome marble encrustations. This slender structure stands on a square plan with a side of 14.45 m (47.41 ft.). It attains a height of 84.7 m (277.9 ft.) sustained by four polygonal buttresses at the corners. These four vertical lines are crossed by four horizontal lines, dividing the tower in five levels.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Bell Towers, Top Ten Statues of Jesus, Top Ten Cathedrals, Top Ten Basilicas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giotto%27s_Bell_Tower,
  81. King Vakhtang

           Vakhtang I “Gorgasali” (439 or 443 — 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (modern eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century. Gorgasali is a sobriquet meaning in Iranian “wolf’s head.” He led his people, in an ill-fated alliance with the Eastern Roman Empire, into a lengthy struggle against Sassanid Iranian hegemony, which ended in Vakhtang’s defeat and weakening of the kingdom of Iberia. Tradition also ascribes him reorganization of the Georgian church and foundation of Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital. Dating Vakhtang’s reign is problematic. Professor Ivane Javakhishvili assigns to Vakhtang’s rule the dates 449–502 and Professor Cyril Toumanoff the dates 447–522. Furthermore, Toumanoff identifies Vakhtang with the Iberian king Gurgenes known from Procopius’ Wars of Justinian. Vakhtang is a subject of the 8th or 11th century vita attributed to Juansher which intertwines history and legend into an epic narrative, hyperbolizing Vakhtang’s personality and biography. This literary work has been a primary source of Vakhtang’s image as an example warrior-king and statesman, which has preserved in popular memory to this day. He emerged as one of the most popular figures in Georgia’s history already in the Middle Ages and has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.
    Links: Top Ten Kings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vakhtang_I_of_Iberia,
  82. Yerevan Diaries: Tattoo Man

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    Links: Top Ten Armenian Attractions,
  83. Maman Statue, Spain and Switzerland

           Maman (1999) is a sculpture by the artist Louise Bourgeois. The sculpture, which resembles a spider, is over 30 ft high and over 33 ft wide, with a sac containing 26 marble eggs. Its abdomen and thorax are made up of ribbed bronze. The title is the familiar French word for Mother. Bourgeois created “Maman” as a part of her inaugural commission of The Unilever Series in 1999 for Tate Modern Museum’s vast Turbine Hall. Acquiring this magnificent sculpture is considered as one of the Tate Museum’s historical moments. Maman was first displayed outside the Tate Museum of London in 2000. It was received with the mixed reactions of amazement and amusement. The sculpture picks up the theme of the arachnid that Bourgeois had first contemplated in a small ink and charcoal drawing in 1947. It alludes to the strength of Bourgeois’ mother, with metaphors of spinning, weaving, nurture and protection. Her mother Josephine was a woman who repaired tapestries in her father’s textile restoration workshop in Paris. Bourgeois lost her mother at the age of 21. A few days afterwards, in front of her father who did not seem to take his daughter’s despair seriously, she threw herself into the Bièvre River; he swam to her rescue.
    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Louise Bourgeois, Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Swiss Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maman,
  84. Famine Immigrants, Dublin, Ireland

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    Links: Top Ten Irish Attractions,
  85. Statues of the Basilica of St Mary of Health, Venice, Italy

           The Basilica of St Mary of Health, commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the Italian city of Venice. It stands on a narrow finger of land between the Grand Canal and the Bacino di San Marco making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called Plague-churches. In 1630 Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague. As a votive offering for the city’s deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health. The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena, who studied under the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death. The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent and Francesco Guardi. Links: Top Ten Alters, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_della_Salute,
  86. St. James, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Pilgrimages, Top Ten Saints, Top Ten Spanish Sculptures,
  87. 1732 Monument by Jan Jiři Urbansky on Cathedral Island, Wrocław, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic

           John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is a national saint of the Czech Republic, who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods.
    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions, Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions, Top Ten Saints, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Nepomuk,
  88. Franz Kafka Monument

            Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a culturally influential German-language author of short stories and novels. Contemporary critics and academics, including Vladimir Nabokov, regard Kafka as one of the best writers of the 20th century. The term “Kafkaesque” has become part of the English language. Kafka was born to middle class German-speaking Jewish parents in Prague, Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The house in which he was born, on the Old Town Square next to Prague’s Church of St Nicholas, now contains a permanent exhibition devoted to the author. Most of Kafka’s writing, including the large body of his unfinished work, was published posthumously.
    Links: Top 100 Written Works, Top 100 Writers,
  89. Chimera Statue

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  90. Statue of Vladamir Lenin, Azadliq Square, Baku, Azerbaijan

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    Links: Top Ten Azerbaijani Attractions, Top Ten Squares,
  91. Brest Millennium Monument by Alexei Andreyuk and Alexei Pavluchuk, Belarus (2009)

           The Brest Millennium Monument was designed by the Belarusian architect Alexei Andreyuk and sculptor Alexei Pavluchuk in 2009 to commemorate the millennium of Brest, Belarus. It was erected at the intersection of Sovietskaya Street and Gogol Street in Brest. The project was financed by the state budget and public donations. The monument presents a group of bronze statues. The angel of mercy with a cross is standing at the top of a granite column. Three statues remember the remarkable historic personalities that are associated with Brest: Vladimir Vasilkovich, who put up a tower in the castle of the town in the 13th century, Vitovt the grand duke of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł in whose printing shop the first Belarusian book was printed. Three additional statues represent abstract images: warrior, mother and chronicler (who apparently wrote the Russian Primary Chronicle). In April 2011 a belt of high reliefs depicting history-making episodes of Brest appeared around the monument.
    Links: Top Ten Belarusian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Monument_of_Brest,
  92. Statue of Alexander Suvorov, Tiraspol, Moldova

           Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince in Italy, Count of the Holy Roman Empire (24 November [O.S. 13 November] 1729 – 18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1800), was the 4th and last generalissimo of the Russian Empire. One of the few great generals in history who never lost a battle along with the likes of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan, he was famed for his military manual The Science of Victory and noted for the sayings “What is difficult in training will become easy in a battle,” “The bullet is a fool, the bayonet is a fine chap,” “Perish yourself but rescue your comrade!.” He taught his soldiers to attack instantly and decisively: “attack with the cold steel–push hard with the bayonet!” His soldiers adored him. He joked with the men, called the common soldiers ‘brother,’ and shrewdly presented the results of detailed planning and careful strategy as the work of inspiration.
    Links: Top Ten Moldovan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Suvorov,
  93. St. Peter

           Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader who is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and who is venerated as a saint. The son of John or of Jonah, he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the first Pope by the Catholic Church. After working to establish the church of Antioch, presiding for seven years as the city’s bishop he preached to scattered communities of believers (Jews, Hebrew Christians and the gentiles), in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia. He then went to Rome, where in the 2nd year of Claudius, it is claimed, he overthrew Simon Magus and held the Sacerdotal Chair for 25 years. He is said to have been put to death at the hand of Emperor Nero. Peter wrote two Catholic Epistles. The Gospel of Mark is also ascribed to him (as Mark was his disciple and interpreter). On the other hand, several books bearing his name, the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Revelation of Peter, and Judgment of Peter, are rejected by the Catholic Church as Apocryphal. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he was assigned a leadership role by Jesus and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few Apostles, such as the Transfiguration. Peter is said to have been crucified under Emperor Nero, the cross being upside down at his own request since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus Christ. Catholic tradition holds that Saint Peter’s mortal bones and remains are contained in the underground Confessio of the St. Peter’s Basilica, a site where Pope Paul VI announced the excavation discovery of a 1st century AD Roman cemetery in 1968. Since 1969, a life-size statue of Saint Peter is crowned every year in St. Peter’s Basilica with a Papal Tiara, Ring of the Fisherman and papal vestments every June 29, commemorating the Holy Feast of Saints Peter and Paul.
    Links: Top Ten Saints, Top Ten Popes, Top Ten Basilicas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter,
  94. St. Andrew

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  95. Angel of the Resurrection, St. Finbarre’s Cathedral, Ireland

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    Links: Top Ten Angel Statues, Top Ten Angels, Top Ten Irish Attractions,
  96. Angel of the North by Antony Gormley (1998)

           The Angel of the North is a contemporary sculpture designed by Antony Gormley, which is located in Gateshead, England. As the name suggests, it is a steel sculpture of a graceful angel, standing 66 feet (20 m) tall, with wings measuring 178 feet (54 m) across. The wings themselves are not planar, but are angled 3.5 degrees forward, which Gormley has said aims to create “a sense of embrace”. It stands on a hill, on the southern edge of Low Fell overlooking the A1 road and the A167 road into Tyneside and the East Coast Main Line rail route, and just south of the site of Team Colliery.
    Links: Top Ten Angels,
  97. The Branting Monument

           The Branting Monument is a monument in Stockholm, Sweden, with a statue of the Swedish Social Democratic leader Hjalmar Branting (1860–1925). The monument is 5 meters tall and 6 meters wide. The bronze relief monument, by artist Carl Eldh, is located in a small park at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, which is the traditional Social Democratic grounds of the city. Eldh started working on the monument in 1926, one year after Branting had died, but it wasn’t erected until 1952. The monument shows a prominent looking Branting addressing a group of workers on a May Day demonstration. Several of the worker movement’s pioneers are found in the otherwise anonymous crowd of workers surrounding Branting, including Axel Danielsson and August Palm.
    Links:
  98. Wellington Arch Quadriga, London, England

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    Links: Top Ten English Attractions,
  99. Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel Quadriga, Paris, France

           The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is a triumphal arch in Paris, located in the Place du Carrousel on the site of the former Tuileries Palace. It was built between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate Napoleon’s military victories of the previous year. The more famous Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile nearby was designed in the same year, but it took thirty years to build, and it is about twice as massive.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Triumphal Arcs, Palaces,
  100. Quadriga of Brabant, Brussels, Belgium

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    Links: Top Ten Belgian Attractions,
  101. Notre Dame Cathedral Gargoyles, Paris France

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    Links: Top Ten Cathedrals,
  102. Pont del Regne de València, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions,
  103. The Holy Trinity Column, Olomouc, Czech Republic

           The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc is a Baroque monument in the Czech Republic, built in 1716–1754 in honor of God. The main purpose was a spectacular celebration of Catholic Church and faith, partly caused by feeling of gratitude for ending a plague, which struck Moravia (now in the Czech Republic) between 1714 and 1716. The column was also understood to be an expression of local patriotism, since all artists and master craftsmen working on this monument were Olomouc citizens, and almost all depicted saints were connected with the city of Olomouc in some way. It is the biggest Baroque sculptural group in the Czech Republic. It represents “one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression.”
    Links: Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Trinity_Column_in_Olomouc,
  104. Sculptures at the Palacio Real de Madrid, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions,
  105. Gran Dama Oferente (2nd Century BC)
    Gran Dama Oferente (M.A.N. Madrid) 02ac
    Dama del Cerro de los Santos, also known as Gran Dama Oferente, is an Iberian sculpture from the 2nd century BC, that is now in National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid. This limestone sculpture depicts a full-length standing female figure 1.3 m high. It was found in 1870 in the sanctuary of Cerro de los Santos in Montealegre del Castillo in Albacete province, Spain. The statue is sometimes called the Gran Dama Oferente because she is holding a container in her two hands and appears to be offering it. She is richly clad in three overlapping robes clasped with a fibula, or brooch, at the neck. Braided hair falls past her three necklaces. She is wearing fitted shoes. A rodete or wheel headgear appears on one side of her hair; if there was a similar one on the other side, it has been broken off.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gran_Dama_Oferente,
  106. Piazza of Prato della Valle, Padua, Italy

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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Squares,
  107. Verona Arena Sculpture, Italy

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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Theatres, Top Ten Arenas,
  108. Pan Pan Teaching Daphnis to Play the Pipes (2nd Century AD)

           Pan (Ancient Greek: Πᾶν, Pān), in Greek religion and mythology, is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music, as well as the companion of the nymphs. His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν), meaning “to pasture.” He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. In Roman religion and myth, Pan’s counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe, and also in the 20th century Neopagan movement.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_(god),
  109. Bahram Gur Fountain, Azneft Square, Azerbaijan

           Bahram V was the 14th Sassanid King of Persia (421–438). Also called Bahram Gur or Bahramgur, he was a son of Yazdegerd I (399–421), after whose sudden death (or assassination) he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of Mundhir, the Arab dynast of al-Hirah.
    Links: Top Ten Fountains, Top Ten Azerbaijani Attractions, Top 100 Coins, Top 100 European Coins, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahram_V,
  110. Robin Hood, Nottingham, England

           Robin Hood was an outlaw in English folklore. A highly skilled archer and swordsman, he is/was now known for “robbing from the rich and giving to the poor,” assisted by a group of fellow outlaws known as his “Merry Men.” Traditionally Robin Hood and his men are depicted wearing Lincoln green clothes. The origin of the legend is claimed by some to have stemmed from actual outlaws, or from ballads or tales of outlaws. Robin Hood became a popular folk figure starting in the medieval period continuing through modern literature, films and television. In the earliest sources Robin Hood is a yeoman, but he was often later portrayed as an aristocrat wrongfully dispossessed of his lands and made into an outlaw by an unscrupulous sheriff.
    Links: Top 100 People, Top 100 Leaders, Top Ten Heroes, Top Ten Outlaws, Top Ten English Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_hood,
  111. Angel

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  112. Iceland

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    Links: Top Ten Icelandic Attractions,
  113. Minin-Pozharsky Monument, Red Square, Moscow, Russia

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    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Squares,
  114. Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of St Mark’s

           The Triumphal Quadriga or Horses of St Mark’s is a set of bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga (a four-horse carriage used for chariot racing), which have been set into the facade of St Mark’s Basilica in Venice, northern Italy, since the 13th century.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horses_of_Saint_Mark,
  115. Augustus as Praetor

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    Links: Top Ten Louvre Artifacts, Top Ten Louvre Sculptures,
  116. Statues of Cybele

           Cybele, “Kubeleyan Mother,” perhaps “Mountain Mother,” was the Phrygian deification of the Earth Mother. As with Greek Gaia (the “Earth”), or her Minoan equivalent Rhea, Cybele embodies the fertile Earth, a goddess of caverns and mountains, walls and fortresses, nature, and wild animals (especially lions and bees). Phrygian Cybele is often identified with the Hittite-Hurrian goddess Hebat, though this latter deity might have been the origin of only Anatolian Kubaba. The Greeks frequently conflated the two names, the Anatolian “Kubaba” and the Phrygian “Kybele,” to refer to the Phrygian deity. The goddess was known among the Greeks as Μήτηρ (Mētēr “Mother”) or with a particular Anatolian sacred mountain in mind, Idaea, inasmuch as she was supposed to have been born on Mount Ida in Anatolia, or equally Dindymene or Sipylene, with her sacred mountains Mount Dindymon (in Mysia and variously located) or Mount Sipylus in mind. In Roman mythology, her equivalent was Magna Mater or “Great Mother.” In most mythology her story is Phrygian.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhea_Cybele,
  117. The Veiled Virgin

           The Veiled Virgin is a Carrara marble statue carved in Rome by Italian sculptor Giovanni Strazza, depicting the bust of a veiled Blessed Virgin Mary. The exact date of the statue’s completion is unknown.
    Links: Top 100 Busts, Top Ten Sculptures by Giovanni Strazza,
  118. Lion’s Mound

           The Lion’s Mound is a large conical artificial hill raised on the battlefield of Waterloo to commemorate the location where William II of the Netherlands (the Prince of Orange) was knocked from his horse by a musket ball to the shoulder during the battle. It was ordered constructed in 1820 by his father, King William I of The Netherlands, and completed in 1826. The younger William had fought at the Battle of Quatre Bras (June 16) and the Battle of Waterloo (June 18). It has been classified as a Wallonia’s Major Heritage.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats,
  119. Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1618-1619)

           Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius is a sculpture by the Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini, c. 1619. It is housed in the Galleria Borghese, Rome. The group sculpture represents Aeneas fleeing from the burning city of Troy bearing his elderly father Anchises on his shoulders, and his son Ascanius carrying the sacred fire of the hearth, while Anchises holds the penates family household gods. The twenty-one-year old Bernini, still influenced by his father Pietro’s late 16th century tower-shaped compositions, executed this group around 1618 and 1620, though many experts believe that this is mainly his father’s work.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeneas,_Anchises,_and_Ascanius,
  120. Alexander the Great, Prilep, Macedonia

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    Links: Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Generals, Top Ten Macedonian Attractions,
  121. Teylers Musuem Haute Couture Model, Netherlands

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    Links: Museums and Galleries, Top Ten European Museums, Top Ten Dutch Museums, Top Ten Haute Couture Dresses, Top Ten Models, Top Ten Dutch Models,
  122. Erasmus, Rotterdam, Netherlands

           Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (October 28, 1466? – July 12, 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. He was an early proponent of religious toleration, and enjoyed the sobriquet “Prince of the Humanists”; he has been called “the crowning glory of the Christian humanists.” Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. These raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus lived through the Reformation period, but while he was critical of the Church, he did not join the cause of the Reformers. In relation to clerical abuses in the Church, Erasmus remained committed to reforming the Church from within. He also held to Catholic doctrines such as that of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps. Erasmus died in Basel in 1536 and was buried in the formerly Catholic cathedral there, which had been converted to a Reformed church in 1529. Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. Desiderius was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The Roterodamus in his scholarly name is the Latinized adjectival form for the city of Rotterdam.
    Links: Top Ten Dutch Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erasmus,
  123. Charles IV, Prague, Czech Republic

           Charles IV (14 May 1316, Prague – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus (Václav), was the 2nd king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the 1st king of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor. He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, who died (in the Battle of Crécy) on August 26, 1346. Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Bohemia. On September 2, 1347 Charles was crowned King of Bohemia. On July 11, 1346 Prince-electors had elected him King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on November 26, 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent had died, he was re-elected in 1349 (17 June) and crowned (25 July) King of the Romans. In 1355 he was also crowned King of Italy on January 6, and Holy Roman Emperor on April 5. With his coronation as King of Burgundy, delayed until June 4, 1365, he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire.
    Links: Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor,
  124. Freedom Monument, Riga, Latvia

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  125. Thorfinn Karlsefni by Einar Jónsson, Iceland

           Thorfinn Karlsefni was an Icelandic explorer who in around 1010 AD led an attempt to settle Vínland with three ships and 160 settlers. Among the settlers was Freydís Eiríksdóttir, according to Grœnlendinga saga and Eiríks saga rauða, sister or half-sister of Leif Eriksson. Thorfinn’s wife Guðríðr Þorbjarnardóttir gave birth to a boy in Vínland, known as Snorri Guðríðarson, the first child of European descent known to have been born in the New World and to whom many Icelanders can trace their roots. The exact location of Thorfinn’s colony is unknown but is believed to potentially be the excavated Norse camp at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. In the early 20th century, Einar Jónsson, an Icelandic sculptor, created a statue of Thorfinn Karlsefni which was placed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There is another casting of the statue in Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Links: Top Ten Statues by Einar Jónsson, Top Ten Icelandic Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorfinn_Karlsefni,
  126. The Dead Christ

           The Dead Christ or The Redeemer in Death is a statue of Jesus Christ executed in white Carrara marble by the Irish sculptor John Hogan in Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Statues of Jesus, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Dead_Christ_(Hogan_sculptures),
  127. Hermes and the Infant Dionysus (4thCentury BC)

           Hermes and the Infant Dionysus, also known as the Hermes of Praxiteles or the Hermes of Olympus is an ancient Greek sculpture of Hermes and the infant Dionysus discovered in 1877 in the ruins of the Temple of Hera at Olympia. It is displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia. It is traditionally attributed to Praxiteles and dated to the 4th century BC, based on a remark by the 2nd century Greek traveler Pausanias, and has made a major contribution to the definition of Praxitelean style. Its attribution is, however, the object of fierce controversy among art historians. The sculpture is unlikely to have been one of Praxiteles’ famous works, as no ancient replicas of it have been identified. The documentary evidence associating the work with Praxiteles is based on a passing mention by the second-century AD traveler Pausanias.
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  128. Kroisos Kouros (540-515 BC)

           Although not the most stylistically beautiful statues, the Krroisos Kouros statue is an important look at early Greek art and helps illustrate the evolution of Greek statue sculpting. The Kroisos Kouros (Ancient Greek: κοῦρος) is a marble kouros from Anavyssos in Attica which functioned as a grave marker for a fallen young warrior named Kroísos. The free-standing sculpture strides forward with the “archaic smile” playing slightly on his face. The sculpture is dated to 540-515 BC and stands 1.95 meters high. It is now situated in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens (inv. no. 3851). The inscription on the base of the statue reads: “Stop and show pity beside the marker of Kroisos, dead, whom once in battle’s front rank raging Ares destroyed.” The Kroisos Kouros is central to the debate on kouroi (whether the kouroi represented specific young men each time, or were a generic representation of an idealized young man who might not actually resemble the specific person commemorated) and is thought of as a symbolic representation of a body, not a naturalistic one. It embodies the ideal of the male warrior en promáchois (ἐν προμάχοις), “in the front line” of battle.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Sculptures,
  129. Aphrodite, Cyprus

           Aphrodite; Greek goddess of love, beauty and sexuality is said to be born in Cyprus.
    Links: PaintingsTop Ten Paintings by Sandro Botticelli, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphrodite,
  130. Colossus of Barletta (5thCentury AD)

           The Colossus of Barletta is a large bronze statue of an Eastern Roman emperor, nearly three times life size (5.11 meters, or about 16 feet 7 inches) and currently located in Barletta, Italy. The statue reportedly washed up on a shore, after a Venetian ship sank returning from the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The identity of the Emperor is uncertain. According to tradition, it depicts Heraclius (reign 610-641 AD); though this is most unlikely on historical and art-historical grounds. More likely subjects are Theodosius II (reign 408-450 AD), who may have had it erected in Ravenna in 439, Honorius (reign 393-423 AD), Valentinian I (r. 364-375) or Marcian (r.450-7). It is known that a colossal statue was discovered in 1231-1232 during excavations commissioned by emperor Frederick II in Ravenna, and is probable that he had it transported to his southern Italian lands. The first certain news about the statue date however from 1309, when parts of its legs and arms were used by local Dominicans to cast bells. The missing parts were remade in the 15th century.
    Links: Top Ten Tallest Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_of_Barletta,
  131. Hadrian

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  132. A Putto Killing a Basilisk

    Description: A putto kills a basilisk, symbolic of Swedish occupiers and Protestant heresy, on the Mariensäule, Munich, erected in 1638.
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  133. Statue of Košice’s Coat of Arms, Košice, Slovakia

           This is a statue of Košice’s coat of arms, which was the first municipal coat of arms in Europe.
    Links: Top Ten Coat of Arms, Top Ten Slovakian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Ko%C5%A1ice,
  134. Bern Sculptures

           The city of Bern or Berne is the Bundesstadt (federal city, de facto capital) of Switzerland. With a population of 133,920 (2010), it ranks as the 4th most populous city in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 43 municipalities, has a population of 349,000. Bern is also the capital of the Canton of Bern, the 2nd most populous of Switzerland’s cantons. The official language of Bern is German, but the main spoken language is the Alemannic dialect called Bernese German. Bern is ranked among the world’s top ten cities for the best quality of life (2010).
    Links: Top Ten Swiss Attractions, Cities, Top Ten European Cities, Top Ten Cities with the Highest Quality of Life, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bern,
  135. Emperor Caracalla Bust

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    Links: Top 100 Busts,
  136. Lady of Baza

    The Lady of Baza is a famous example of Iberian sculpture by the Bastetani. It is a limestone female figure with traces of painted detail in a stuccoed surface that was found on July 22, 1971 by Francisco José Presedo Velo, at Baza, in the altiplano, the high tableland in the northeast of the province of Granada. The town of Baza was the site of the Ibero-Roman city of Basti and, in one of its two necropolises, the Cerro del Santuario, the Lady of Baza was recovered. She is seated in an armchair, and an open space on the side is thought to have contained ashes from a cremation.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_of_Baza,
  137. Phykion

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    Links: Top Ten Sphinxes Sculptures,
  138. Kleobis and Biton (580 BC)

           Kleobis (Cleobis) and Biton is the name of two human brothers in Greek mythology. It is also the name conventionally given to a pair of life-size Archaic Greek statues, or kouroi, which are now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum, at Delphi Greece. The statues date from about 580 BC and come from Argos in the Peloponnese, although they were found at Delphi.
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  139. Joan of Arc

           Saint Joan of Arc, nicknamed “The Maid of Orléans” (1412 – 30 May 1431), is considered a national heroine of France and a Catholic saint. A peasant girl born in eastern France who claimed divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years’ War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII. She was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried by an ecclesiastical court and burned at the stake when she was 19 years old. Twenty-five years after the execution, Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced her innocent and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. She is, along with St. Denis, St. Martin of Tours, St. Louis IX, and St. Theresa of Lisieux, one of the patron saints of France. Joan asserted that she had visions from God that instructed her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years’ War. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and lifted the siege in only nine days. Several more swift victories led to Charles VII’s coronation at Reims and settled the disputed succession to the throne. Down to the present day, Joan of Arc has remained a significant figure in Western culture. From Napoleon onward, French politicians of all leanings have invoked her memory. Famous writers and composers who have created works about her include: Shakespeare (Henry VI, Part 1), Voltaire (The Maid of Orleans poem), Schiller (The Maid of Orleans play), Verdi (Giovanna d’Arco), Tchaikovsky (The Maid of Orleans opera), Mark Twain (Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc), Arthur Honegger (Jeanne d’Arc au bûcher), Jean Anouilh (L’Alouette), Bertolt Brecht (Saint Joan of the Stockyards), George Bernard Shaw (Saint Joan) and Maxwell Anderson (Joan of Lorraine).
    Links: Top 100 Women, Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Swords, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_of_arc,
  140. Pobednik

           The Pobednik, “The Victor,” is a monument in the Kalemegdan Fortress in Belgrade, Serbia, erected after WWI to commemorate the Kingdom of Serbia’s war victories over Ottoman Empire (First Balkan War) and Austria-Hungary (WWI). It is one of the most famous works of Ivan Meštrović. The statue, holding a falcon, on watch for the new threats on the horizon, in one hand, and a sword of war, ready to counter these threats in the other. It looks forward across the confluence of the Sava and the Danube, and over the vast Pannonian plain, towards the very distant Fruška Gora mountain, which at the time was the Austro-Hungarian empire. It is perhaps the most powerful and most popular visual symbol of Belgrade.
    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Ivan Meštrović, Top Ten Serbian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pobednik,
  141. Copernicus, Piland

           Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Copernicus’ epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution. Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist with a doctorate in law, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, governor, diplomat and economist.
    Links: Top 100 People, Top 100 Scientists, Top Ten Polish Attractions, Top Ten Astronomers, Top Ten Economists, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus,
  142. Museum of the International Red Cross

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  143. Charioteer of Delphi (474 BC)

           The Charioteer of Delphi, also known as Heniokhos (the rein-holder), is one of the best-known statues surviving from Ancient Greece, and is considered one of the finest examples of ancient bronze statues. The life-size statue of a chariot driver was found in 1896 at the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi. It is now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charioteer_of_Delphi,
  144. Statue of Freyja, Sweden

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  145. Angel Statue, Prague, Czech Republic

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  146. Nelson’s Column

           Nelson’s Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England, United Kingdom. The column was built between 1840 and 1843 to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson’s death at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The 5.5 m (18 ft) statue of Nelson stands on top of a 46 m (151 ft) Foggintor granite column. The statue faces south looking towards the Admiralty and Portsmouth where Nelson’s & the Royal Navy Flagship HMS Victory is docked, with the Mall on his right flank, where Nelson’s ships are represented on the top of each flagpole. The top of the Corinthian column (based on one from the Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome) is decorated with bronze acanthus leaves cast from British cannon. The square pedestal is decorated with four bronze panels, cast from captured French guns, depicting Nelson’s four great victories. Part of the interior base was made from the 29 cannon recovered from HMS Royal George, HMS Victory’s sister ship. The monument was designed by architect William Railton in 1838, and built by the firm Peto & Grissell. Railton’s original 1:22-scale stone model is exhibited at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London. The sandstone statue at the top was sculpted by E.H. Baily, a member of the Royal Academy; a small bronze plaque crediting him is at the base of the statue.
    Links: Top Ten Columns/Pillars, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson%27s_Column,
  147. Maiwand Lion

           The Maiwand Lion is a sculpture and war memorial in the Forbury Gardens, a public park in the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire. The statue was named after the Battle of Maiwand and was erected in 1886 to commemorate the deaths of 329 men from the 66th Berkshire Regiment during the campaign in Afghanistan between 1878 and 1880. It is sometimes known locally as the Forbury Lion.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maiwand_Lion,
  148. Moses (1853)

           This is a statue of Moses done by H. W. Bissen. It currently stands in Copenhagen.
    Links: Top Ten Statues by HW Bissen,
  149. Monument to King Jan Sobieski

           John III Sobieski was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1674 until his death King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Sobieski’s 22-year-reign was marked by a period of the Commonwealth’s stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was an able military commander, most famous for the victory over the Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Following his victories over the Ottoman Empire, he was called by the Turks the “Lion of Lechistan” and held as the savior of European Christendom by the pope.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Jan_Sobieski,
  150. Statue of Bishop Gregory of Nin, Croatia

           Gregory of Nin was a medieval Croatian bishop who strongly opposed the Pope and official circles of the Church and introduced the Croatian language in the religious services after the Great Assembly in 926. Until that time, services were held only in Latin, not being understandable to the majority of the population. Not only was this important for Croatian language and culture but it also made the religion stronger within the Croatian kingdom.
    Links: Top Ten Croatian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_of_Nin,
  151. Lady With a Mask, Macedonia

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  152. Kerepesi Cemetery, Budapest, Hungary

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  153. Plague Column of Košice, Slovakia

           Plague Columns were built to commemorate the end of a particularly horrible epidemic.
    Links: Top Ten Slovakian Attractions,
  154. Roman Tauroctony of Mithras (200 BC)

           Mithra is the Zoroastrian divinity (yazata) of covenant and oath. In addition to being the divinity of contracts, Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing protector of Truth, and the guardian of cattle, the harvest and of The Waters. The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD. The name of the Persian god Mithra, adapted into Greek as Mithras, was linked to a new and distinctive imagery. Romans also called the religion Mysteries of Mithras or Mysteries of the Persians; modern historians refer to it as Mithraism, or sometimes Roman Mithraism. The mysteries were popular in the Roman military. Worshippers of Mithras had a complex system of seven grades of initiation, with ritual meals. Initiates called themselves syndexioi, those “united by the handshake.” They met in underground temples (called a mithraeum), which survive in large numbers. The cult appears to have had its epicenter in Rome. Numerous archeological finds, including meeting places, monuments and artifacts, have contributed to modern knowledge about Mithraism throughout the Roman Empire. The iconic scenes of Mithras show him being born from a rock, slaughtering a bull, and sharing a banquet with the god Sol (the Sun). About 420 sites have yielded materials related to the cult. Among the items found are about 1,000 inscriptions, 700 examples of the bull-killing scene (tauroctony), and about 400 other monuments. It has been estimated that there would have been at least 680-690 Mithraea in Rome. No written narratives or theology from the religion survive, with limited information to be derived from the inscriptions, and only brief or passing references in Greek and Latin literature. Interpretation of the physical evidence remains problematic and contested. The Romans themselves regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources. Since the early 1970’s, however, the dominant scholarship has cast this origin in doubt, and regarded the mysteries of Mithras as a distinct product of the Roman Imperial religious world. In this context, Mithraism has sometimes been viewed as a rival of early Christianity.
    Links: Top 100 Secret Society Members, Top Ten Secret Societies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithras,
  155. Basilic of la Mercè, Barcelona, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas,
  156. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Geneva, Switzerland

           Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought. His novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau’s autobiographical writings, his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker, exemplified the late 18th century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, featuring an increasing focus on subjectivity and introspection that has characterized the modern age. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought and make a strong case for democratic government and social empowerment. Rousseau was a successful composer of music. He wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and he made contributions to music as a theorist. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau, a Freemason was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.
    Links: Top Ten Philosophers, Top Ten Western Philosophers, Top Ten Swiss Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Jacques_Rousseau,
  157. Statue of St. Sofia, Bulgaria

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  158. Lidingö Island Sculptures, Sweden

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  159. Nîmes Matador, France

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    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten French Sculptures, Top Ten French Sculptors,
  160. Łuczniczka (The Archer)

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    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions, Top Ten Archers,
  161. Monument to Polish Endeavor, Szczecin, Poland

           This is a Monument to the Polish Endeavor, dedicated to three Generations of Poles in Zachodniopomorskie: the pre-war Poles in Szczecin, the Poles who rebuilt the city after WWII and the modern generation.
    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szczecin,
  162. Przechodzący Przez Rzekę (Crossing the River)

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    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions,
  163. Monument of Johann Strauss II, Stadtpark, Vienna, Austria

           Johann Strauss II (October 25, 1825 – June 3, 1899), also known as Johann Baptist Strauss or Johann Strauss, Jr., the Younger, or the Son, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as “The Waltz King,” and was largely then responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. Strauss was born in St. Ulrich (now a part of Neubau), the son of Johann Strauss I, another composer of dance music. His father did not wish him to become a composer, but rather a banker; however, the son defied his father’s wishes, and went on to study music with the composer Joseph Drechsler and the violin with Anton Kollmann, the ballet répétiteur of the Vienna Court Opera. Strauss had two younger brothers, Josef and Eduard Strauss, who became composers of light music as well, although they were never as well-known as their elder brother. Some of Johann Strauss’s most famous works include The Blue Danube, Kaiser-Walzer, Tales from the Vienna Woods, the Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka, and the Pizzicato Polka. Among his operettas, Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron are the most well-known.
    Links: Top Ten Austrian Attractions,
  164. Marc Chagall

           Marc Chagall (6 July 1887 – 28 March 1985), was a Belorussian-French artist associated with several major artistic styles and one of the most successful artists of the 20th century. He was an early modernist and created works in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as “the quintessential Jewish artist of the 20th century.” For decades, he “had also been respected as the world’s preeminent Jewish artist.” Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN, and the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra. Before WWI, he traveled between St. Petersburg, Paris and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country’s most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avante-garde, initiating the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris during 1922. He experienced modernism’s “golden age” in Paris, where “he synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism and Fauvism, and the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism.” “When Matisse dies,” Pablo Picasso remarked during the 1950’s, “Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what color really is.”
    Links: Top Ten Paintings by Marc Chagall, Top Ten Bosnia and Herzegovinian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_Chagall,
  165. State Theatre, Košice, Slovenia

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  166. Iron Wolf Memorial, Kernavė, Liechtenstein

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    Links: Top Ten Liechtenstein Attractions,
  167. The Capitoline Wolf

           The Capitoline Wolf (Latin: Lupa Capitolina) is a bronze sculpture of a she-wolf suckling twin infants, inspired by the legend of the founding of Rome. According to the legend, when Numitor, grandfather of the twins Romulus and Remus, was overthrown by his brother Amulius, the usurper ordered the twins to be cast into the Tiber River. They were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them until a herdsman, Faustulus, found and raised them. The Capitoline Wolf has been housed since 1471 in the Museo Nuovo in the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio (the ancient Capitoline Hill), Rome, Italy. The age and origin of the Capitoline Wolf is a subject of controversy. The statue was long thought to be an Etruscan work of the 5th century BC, with the twins added in the late 15th century AD, probably by the sculptor Antonio Pollaiolo. However, radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating has found that it was possibly manufactured in the 13th century AD; this result, which undercuts the sculpture’s iconic significance, is still contested, and while carbon dating has been performed on remnants of the casting core, the results have not yet been publicized.
    Links: Top Ten Roman Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitoline_Wolf,
  168. Watcher

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    Links: Top Ten Monacan Attractions, 
  169. Cerberus

           Cerberus in Greek and Roman mythology, is a multi-headed hound (usually three-headed) which guards the gates of the Underworld, to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx from ever escaping. Cerberus featured in many works of ancient Greek and Roman literature and in works of both ancient and modern art and architecture, although, the depiction and background surrounding Cerberus often differed across various works by different authors of the era. The most notable difference is the number of its heads: Most sources describe or depict three heads; others show it with two or even just one; a smaller number of sources show a variable number, sometimes as many as 50 or even 100.
    Links: Top Ten Monsters, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerberus,
  170. Utrecht Sculpture

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  171. Dancing Faun of Pompeii  

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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Natural Disasters,
  172. Moscophoros (560 BC)

           Moscophoros (Calfbearer) is an ancient Greek statue of cow-bearer. It currently resides in the Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions,
  173. Peplos Kore (530 BC)

           Such statues existed in many cities of Greece, but most important are the 14 statues that were found east of the Parthenon in 1886 and called the Korai of Acropolis. These statues stood particularly on round bases and were usually outdoors. When the Persians burned the Acropolis in 480 BC, they threw them from their bases, but some survived and are hosted now in the Acropolis Museum. Some of them represented priestesses, while others were simpler, represented female figures and were dedicated to the goddess Athena. They have smiling face, complicated hairdressing and island type dressing, ionic style. With their left hand holding their chiton, while with their right hand are holding a flower, fruit or bird. Their hair, some of their characteristics and the folds of their clothes were colored.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kore_(sculpture),
  174. Pio XII  

           The Venerable Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 1876 – 9 October 1958), reigned as Pope, head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City State, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. Before election to the papacy, Pacelli served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany. His leadership of the Catholic Church during WWII remains the subject of continued historical controversy. After the war Pius XII advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards Axis and Axis-satellite nations. The Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc. In light of his overt involvement in Italian politics (anyone who voted for a Communist candidate in the 1948 elections was threatened with automatic excommunication), Pacelli became known as a staunch opponent of the Italian Communist Party. Pius XII explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his 1950 Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes almost 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts. His 41 encyclicals include Mystici Corporis, the Church as the Body of Christ; Mediator Dei on liturgy reform; and Humani Generis on the Church’s positions on theology and evolution. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946.
    Links: Top Ten Popes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pio_XII,
  175. St Christopher, Norton Priory

           St Christopher, Norton Priory, stands in a purpose-built gallery in the museum at Norton Priory, Runcorn, Cheshire, England. It is a large statue of St. Christopher that was created towards the end of the 14th century and is a rare survival of a religious sculpture from late medieval England. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the sculpture was owned by the Brooke family and stood, originally in the outer courtyard of their house, and later in the garden. When the Brooke family left the site, the statue remained and, in a damaged condition, it was given to Liverpool Museum in 1964. It has been restored and moved back to a museum created on the site of the priory.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Christopher,_Norton_Priory,
  176. Manneken Pis

           Manneken Pis (Dutch for little man urinating) is a famous Brussels landmark. It is a small bronze fountain sculpture depicting a naked little boy urinating into the fountain’s basin. It was designed by Jerome Duquesnoy and put in place in 1618 or 1619.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manneken_Pis,
  177. Valor Monument, Brest Fortress, Belarus

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    Links: Top Ten Belarusian Attractions, Top Ten Forts,
  178. Monument of Thirst, Belarus

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    Links: Top Ten Belarusian Attractions,
  179. Statue, Iasi, Romania

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    Links: Top Ten Romanian Attractions,
  180. Warsaw Mermaid, Poland

           The Coat of Arms of Warsaw consists of a syrenka (“little mermaid”) in a red field. Polish syrenka is cognate with siren, but she is more properly a fresh-water mermaid called “Melusina.” This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century. The syrenka has traditionally held a silver sword although this does not appear on more recent versions.
    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Warsaw,
  181. Winston Churchill Statue

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    Links: Top Ten Squares,
  182. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza Outside Cervantes’ Birth-Place, Alcalá de Henares, Spain

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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions,
  183. Wellington Statue, Aldershot by Matthew Cotes Wyatt (1843)

           The Wellington Statue in Aldershot is a monument to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington victor at the Battle of Waterloo and later Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Sculptured by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, it was the largest equestrian statue in Britain when it was unveiled at its original location at Hyde Park Corner in 1846.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wellingtonstatue.jpg,
  184. Dream (2009)

           Dream is a sculpture, a piece of public art, in St Helens, Merseyside, England. Dream was designed by the Spanish artist and sculptor Jaume Plensa as part of The Big Art Project organized by the television company Channel 4 in 2009. It is sited on an old slag heap of Sutton Manor Colliery which closed in 1991 and it overlooks the M62 motorway. It consists of an elongated white structure 20 meters (66 ft) tall, weighing 500 tons, which has been carved to resemble the head and neck of a young woman with her eyes closed in meditation. The structure is coated in sparkling white Spanish dolomite, as a contrast to the coal which used to be mined here. It cost nearly £1.9 million and it is hoped it will become as powerful a symbol in North West England as Antony Gormley’s Angel of the North is in North East England. Dream has also attracted a certain amount of controversy. Some local residents and commuters believe that the sculpture looks somewhat phallic. This appearance being attributed to the hard to make out features of the face, the elongated shape of the sculpture and the parting of the hair at the top that resembles the shape of the Glans Penis.
    Links:
  185. Statue of Decebalus, Romania

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    Links: Top Ten Romanian Attractions,
  186. Romanian Sphinx

           The Romanian Sphinx is a rock formation in the Bucegi Mountains in Romania. It is located at an altitude of 2,216 m, a 10 minute walk from the Babele. The first photo of the Great Bucegi Sphinx was probably taken in about the year 1900. This photo was taken from a front position, not from a lateral one, as it appears in the usual pictures nowadays. This way it was only named in the year 1936. The image of the sphinx appeared when the rock, having an 8 m height and a 12 m width, was watched from a certain angle.
    Links: Top Ten Romanian Attractions, Top Ten Sphinx Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx_(Romania),
  187. Bonus: Monument to Tzanko Lavrenov

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    Links: Top Ten Bulgarian Attractions,
  188. Bicha of Balazote

    The Bicha of Balazote is an Iberian sculpture that was found in the borough of Balazote in Albacete province (Castile-La Mancha), Spain. Bicha is a Spanish word, one meaning of which is a hybrid man/animal. Carlos Fuentes has called it the “Beast of Balazote.” The sculpture has been dated to the 6th century BC, and has been in the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid, since 1910.
    Links: Top Ten Sphinx Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicha_of_Balazote,
  189. Links: Sculptures, Artifacts, European Attractions,

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