Top Ten ‘Immortal’ Animals

Top Ten ‘Immortal’ Animals

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  1. Immortal Jellyfish
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    The wonder of nature itself, the Turritopsis nutricula jellyfish left the scientific community speechless once it was discovered that it can cycle itself back to the immature polyp stage once it has reached the mature adult life stage. What this basically means is that in a way it never gets old and can therefore live forever. The secret this animal holds might be one of the ultimate goals that many try to reach. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous experiments and researches are to be conducted in the near future.
    Links: http://deepseacreatures.org/interesting/longest-living-creatures,
  2. Hydra
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    Hydra is a genus of small, simple, fresh-water animals that possess radial symmetry. Hydra are predatory animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria and the class Hydrozoa. They can be found in most unpolluted fresh-water ponds, lakes, and streams in the temperate and tropical regions and can be found by gently sweeping a collecting net through weedy areas. They are multicellular organisms which are usually a few millimeters long and are best studied with a microscope. Biologists are especially interested in Hydra due to their regenerative ability; and that they appear not to age or to die of old age. This discovery was first reported by Daniel Martinez, in a 1998 article in Experimental Gerontology, which stated that Hydra are biologically immortal. In 2010 Preston Estep published (also in Experimental Gerontology) a letter to the editor arguing that the Martinez data support rather than refute the hypothesis that Hydra senesce. The controversial unlimited life span of Hydra has attracted the attention of natural scientists for a long time. Hydra stem cells have a capacity for indefinite self-renewal. The transcription factor, “forkhead box O” (FoxO) has been identified as a critical driver of the continuous self-renewal of Hydra. A drastically reduced population growth resulted from FoxO down-regulation, so research findings do contribute to both a confirmation and an understanding of Hydra immortality. While Hydra immortality is well-supported today, the implications for human aging are still controversial. There is much optimism; however, it appears that researchers still have a long way to go before they are able to understand how the results of their work might apply to the reduction or elimination of human senescence.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydra_(genus),
  3. Antarctic Sponge (1,550+)
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    Located in the freezing waters of Antarctic Ocean, the immobile Antarctic sponge grows very slow. This also makes it able to last for centuries, as the oldest known specimens are over 1,550 years old.
    Links: http://deepseacreatures.org/interesting/longest-living-creatures,
  4. Ocean Quahog (507+)
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    The “ocean quahog,” Arctica islandica, which, although superficially similar in shape to traditional clams, is in a different family of bivalves: it is rounder than the hard clam, usually has black periostracum, and there is no pallial sinus in the interior of the shell. They have been known to live up to 500 years. In 2006 a Quahog clam was taken from the ocean floor at the north coast of Iceland. It was later confirmed to be 507 years old and is recognized as the world’s longest lived non-colonial animal.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quahog,
  5. Aldabara Giant Tortoise (255+)
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    The Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea), from the islands of the Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles, is one of the largest tortoises in the world. Aldabra giant tortoises are exactly what they sound like– freaking giant. The males can weigh nearly 800 pounds and scientists aren’t sure just how long Aldabra tortoises live, because they have a tendency to live longer than the people watching them. The oldest confirmed age of an Aldabra tortoise was 255 years, but some may have lived to be twice that age.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldabra_Giant_Tortoise, http://voices.yahoo.com/5-immortal-animals-7517284.html?cat=58,
  6. Koi Fish (226+)
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    Koi fish,”brocaded carp,” are ornamental varieties of domesticated common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens. Koi varieties are distinguished by coloration, patterning, and scalation. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, yellow, blue, and cream. The most popular category of koi is the Gosanke, which is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties. Although most Koi typically have a lifespan of 47 years, one notable Koi named Hanako amazed the scientific community with it’s stunning lifespan of 226 years.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koi, http://deepseacreatures.org/interesting/longest-living-creatures,
  7. Bowhead Whale (211+)
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    The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is a baleen whale of the right whale family Balaenidae, in suborder Mysticeti and genus Balaena. A stocky dark-colored whale without a dorsal fin, it can grow to 20 m (66 ft.) in length. This thick-bodied species can weigh 74 long tons; to 100 98 long tons, second only to the blue whale, although the bowhead’s maximum length is less than several other whales. It lives entirely in fertile Arctic and sub-Arctic waters, unlike other whales that migrate to feed or reproduce to low latitude waters. It was also known as Greenland right whale or Arctic whale. American whalemen called it the steeple-top, polar whale, or Russia or Russian whale. The bowhead has the largest mouth of any animal. The bowhead was an early whaling target. Its population was severely reduced before a 1966 moratorium. The population is estimated to be over 24,900 worldwide, down from an estimated 50,000 before whaling.
    Links: Top Ten Largest Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowhead_whale,
  8. Red Sea Urchin (200+)
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    Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, commonly called the red sea urchin (although its color ranges from pink or orange to nearly black), is a sea urchin found in the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Baja California. It lives in shallow waters from the low-tide line to 90 m (300 ft.) deep, and is typically found on rocky shores that are sheltered from extreme wave action.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_sea_urchin,
  9. Lobster (200+)
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    Lobsters have somehow figured out a way to defy aging as we know it. Unlike people, lobsters don’t experience any change in metabolism or body-function as they get older. A one-hundred-year-old lobster will continue eating, moving and mating. This longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme that repairs DNA sequences of the form “TTAGGG”. Lobsters express telomerase as adults through most tissue, which has been suggested to be related to their longevity. This sequence, repeated hundreds of times, occurs at the ends of chromosomes and are referred to as telomeres.They also keep getting growing, which means that after a couple-hundred years, they can grow to the size of a large wolf. The largest recorded lobster is believed to have weighed 51 and a half pounds and reached 50 and a half inches long from tail to claws.
    Links: Top Ten Crabs/Lobsters, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobster, http://voices.yahoo.com/5-immortal-animals-7517284.html?cat=58,
  10. Rougheye Rockfish (205+)

    The rougheye rockfish is a rockfish of the genus Sebastes. It grows up to 97 cm (38 in) in length, with the IGFA record weight being 14 lb 12 oz (6.7 kg). Similar to many other members of its genus, it is extremely long-lived, and has been known to reach an age of 205 years. Rougheye rockfish are deepwater fish, and exist between 31° and 66° latitude, in the North Pacific, and specifically along Japan to the Navarin Canyon in the Bering Sea, to the Aleutian Islands, all the way south to San Diego, California, at depths of between 25 and 900 m (82 and 2,953 ft.).
    Links: Top 100 Fish, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rougheye_rockfish,
  11. Humans ?
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    With advances in science, the longevity of human beings is beginning to be better understood, allowing us with the opportunity to live longer and healthier lives. In the short term, this seemingly evolutionary breakthrough will meet with systematic challenges unless we can figure out a peaceful solution to our population growth and resource management.
    Links: People, Top Ten Oldest Humans, 100 Evolutionary Humans,
  12. Sea Anemone (80+)
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    Though the sea anemone doesn’t look like an immortal animal, or even an animal for that matter, it doesn’t age as it gets older, it simply grows bigger. In between swaying to the left, swaying to the right, and occasionally swallowing a bit of debris, this ‘brainless’ polyp is busy defying everything we know about mortality. Fortunately for those who find this a little creepy, none of them have lived long enough to develop sentience yet, they usually get wiped out at around age 80 by heat, water pollution, infections and greedy collectors.

    Links: http://voices.yahoo.com/5-immortal-animals-7517284.html,
  13. Links:

Top Ten Most Camouflaged Animals

Top Ten Most Camouflaged Animals

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       Now you seem them, now you don’t.

  1. Octopus
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    Octopus, Squid and Cuttlefish take the cake when it comes to stealthy camouflage. Some species can literally change the coloring and texture of their exterior to match that of their environment, and are incredibly hard to spot when they go undercover. The Mimic Octopus can even replicate the physical likeness and movements of more than 15 different species, including sea snakes, lionfish, flatfish, brittle stars, giant crabs, sea shells, stingrays, flounders, jellyfish, sea anemones, and mantis shrimp.
    Links: Top Ten Octopus/Squid,
  2. Chameleon
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    Chameleons are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. The approximately 160 species of chameleon come in a range of colors, including pink, blue, red, orange, turquoise, yellow and green. They are distinguished by their zygodactylous feet; their separately mobile, stereoscopic eyes; their very long, highly modified, rapidly extrudable tongues; their swaying gait; and crests or horns on their distinctively shaped heads. Some species can change color, and many have a prehensile tail. Uniquely adapted for climbing and visual hunting, they are found in warm habitats that vary from rain forest to desert conditions—in Africa, Madagascar, and southern Europe, and across south Asia as far as Sri Lanka. They have also been introduced to Hawaii, California, and Florida, and are often kept as household pets.
    Links: Top Ten Lizards, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameleon,
  3. Leaf Tailed Gecko and Mossy Leafed Gecko
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    Uroplatus phantasticus, the Satanic Leaf Tailed Gecko, is a species of gecko endemic to the island of Madagascar. First described in 1888 by George Albert Boulenger, U. phantasticus is the smallest in body of the Uroplatus geckos, though there is an ongoing debate as to whether one of its cousins, U. ebenaui, is smaller because of its shorter tail. It may also be known as the eyelash leaf tailed gecko or the fantastic leaf tailed gecko.
    Links: Top Ten Lizards,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uroplatus_phantasticus,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mossy_leaf-tailed_gecko,
  4. Ghost Mantis and Dead Leaf Mantis
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    Phyllocrania paradoxa, common name Ghost Mantis, is a small species of mantis from Africa remarkable for its leaf-like body. It is one of the three species in the genus Phyllocrania. Dead Leaf Mantis is a common name given to various species of praying mantis that mimic dead leaves. It is most often used in reference to species within genus Deroplatys because of their popularity as exotic pets. Examples include D. desiccata (Giant Dead Leaf Mantis), D. lobata (Malaysian Dead Leaf Mantis), and D. philippinica (Philippines Dead Leaf Mantis). Other species to which the term may apply include Acanthops falcataria (South American Dead Leaf Mantis), A. falcata (South American Dead Leaf Mantis), and Phyllocrania paradoxa (more common known as the Ghost Mantis).
    Links: Top 100 Insects,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_Mantis,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_leaf_mantis,
  5. Dead Leaf Butterfly
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    The Orange Oakleaf or Dead Leaf (Kallima inachus) is a nymphalid butterfly found in tropical Asia from India to Japan. With wings closed, it closely resembles a dry leaf with dark veins and is a spectacular and commonly cited example of camouflage.
    Links: Top Ten Butterfly, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_Leaf,
  6. Reef Stonefish
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    Synanceia verrucosa is a fish species known as the reef stonefish or simply stonefish. It is a carnivorous ray-finned fish with venomous spines. It lives on reef bottoms camouflaged as a rock. It is the most venomous known fish in the world. It can be lethal to humans.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reef_stonefish,
  7. Leafy Sea Dragon
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    The leafy seadragon or Glauert’s seadragon, is a marine fish in the family Syngnathidae, which also includes the seahorses. It is found along the southern and western coasts of Australia. The name is derived from the appearance, with long leaf-like protrusions coming from all over the body. These protrusions are not used for propulsion; they serve only as camouflage. The leafy seadragon propels itself by means of a pectoral fin on the ridge of its neck and a dorsal fin on its back closer to the tail end. These small fins are almost completely transparent and difficult to see as they undulate minutely to move the creature sedately through the water, completing the illusion of floating seaweed. Popularly known as “leafies,” it is the marine emblem of the state of South Australia and a focus for local marine conservation.
    Links: Top 100 Fish, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leafy_Sea_Dragon,
  8. Tawny Frogmouth
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    The Tawny Frogmouth is an Australian species of frogmouth, a type of bird found throughout the Australian mainland, Tasmania and southern New Guinea. The Tawny Frogmouth is often mistaken for an owl. Many Australians refer to the Tawny Frogmouth by the colloquial names of “Mopoke” or “Morepork,” which usually are common alternative names for the Southern Boobook.
    Links: Top 100 Birds, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tawny_Frogmouth,
  9. Pygmy Seahorse
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    The pygmy seahorses comprise several species of tiny seahorse in the syngnathid family or Syngnathidae (seahorses and pipefish). Family Syngnathidae is part of order Syngnathiformes, which contains fishes with fused jaws that suck food into tubular mouths. They are found in Southeast Asia in the Coral Triangle area. They are some of the smallest seahorse species in the world, typically measuring less than 2 cm (0.79 in) in height. The first pygmy seahorse known to science was Hippocampus bargibanti. At least six more species were named after 2000. The first species discovered lives exclusively on fan corals and matches their color and appearance. So effective is pygmy seahorse camouflage that it was discovered only when a host gorgonian was being examined in a laboratory. Other species live on soft corals or are free-ranging among seagrasses and algae.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_seahorse,
  10. Merlet’s Scorpionfish
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    Scorpaenidae, the scorpionfish, are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world’s most venomous species. As the name suggests, scorpionfish have a type of “sting” in the form of sharp spines coated with venomous mucus. The family is a large one, with hundreds of members. They are widespread in tropical and temperate seas, but mostly found in the Indo-Pacific. They should not be confused with the cabezones, of the genus Scorpaenichthys, which belong to a separate, though related family, Cottidae.
    Links: Top 100 Fishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorpionfish,
  11. Baron Caterpillar
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  12. Orchid Mantis
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    Hymenopus coronatus, also called H. bicornis, is a mantis from the rain forests of southeast Asia. It is known by various common names including walking flower mantis and (pink) orchid mantis. It is one of several species known as flower mantises from their resemblance and behavior.
    Links: Top 100 Insects, Top 100 Flowershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchid_mantis,
  13. Stick Insects (Stick Mantis)
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    The Phasmatodea are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (in Europe and Australasia), walking sticks or stick-bugs (in the US and Canada), phasmids, ghost insects and leaf insects (generally the family Phylliidae). The ordinal name is derived from the Ancient Greek phasma, meaning an apparition or phantom, and refers to the resemblance of many species to sticks or leaves. Their natural camouflage can make them extremely difficult to spot. Phasmatodea can be found all over the world in warmer zones, especially the tropics and subtropics. The greatest diversity is found in Southeast Asia and South America, followed by Australia. Phasmids also have a considerable presence in the continental US, mainly in the Southeast.
    Links: Top 100 Insectshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stick_insect,
  14. Katydid
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    Insects in the family Tettigoniidae are commonly called katydids or bush-crickets. There are more than 6,400 species. Part of the suborder Ensifera, it is the only family in the superfamily Tettigonioidea. The name is derived from the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1748. They are also known as long-horned grasshoppers, although they are more closely related to crickets and weta than to any type of grasshopper. Many tettigoniids exhibit mimicry and camouflage, commonly with shapes and colors similar to leaves.
    Links: Top 100 Insects, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katydid,
  15. Ornate Wobblegong
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    The ornate wobbegong is a species of carpet shark in the family Orectolobidae, found in the western Pacific Ocean around eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Australia. As yet, only Australian populations are known to certainly belong to this species, and it is possible populations in other countries actually represent a separate, undescribed species. The maximum reported length of the ornate wobbegong is 1.17 m (3.8 ft.). Reports of a larger maximum size is due to confusion with the recently revalidated gulf wobbegong (O. halei), which for the most part is found further south than the ornate wobbegong.
    Links: Top Ten Sharks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornate_wobbegong,
  16. Flounder (Right Eyed Flounder)
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    Righteye flounders are a family, Pleuronectidae, of flounders. They are called “righteye flounders” because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left side, with both eyes on the right side. The Paralichthyidae are the opposite, with their eyes on the left side. Their dorsal and anal fins are long and continuous, with the dorsal fin extending forward onto the head. Females lay eggs that float in mid-water until the larvae develop, and they sink to the bottom. They are found on the bottoms of oceans around the world, with some species, such as the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, being found down to 2,000 m (6,600 ft.). The smaller species eat sea-floor invertebrates such as polychaetes and crustaceans, but the larger righteye flounders, such as H. hippoglossus, which grows up to 4.7 m (15 ft) in length, feed on other fishes and cephalopods as well.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right-eye_flounder,
  17. Southern Rock Agama Lizard

    The southern rock agama (Agama atra) is a species of lizard from the Agamidae family, that occurs in South Africa. It lives in small colonies on rocky outcrops, and the males are very conspicuous for their bright blue heads.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Rock_Agama,
  18. Gabon Viper
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    Bitis gabonica, commonly known as the Gaboon viper, is a venomous viper species found in the rainforests and savannas of sub-Saharan Africa. This is not only the largest member of the genus Bitis, but also the world’s heaviest viperid, and it has the longest fangs, up to 2 inches (5 cm), and the highest venom yield of any venomous snake. Two subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate race described here.
    Links: Top Ten Snakes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabon_viper,
  19. Polar Bear, Artic Fox, Snowhare, Snowy Owl and the Great Owl
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    All of these animals employ a snowy white exterior to stealthily sneak up on prey and avoid predators.
    Links: Top 100 Birds,
  20. Paradoxophyla Palmata
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    Paradoxophyla palmata is a species of frog in the Microhylidae family. It is endemic to Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, intermittent freshwater marshes, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradoxophyla_palmata,
  21. Horned Rockdweller Dragonfly
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    Bradinopyga is a genus of dragonflies in the family Libellulidae. It contains the following species: Bradinopyga cornuta Ris, 1911 – Horned Rock-dweller; Bradinopyga geminata (Rambur, 1842) – Granite Ghost; Bradinopyga saintjohanni Baijal & Agarwal, 1956; Bradinopyga strachani (Kirby, 1900) – Red Rock-dweller.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradinopyga,
  22. Egyptian Nightjar
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           The Egyptian Nightjar is a medium-small nightjar which lives in south west Asia and north Africa, and winters in tropical Africa. It is a rare visitor to Europe, but, remarkably, has twice been found as far away as Great Britain. Open desert with a few trees or bushes are the haunts of this crepuscular nightjar. It flies at dusk, most often at sundown, with an easy, silent moth-like flight; its strong and deliberate wingbeats alternate with sweeps and wheels with motionless wings. The variegated plumage is much paler than the European Nightjar. The adult is sand-colored, barred and streaked with buff and brown. The under parts are sandy or whitish. It is smaller, but relatively longer-winged and longer-tailed than the more widespread species. Like other nightjars, it has a wide gape, long wings, soft downy plumage and nocturnal habits. The male has tiny white wing spots. The length is 25 cm, and the wingspan 55 cm. Crepuscular insects, such as moths, are its food. During the day this nightjar lies silent upon the ground, concealed by its plumage; it is difficult to detect, blending in with the sandy soil. No nest is made; the two elongated and elliptical eggs are placed upon the bare ground; the brooding bird, sitting closely, is their best protection.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_nightjar,
  23. Underwing Moth
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           Catocala is a generally Holarctic genus of owlet moths (family Noctuidae or superfamily Noctuoidea) commonly known as underwing moths or simply underwings. These terms are sometimes used for a few related moths, but it is usually used to refer to Catocala only. They are traditionally placed in the subfamily Catocalinae, and therein in subtribe Catocalina of the large tribe Catocalini. Of these taxa, they form the type genus. Of the more than 250 known species, slightly less than half are found in North America, mostly in the US, while the rest occur in Eurasia. Of these, about one-fifth (almost 30 species) is native to Europe. A few range into the northern Neotropics and Indomalaya.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underwing_moth,
  24. Knobbly Crab Spider
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    Links: Top Ten Spiders,
  25. Bat Faced Toad

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  26. Humans
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    Links: Emerging Technologies, Top Ten Material Science Technologies, Top 100 Gadgets,
  27. Links:

Top 100 Birds

Top 100 Birds

  1. Argentavis

    Argentavis magnificens (literally “magnificent argentine bird”) is the largest flying bird ever discovered. This bird, sometimes called the Giant Teratorn, is an extinct species known from three sites from the late Miocene (6 million years before present) of central and northwestern Argentina, where a good sample of fossils have been obtained. The humerus (upper arm bone) of Argentavis is somewhat damaged. Even so, it allows a fairly accurate estimate of its length in life. Argentavis’s humerus was only slightly shorter than an entire human arm. The species apparently had stout, strong legs and large feet which enabled it to walk with ease. The bill was large, rather slender, and had a hooked tip with a wide gape.
    Links: Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaur), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentavis,
  2. Golden Eagle

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. These birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. Golden Eagles use their agility and speed combined with extremely powerful feet and massive, sharp talons to snatch up a variety of prey (mainly hares, rabbits, marmots and other ground squirrels). Golden Eagles maintain home ranges or territories that may be as large as 200 km2 (77 sq mi). They build large nests in high places (mainly cliffs) to which they may return for several breeding years. Most breeding activities take place in the spring; they are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Females lay up to four eggs, and then incubate them for six weeks. Typically, one or two young survive to fledge in about three months. These juvenile Golden Eagles usually attain full independence in the fall, after which they wander widely until establishing a territory for themselves in four to five years. Once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many areas which are now more heavily populated by humans. Despite being extirpated from or uncommon in some its former range, the species is still fairly ubiquitous, being present in sizeable stretches of Eurasia, North America, and parts of North Africa. It is the largest and least populous of the five species of true accipitrid to occur as a breeding species in both the Palearctic and the Nearctic. For centuries, this species has been one of the most highly regarded birds used in falconry, with the Eurasian subspecies having been used to hunt and kill prey such as Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in some native communities. Due to its hunting prowess, the Golden Eagle is regarded with great mystic reverence in some ancient, tribal cultures. The Golden Eagle is one of the most extensively studied species of raptor in the world in some parts of its range, such as the Western US and the Western Palearctic.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_eagle,
  3. Philippine Eagle
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    The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), also known as the Monkey-eating Eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-colored plumage, and a shaggy crest, and generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft.) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kilograms (10 to 18 lb.). It is considered the largest of the extant eagles in the world in terms of length, with the Steller’s Sea Eagle and the Harpy Eagle being larger in terms of weight and bulk. Among the rarest and most powerful birds in the world, it has been declared the Philippine national bird. It is critically endangered, mainly due to massive loss of habitat due to deforestation in most of its range.
    Links:
  4. Peregrine Falcon
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           The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the “Duck Hawk” in North America, is a cosmopolitan bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It is a large, crow-sized falcon, with a blue-gray back, barred white underparts, and a black head and “moustache.” It can reach speeds over 320 km/h (200 mph) in a stoop, making it the fastest creature on the planet. As is common with bird-eating raptors, the female is much bigger than the male. Experts recognize 17–19 subspecies, which vary in appearance and range; there is disagreement over whether the distinctive Barbary Falcon is a subspecies or a distinct species. The Peregrine’s breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the Tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions, very high mountains and most tropical rainforests; the only major ice-free landmass from which it is entirely absent is New Zealand. This makes it the world’s most widespread bird of prey. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean “wandering falcon,” referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. While its diet consists almost exclusively of medium-sized birds, the Peregrine will occasionally hunt small mammals, small reptiles or even insects. It reaches sexual maturity at one year and mates for life. It nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures. The Peregrine Falcon became an endangered species in many areas due to the use of pesticides, especially DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the beginning of the 1970’s onwards, the populations recovered, supported by large scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
    Links: Top Ten Fastest Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peregrine_Falcon,
  5. Birds of Paradise
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           The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found in Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua (Papua and Irian Jaya Province) and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Maluku Islands and eastern Australia. The family has forty-one species in 14 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of the sexually dimorphic species (the majority), in particular the highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings, tail or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-type polygamy. The family is of cultural importance to the inhabitants of New Guinea. The trade in skins and feathers of the birds-of-paradise has been going on for two thousand years. The birds have also been of considerable interest to Western collectors, ornithologists and writers. A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.
    Links: Top Ten Best Dressed Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birds_of_Paradise,
  6. Marvelous Spatuletail
    Marvelous Spatuletail (Loddigesia mirabilis)fdeca
    The Marvellous Spatuletail is a medium-sized (up to 15 cm long) white, green and bronze hummingbird adorned with blue crest feathers, a brilliant turquoise gorget, and a black line on its white underparts. A Peruvian endemic, this species is found on forest edges in the Río Utcubamba region. It was first reported in 1835 by the bird collector Andrew Matthews for George Loddiges, after whom the genus is named. The Marvellous Spatuletail is unique among birds in having just four feathers in its tail. Its most remarkable feature is the male’s two long racquet-shaped outer tail feathers that cross each other and end in large violet-blue discs or “spatules.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marvelous_Spatuletail,
  7. Steller’s Sea Eagle
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    The Steller’s Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus, is a large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It lives in coastal northeastern Asia and mainly preys on fish and water birds. On average, it is the heaviest eagle in the world, at about 5 to 9 kilograms (11 to 20 lb; 0.79 to 1.4 st), but may lag behind the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) and Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) in some standard measurements. This bird is named after the German naturalist Georg Wilhelm Steller.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steller%27s_Sea_Eagle,
  8. Cinerous Vulture

    The Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus) is a large raptorial bird that is distributed through much of Eurasia. It is also known as the Black Vulture, Monk Vulture, or Eurasian Black Vulture. It is a member of the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers. It is one of the two largest old world vultures. This bird is an Old World vulture, and is only distantly related to the New World vultures, which are in a separate family, Cathartidae, of the same order. It is therefore not directly related to the much smaller American Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) despite the similar name and coloration.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinereous_Vulture,
  9. African Grey
    AG1AG3African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus).
           The African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is a medium-sized parrot endemic to primary and secondary rainforest of West and Central Africa. Experts regard it as one of the most intelligent birds. They feed primarily on palm nuts, seeds, fruits, leafy matter, and have even been observed eating snails. Their overall gentle nature and their inclination and ability to mimic speech have made them popular pets. This has led many to be captured from the wild and sold into the pet trade. The African Grey Parrot is listed on CITES appendix II, which restricts trade of wild caught species, because wild populations can not sustain trapping for the pet trade.
    Links: Top Ten Parrots,
  10. Bald Eagle
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           The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America. It is the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. This sea eagle has two known sub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The Bald Eagle is a large bird, with a body length of 70–102 centimeters (28–40 in), a wingspan of up to 2.44 m (96 in), and a mass of 2.5–7 kilograms (5.5–15 lb); females are about 25 percent larger than males. The adult Bald Eagle has a brown body with a white head and tail, bright yellow irises, and golden taloned feet and hooked beak; juveniles are completely brown except for the yellow feet. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration. Its diet consists mainly of fish, but it is an opportunistic feeder. It hunts fish by swooping down and snatching the fish out of the water with its talons. It is sexually mature at four years or five years of age. In the wild, Bald Eagles can live up to 30 years and often survive longer in captivity. The Bald Eagle builds the largest nest of any North American bird, up to 4 meters (13 ft) deep, 2.5 meters (8.2 ft) wide, and one metric ton (1.1 tons) in weight.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bald_eagle,
  11. Peacock
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           The term peafowl can refer to the two species of bird in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. Peafowl are best known for the male’s extravagant tail, which it displays as part of courtship. The male is called a peacock and the female a peahen. The female peafowl is brown or toned grey and brown. Peachicks can be between yellow, to a tawny color with darker brown patches.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacock,
  12. Eurasian Eagle Owl
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    The American (North and South America) horned owls and the Old World eagle-owls make up the genus Bubo, at least as traditionally described. This genus, depending on definition, contains about one or two dozen species of typical owls (family Strigidae) and is found in many parts of the world. Some of the largest living Strigiformes are in Bubo. Traditionally, only owls with ear-tufts were included here, but that is no longer the case.
    Links: Top Ten Owlshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_owl,
  13. Humming Bird
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           Hummingbirds are birds comprising the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, and include the smallest extant bird species, the Bee Hummingbirds. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so. Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their rapid wing beats. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h, 34 mi/h).
    Links: Top 100 Flowers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humming_bird,
  14. Ostrich
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           The Ostrich is one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member of the genus Struthio. Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species apart from the Common Ostrich, but most taxonomists consider it to be a subspecies. Ostriches share the order Struthioniformes with the kiwis, emus and other ratites. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at maximum speeds of about 97.5 kilometers per hour (60.6 mph), the top land speed of any bird. The Ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest egg of any living bird (extinct elephant birds of Madagascar and the giant moa of New Zealand did lay larger eggs). The diet of Ostriches mainly consists of plant matter, though it also eats invertebrates. It lives in nomadic groups which contain between 5-50 birds. When threatened, the Ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or will run away. If cornered, it can attack with a kick from its powerful legs.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osterich,
  15. Wandering Albatross

           The Wandering Albatross, Snowy Albatross or White-winged Albatross, Diomedea exulans, is a large seabird from the family Diomedeidae, which has a circumpolar range in the Southern Ocean. It was the first species of albatross to be described, and was long considered the same species as the Tristan Albatross and the Antipodean Albatross. Together with the Amsterdam Albatross it forms the Wandering Albatross species complex. The Wandering Albatross is the largest member of the genus Diomedea (the great albatrosses), one of the largest birds in the world, and one of the best known and studied species of bird in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Largest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wandering_Albatross,
  16. Emperor Penguin
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           The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm (48 in) in height and weighing anywhere from 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb). The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat. Its diet consists primarily of fish, but can also include crustaceans, such as krill, and cephalopods, such as squid. In hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18 minutes, diving to a depth of 535 m (1,755 ft). It has several adaptations to facilitate this, including an unusually structured hemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, and the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down non-essential organ functions. The Emperor Penguin is perhaps best known for the sequence of journeys adults make each year in order to mate and to feed their offspring. The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, it treks 50–120 km (31–75 mi) over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed; parents subsequently take turns foraging at sea and caring for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals may live to 50 years of age.
    Links: Top Ten Best Dressed Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Penguin,
  17. California Condor
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           The California Condor is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird. This condor became extinct in the wild in 1987 (all remaining wild individuals were captured) but has been reintroduced to northern Arizona and southern Utah (including the Grand Canyon area and Zion National Park), coastal mountains of central and southern California, and northern Baja California. Although other fossil members are known, it is the only surviving member of the genus Gymnogyps. The plumage is black with patches of white on the underside of the wings and the head is largely bald, with skin color ranging from gray on young birds to yellow and bright orange on breeding adults. Its huge 3.0 m (9.8 ft) wingspan is the largest of any North American bird, and its weight of up to 12 kg (26 lb) makes it nearly equal the Trumpeter Swan, the largest among native North American bird species. It is one of the world’s longest-living birds, with a lifespan of up to 60 years. The California Condor is one of the world’s rarest bird species: as of May 2012, population counts put the number of known condors at 405, including 226 living in the wild and 179 in captivity. The condor is a significant bird to many Californian Native American groups and plays an important role in several of their traditional myths.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_condor,
  18. Hawks
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    Hawk is a common name for some birds of prey, widely distributed and varying greatly in size. In Australia and Africa hawks include some of the species in the subfamily Accipitrinae, which comprises the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis and Megatriorchis. The large and widespread Accipiter genus includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, the Sharp-shinned Hawk and others. These are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity, hunting by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. In the Americas (and other areas) the term includes small to medium-sized members of the Accipitridae, the family which includes the “true hawks” as well as eagles, kites, harriers and buzzards.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawk,
  19. Crow
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    Crows are members of a widely distributed genus of birds, Corvus, in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents except for South America, and several islands. In Europe the word “crow” is used to refer to the Carrion Crow or the Hooded Crow, while in North America it is used for the American Crow or the Northwestern Crow. The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the Corvidae family. Crows appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australia. The collective name for a group of crows is a flock or a murder. Recent research has found some crow species capable of not only tool use but also tool construction and meta-tool use. Crows are now considered to be among the world’s most intelligent animals with an encephalization quotient approaching that of some apes. The Jackdaw and the European Magpie have been found to have a nidopallium approximately the same relative size as the functionally equivalent neocortex in chimpanzees and humans, and significantly larger than is found in the gibbon.
    Links: Top Ten Most Intelligent Animals,
  20. Snowy Owl
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    The Snowy Owl is a large owl of the typical owl family Strigidae. The Snowy Owl is the official bird of the Canadian province of Quebec.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowy_Owl,
  21. Tragopan
    12Temminck's Tragopan
           Tragopan is a genus of bird in the family Phasianidae. These birds are commonly called “horny pheasants” because of two brightly colored, fleshy horns on their heads that they can erect during courtship displays. The scientific name refers to this, being a composite of tragus (billy goat) and the ribald half-goat deity Pan (and in the case of the Satyr Tragopan, adding Pan’s companions for even more emphasis). Their habit of nesting in trees is unique among phasianids.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragopan,
  22. Mandarin Duck
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    The Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata), or just Mandarin, is a medium-sized, East Asian perching duck, closely related to the North American Wood Duck. It is 41–49 cm long with a 65–75 cm wingspan.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarin_Duck,
  23. Rainbow Lorikeet
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    The Rainbow Lorikeet, (Trichoglossus haematodus) is a species of Australasian parrot found in Australia, eastern Indonesia (Maluku and Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. In Australia, it is common along the eastern seaboard, from Queensland to South Australia and northwest Tasmania. Its habitat is rainforest, coastal bush and woodland areas. Several taxa traditionally listed as subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet are increasingly treated as separate species. Rainbow Lorikeets have been introduced to Perth, Western Australia, Auckland, New Zealand and Hong Kong, China.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_lorikeet,
  24. Toucan
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    Toucans are members of the family Ramphastidae of near passerine birds from the Neotropics. The Ramphastidae family is most closely related to the American barbets. They are brightly marked and have large, often colorful bills. The family includes five genera and about 40 different species. The name of this bird group is derived from the Tupi word tukana, via Portuguese. The family includes toucans, aracaris and toucanets; more distant relatives include various families of barbets and woodpeckers in the suborder Pici.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toucan,
  25. Flamingo
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           Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus (from a Greek word meaning “Phoenix’s wing”), the only genus in the family Phoenicopteridae. There are four flamingo species in the Americas and two species in the Old World.
    Links: Top Ten Las Vegas Casinos, Top Ten Casinos, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flamingo,
  26. Hyacinth Macaw
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    The Hyacinth Macaw is a parrot native to central and eastern South America. With a length of about 100 cm (3.3 ft.) it is longer than any other species of parrot. It is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3.5 kg. While generally easily recognized, it can be confused with the far rarer and smaller Lear’s Macaw.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyacinth_Macaw,
  27. Golden Pheasant
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    The Golden Pheasant or “Chinese Pheasant,” (Chrysolophus pictus) is a gamebird of the order Galliformes (gallinaceous birds) and the family Phasianidae. It is native to forests in mountainous areas of western China, but feral populations have been established in the UK and elsewhere. In England they may be found in East Anglia in the dense forest landscape of the Breckland.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_pheasant,
  28. Scarlet Macaw
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           The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is a large, colorful macaw. It is native to humid evergreen forests in the American tropics. Range extends from extreme south-eastern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Bolivia and Brazil in lowlands up to 500 m (1,640 ft) (at least formerly) up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft). It has suffered from local extinction through habitat destruction and capture for the parrot trade, but locally it remains fairly common. Formerly it ranged north to southern Tamaulipas. It can still be found on the island of Coiba. It is the national bird of Honduras.
    Links: Top Ten Honduras Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarlet_macaw,
  29. Military Macaw
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           The Military Macaw (Ara militaris) is a large parrot and a medium-sized member of the macaw genus. Though considered vulnerable as a wild species, it is still commonly found in the pet trade industry. A predominantly green bird, it is found in the forests of Mexico and South America.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_macaw,
  30. Black Sicklebill
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    The Black Sicklebill is a large bird of paradise of midmountain forests of New Guinea. Reaching up to 110 cm in length, the male Black Sicklebill is the longest member of Paradisaeidae, though the Curl-crested Manucode has a larger body. The male of the species is polygamous and performs a horizontal courtship display with the pectoral plumes raised around its head. In the wild, the bird has hybridised with the Arfak Astrapia to create offspring that were once considered a distinct species, the Elliot’s Sicklebill.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sicklebill,
  31. Hornbill
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           Hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and Asia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family refer to the shape of the bill, “buceros” being “cow horn” in Greek. In addition, they possess a two-lobed kidney. Hornbills are the only birds in which the first two neck vertebrae (the axis and atlas) are fused together; this probably provides a more stable platform for carrying the bill. The family is omnivorous, feeding on fruit and small animals. They are monogamous breeders nesting in natural cavities in trees and sometimes cliffs. A number of species of hornbill are threatened with extinction, mostly insular species with small ranges.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hornbill,
  32. African Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum)
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           The Grey Crowned Crane is a bird in the crane family Gruidae. It occurs in dry savannah in Africa south of the Sahara, although it nests in somewhat wetter habitats. This animal does not migrate. There are two subspecies. The East African B. r. gibbericeps (Crested Crane) occurs from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo through Uganda, of which it is the national bird, and Kenya to eastern South Africa. It has a larger area of bare red facial skin above the white patch than the smaller nominate species, B. r. regulorum (South African Crowned Crane), which breeds from Angola south to South Africa. This species and the closely related Black Crowned Crane are the only cranes that can roost in trees, because of a long hind toe that can grasp branches. This habit, amongst other things, is a reason why the relatively small Balearica cranes are believed to closely resemble the ancestral members of the Gruidae. The Grey Crowned Crane has a breeding display involving dancing, bowing and jumping. It has a booming call which involves inflation of the red gular sac. It also makes a honking sound quite different from the trumpeting of other crane species. The nest is a platform of grass and other plants in tall wetland vegetation. The Grey Crowned Crane lays a clutch of 2-5 eggs. Incubation is performed by both sexes and lasts 28–31 days. Chicks fledge at 56–100 days. The Grey Crowned Crane is about 1 m (3.3 ft.) tall and weighs 3.5 kg (7.7 lbs). The wings are predominantly white, but contain feathers with a range of colors. The head has a crown of stiff golden feathers. The sides of the face are white, and there is a bright red inflatable throat pouch. The bill is relatively short and grey, and the legs are black. The sexes are similar, although males tend to be slightly larger. Young birds are greyer than adults, with a feathered buff face. Although the Grey Crowned Crane remains common over much of its range, it faces threats to its habitat due to drainage, overgrazing and pesticide pollution. Like all cranes, it feeds on insects and other invertebrates, reptiles, small mammals, as well as grass seeds. The Grey Crowned Crane is the national bird of Uganda and features in the country’s flag and coat of arms.
    Links: Top Ten Ugandan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_Crowned_Crane,
  33. Hoatzin (Opisthocomus Hoazin)
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           The Hoatzin, also known as the Hoactzin, Stinkbird, or Canje Pheasant, is a species of tropical bird found in swamps, riverine forest and mangrove of the Amazon and the Orinoco delta in South America. It is notable for having chicks that possess claws on two of their wing digits. It is the only member of the genus Opisthocomus (Ancient Greek: “wearing long hair behind,” referring to its large crest, which in turn is the only extant genus in the family Opisthocomidae. The taxonomic position of this family has been greatly debated, and is still far from clear.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoatzin,
  34. Cock-of-the-Rock
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    The Cock-of-the-rock, which compose the genus Rupicola, are South American cotingid birds. The Andean Cock-of-the-rock is the national bird of Peru. They are found in tropical and subtropical rainforests close to rocky areas, where they build their nests. Like some other cotingids, they have a complex court behavior, performing impressive lek displays. The males are magnificent birds, not only because of their bright orange or red colors, but also because of their very prominent fan-shaped crests. The far duller females are overall brownish.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cock_of_the_rock,
  35. Harpy Eagle
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    The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a Neotropical species of eagle. It is sometimes known as the American Harpy Eagle to distinguish it from the Papuan Eagle which is sometimes known as the New Guinea Harpy Eagle or Papuan Harpy Eagle. It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the Americas, and among the largest extant species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent) canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has seen it vanish from many parts of its former range, and it is nearly extirpated in Central America. In Brazil, the Harpy Eagle is also known as Royal-Hawk.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpy_eagle,
  36. The Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii)
    2153Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) Male, Queensland Austra4
           The Southern Cassowary, Casuarius casuarius, also known as Double-wattled Cassowary, Australian Cassowary or Two-wattled Cassowary, is a large flightless black bird. It is a ratite and therefore related to the Emu, Ostrich and the genus Rhea.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, Top Ten Eggs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Cassowary,
  37. Southern Rockhopper Penguin
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    The rockstars of the bird world are the Southern Rockhopper Penguin group, which are two subspecies of rockhopper penguin, that together are considered distinct from the Northern Rockhopper Penguin. They inhabit subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Rockhopper_Penguin,
  38. Great Gray Owl
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    The Great Grey Owl is a very large owl, distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. In some areas it is also called Phantom of the north, Cinereous Owl, Spectral Owl, Lapland Owl, Spruce Owl, Bearded Owl and Sooty Owl.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Gray_Owl,
  39. Pelican
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    Pelicans are a genus of large water birds characterized by a long beak and large throat pouch used in catching prey and draining water from the scooped up contents before swallowing. The bills, pouches and bare facial skin of all species become brightly colored before the breeding season. The eight living pelican species have a patchy global distribution, ranging latitudinally from the tropics to the temperate zone, though they are absent from interior South America as well as from polar regions and the open ocean. Fossil evidence of pelicans dates back at least 30 million years, to the remains of a beak very similar to that of modern species recovered from Oligocene strata in France. Pelicans frequent inland and coastal waters where they feed principally on fish, catching them at or near the water surface.
    Links: Top 100 Fishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelican,
  40. Roadrunner
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    The roadrunner is a fast-running bird that has a long tail and a crest. The bird is found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. The roadrunner is also called a chaparral bird and a chaparral cock. Some Road Runners have been clocked at 20 miles per hour and are usually found in the desert.
    Links: CartoonsTop Ten Cartoons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roadrunner,
  41. Horned Guan
    6Horned Guan, Sierra de Chiapas. Mexico4
    The Horned Guan, Oreophasis derbianus is a large, approximately 85 cm long, turkey-like bird with glossed black upperparts plumage, red legs, white iris, yellow bill and a red horn on top of head. The breast and upper belly are white, and its long tail feathers are black with white band near base. The only member in monotypic genus Oreophasis, the Horned Guan is distributed in humid mountain forests of southeast Mexico-(Chiapas) and Guatemala of Central America. It is found in altitude up to 3,350 m. The Horned Guan is not a true guan, but merely resembles these birds most in overall shape and color, whereas the horn is more reminiscent of the helmeted curassows. In fact, this species is the only survivor of a very ancient lineage of cracids that has been evolving independently from all other living members of this family for at least 20, possibly as much as 40 million years. Although it does not have any really close relatives among living cracids, the true guans are apparently most distant.
    Links:
  42. Australian Wedge Tail Eagle
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    The Wedge-tailed Eagle is the largest bird of prey in Australia, and is also found in southern New Guinea. It has long, fairly broad wings, fully feathered legs and an unmistakable wedge-shaped tail. Because of both its tail and its size, it is one of the largest birds of prey in the world, it can be identified at a glance as a “Wedgie” even by the non-expert. The Wedge-tailed Eagle is one of twelve species of large predominantly dark-colored eagles in the genus Aquila found worldwide. A large brown bird of prey, it has a wingspan of up to 2.27 m (7 ft 5 in) and a length up to 1.06 m (3 ft 6 in).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wedge-tailed_Eagle,
  43. Verreaux’s Eagle
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    Verreaux’s Eagle is a large bird of prey, which live in hilly and mountainous regions of southern and eastern Africa (extending marginally into Chad), and very locally in West Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the southern Middle East. It is one of the most specialized species of accipitrid in the world, with its distribution and life history revolving around its favorite prey species, the rock hyraxes. When hyrax populations decline, the species have been shown to survive with mixed success on other prey, such as small antelopes, gamebirds, hares, monkeys and other assorted vertebrates. Despite a high degree of specialization, Verreaux’s Eagle has been fairly relatively well in historic times from a conservation standpoint. One population of this species, in the Matobo Hills of Zimbabwe, is arguably the best studied eagle population in the world, having been subject to continuous detailed study since the late 1950’s.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verreaux%27s_Eagle,
  44. Archaeopteryx
    1Archaeopteryx3
           Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel (“original bird” or “first bird”), is the earliest and most primitive bird known. The name derives from the Ancient Greek word meaning “ancient,” and ptéryx, meaning “wing.” Archaeopteryx lived during the Late Jurassic Period around 150–145 million years ago, in what is now southern Germany during a time when Europe was an archipelago of islands in a shallow warm tropical sea, much closer to the equator than it is now. Similar in size and shape to a European Magpie, Archaeopteryx could grow to about 0.5 meters (1.6 ft) in length. Despite its small size, broad wings, and inferred ability to fly or glide, Archaeopteryx has more in common with small theropod dinosaurs than it does with modern birds. In particular, it shares the following features with the deinonychosaurs (dromaeosaurs and troodontids): jaws with sharp teeth, three fingers with claws, a long bony tail, hyperextensible second toes (“killing claw”), feathers (which also suggest homeothermy) and various skeletal features.
    Links: Top Ten Fossils,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeopteryx,  http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/paleontology/paleozoology/mesozoic/mesozoic.htm,
  45. Bateleur
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    The Bateleur is a medium-sized eagle in the family Accipitridae. Its closest relatives are the snake eagles. It is the only member of the genus Terathopius and may be the origin of the “Zimbabwe bird,” national emblem of Zimbabwe. It is endemic to Africa and small parts of Arabia. “Bateleur” is French for “Street Performer.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bateleur,
  46. Crane
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    Cranes are a clade (Gruidae) of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America. Most species of cranes are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered, within their range. The plight of the Whooping Cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species. They are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects, to grain, berries, and plants. Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances; others do not migrate at all. Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the non-breeding season they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient.
    Links:
  47. Great Blue Heron
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    The Great Blue Heron is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands. It is a rare vagrant to Europe, with records from Spain, the Azores, England and the Netherlands. An all-white population found only in the Caribbean and southern Florida was once treated as a separate species and known as the Great White Heron.
    Links:
  48. Great Egret
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    The Great Egret is a large egret, distributed across most of the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world, including southern Europe. In North America it is more widely distributed, and it is ubiquitous across the Sun Belt of the US and in the Neotropics. The Old World population is often referred to as the great white egret. This species is sometimes confused with the Great White Heron of the Caribbean, which is a white morph of the closely related Great Blue Heron.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Egret,
  49. King Fisher
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    Kingfishers are a group of small to medium sized brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes. They have a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species being found in the Old World and Australasia. There are roughly 90 species of kingfisher. All have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. Most species have bright plumage with little differences between the sexes. Most species are tropical in distribution, and a slight majority are found only in forests. They consume a wide range of prey as well as fish, usually caught by swooping down from a perch. Like other members of their order they nest in cavities, usually tunnels dug into the natural or artificial banks in the ground.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingfisher,
  50. Resplendent Quetzal
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           The Resplendent Quetzal is a bird in the trogon family. It is found from southern Mexico to western Panama (unlike the other quetzals of the genus Pharomachrus, which are found in South America and eastern Panama). It is well known for its colorful plumage. There are two subspecies, P. m. mocinno and P. m. costaricensis. This quetzal plays an important role in Mesoamerican mythologies. The Resplendent Quetzal is Guatemala’s national bird, and an image of it is on the flag and coat of arms of Guatemala.
    Links: Top Ten Guatemalan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resplendent_Quetzal,
  51. Trumpeter Swan
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    The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is the heaviest bird native to North America and is, on average, the largest extant waterfowl species on earth. It is the North American counterpart and a close relative of the Whooper Swan of Eurasia, and even has been considered the same species by some authorities.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trumpeter_swan,
  52. Elephant Birds of Madagascar and Giant Moa of New Zealand
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    Elephant birds were a family of large to enormous, flightless birds that once lived on the island of Madagascar, which lies about 320 km (200 mi) off the southeast coast of Africa. They became extinct, probably in the 17th or 18th century, for reasons that are unclear, although human activity is the suspected cause. Elephant birds comprised the genera Mullerornis and Aepyornis. Aepyornis was among the heaviest of birds. (The extinct Dromornis stirtoni of Australia reached a similar weight). The giant moa (Dinornis) is an extinct genus of ratite birds belonging to the moa family. Like all ratites it was a member of the order Struthioniformes. The Struthioniformes are flightless birds with a sternum without a keel. They also have a distinctive palate. It was endemic to New Zealand. Two species of Dinornis are considered valid, D. novaezealandiae of the North Island, and D. robustus of the South.
    Links: Top Ten Madagascan Attractions, Top Ten New Zealand Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant_bird,    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_moa,
  53. Painted Stork
    123
    The Painted Stork is a large wading bird in the stork family, which is found in the wetlands of the plains of tropical Asia south of the Himalayas in the Indian Subcontinent and extending into Southeast Asia. Their distinctive pink tertial feathers give them their name. They forage in flocks in shallow waters along rivers or lakes. They immerse their half open beaks in water and sweep them from side to side and snap up their prey of small fish that are sensed by touch. As they wade along they also stir the water with their feet to flush hiding fish. They nest colonially in trees, often along with other waterbirds. They are not migratory and only make short distance movements in some parts of their range in response to food and for breeding. Like other storks, they are often seen soaring on thermals.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painted_Stork,
  54. White Tailed Sea Eagle
    2a41White-tailed Sea Eagle at the Isle of Mull, Britain - 12 May 2013
    The White-tailed Sea Eagle, also called the Erne, is a large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which includes other raptors such as hawks, kites, and harriers. It is considered a close cousin of the Bald Eagle and occupies the same ecological niche, but in Eurasia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Tailed_Sea_Eagle,
  55. Helmet Vanga
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    The Helmet Vanga is a distinctive-looking bird of the vanga family, Vangidae, and is classified in its own genus, Euryceros. It is mainly blue-black, with rufous wings and a huge arched blue bill. It is restricted to lowland and lower montane rainforests of northeastern Madagascar.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmet_vanga,
  56. African Martial Eagle
    312
    The Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) is a large eagle found in open and semi-open habitats of sub-Saharan Africa. It is the only member of the genus Polemaetus.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martial_Eagle,
  57. Dove
    4123
    Pigeons and doves constitute the bird clade Columbidae, that includes some 310 species. They are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and have short, slender bills with fleshy ceres. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. In general, the terms “dove” and “pigeon” are used somewhat interchangeably. Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests from sticks and other debris, which may be placed in trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after seven to 28 days.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dove,
  58. Quail
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           Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally considered in the order Galliformes. Old World quail are found in the family Phasianidae, and New World quail are found in the family Odontophoridae. The buttonquail are named more for their superficial resemblance to quail, and are members of the Turnicidae family in the Charadriiformes order. The King Quail, one of the Old World quail, is often sold in the pet trade; and within this trade is commonly, though mistakenly, referred to as a “button quail.” Many of the common larger species are farm-raised for table food or egg consumption, and are hunted on game farms or in the wild, where they may be released to supplement the wild population, or extend into areas outside their natural range. The collective noun for a group of quail is a flock, covey or bevy.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quail,
  59. Jungle Fowl
    JF
    Description:
    Links:
  60. Gray Necked Rockfowl and White Necked Grayfowl
    213
    The Grey-necked Rockfowl is a medium-sized bird, which is mainly found in rocky areas of close-canopied rainforest from southwest Nigeria through Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, southwest Gabon, as well as the island of Bioko. The Grey-necked Rockfowl has grey upperparts, a light grey breast, and lemon-colored underparts. Its unusually long tail is used for balance, and its thighs are muscular. The head is nearly featherless, with the exposed skin being powder blue on the forehead and upper mandible and carmine on the hindcrown. Though the bird is usually silent, some calls are known. This rockfowl feeds primarily on insects, though some plant matter, such as fruit and flower buds, is eaten. This species rarely flies for long distances. The Grey-necked Rockfowl is monogamous and pairs nest either alone or in the vicinity of other pairs, sometimes in colonies of two to five nests, though one colony of forty nests has been recorded. These nests are constructed out of mud and are formed into a deep cup that is built on rock surfaces, typically in caves or on cliffs. This species is classified as Vulnerable as its dwindling and fragmented populations are threatened by habitat destruction. Some of the indigenous peoples of Cameroon either respect this species or, in some cases, fear it. Today, this rockfowl is considered one of Africa’s most desirable birds by birders and is a symbol of ecotourism across its range.
    Links:
  61. Dodo
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           The Dodo is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Its closest genetic relative was the also extinct Rodrigues Solitaire, which consists of pigeons and doves. The closest living relative of the Dodo is the Nicobar Pigeon. Subfossil remains show the Dodo was about 1 m (3.3 feet) tall and may have weighed 10–18 kg (22–40 lb) in the wild. The Dodo’s appearance in life is evidenced only by drawings, paintings and written accounts from the 17th century. Because these vary considerably, and because only some illustrations are known to have been drawn from live specimens, its exact appearance in life remains unresolved. It has been depicted with brownish-grey plumage, yellow feet, a tuft of tail feathers, a grey, naked head, and a black, yellow, and green beak. It is presumed that the Dodo became flightless because of the ready availability of abundant food sources and a relative absence of predators on Mauritius. The first recorded mention of the Dodo was by Dutch sailors in 1598. In the following years, the bird was hunted by sailors, their domesticated animals, and invasive species introduced during that time. The last widely accepted sighting of a Dodo was in 1662. The extinction of the Dodo within less than a century of its discovery called attention to the previously unrecognized problem of human involvement in the disappearance of entire species. The Dodo achieved widespread recognition from its role in the story of Alice in Wonderland, and it has since become a fixture in popular culture, often as a symbol of extinction and obsolescence.
    Links: Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaur), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodo,
  62. Painted Bunting
    12Painted Bunting, Passerina ciris
    The Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is a species of bird in the Cardinal family, Cardinalidae, that is native to North America.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painted_bunting,
  63. Blue Footed Booby
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    The Blue-footed is a bird in the family Sulidae, which includes ten species of long-winged seabirds. It is easily recognizable by its distinctive bright blue feet, which is a sexually selected trait. Males display their feet in an elaborate mating ritual by lifting one and then the other up, while strutting before the female. Both males and females prefer mates with brighter feet and adjust their parental investment based on the attractiveness of their mate. The natural breeding habitat of the Blue-footed Booby is tropical and subtropical islands of the Pacific Ocean. Their range extends from the Gulf of California down along the western coasts of Central and South America to Peru. From about a third to a half of all breeding pairs nest on the Galápagos Islands.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Footed_Booby,
  64. Congo Peafowl
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    The Congo Peacock is a large bird of up to 64–70 cm (25–28 in) in length. Its feathers are deep blue with a metallic green and violet tinge. It has bare red neck skin, grey feet, and a black tail with 14 feathers. Its head is adorned with vertical white elongated hair-like feathers on its crown. The female measures up to 60–63 cm (24–25 in) and is generally a chestnut brown bird with a black abdomen, metallic green back, and a short chestnut brown crest. It inhabits and is endemic to the Central Congolian lowland forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The diet consists mainly of fruits and invertebrates. The male has a similar display to other peacocks, fanning its tail in this case, while other peacocks fan their upper tail coverts. It was first recorded as a species in 1936 by Dr. James Chapin based on two stuffed specimens at Congo Museum in Belgium. It has characteristics of both the peafowl and the guineafowl, which may indicate that the Congo Peacock is a link between the two families.
    Links:
  65. African Fish Eagle
    231
    The African Fish Eagle is a large species of eagle that is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa wherever large bodies of open water occur that have an abundant food supply. It is the national bird of Zimbabwe and Zambia and South Sudan. As a result of its large range, it is known in many languages. Examples of names include: Visarend in Afrikaans; Aigle Pêcheur in French; Hungwe in Shona, and Inkwazi in isiZulu. This species may resemble the Bald Eagle in appearance; though related, each species occurs on different continents, with the Bald Eagle being resident in North America.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Fish_Eagle,
  66. Kagu
    123
    The Kagu or Cagou (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a crested, long-legged, and bluish-grey bird endemic to the dense mountain forests of New Caledonia. It is the only surviving member of the genus Rhynochetos and the family Rhynochetidae, although a second species has been described from the fossil record. Measuring 55 cm (22 in) in length, it has pale grey plumage and bright red legs. Its ‘nasal corns’ are a unique feature not shared with any other bird. Almost flightless, it spends its time on or near the ground, where it hunts its invertebrate prey, and builds a nest of sticks on the forest floor. Both parents share incubation of single egg, as well as rearing the chick. It has proved vulnerable to introduced predators, and is threatened with extinction.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagu,
  67. Helmeted Curassow
    3Southern Helmeted Curassow2
    The Helmeted Curassow or Northern Helmeted Curassow, (Pauxi pauxi) is a large terrestrial black curassow with a small head, large bluish grey casque on forehead, red bill, white-tipped tail feathers, greenish glossed mantle and breast feathers, and white below. Length in adult birds can vary from 80 to 100 cm (31 to 39 in). The male, at 3.6 kg (8 lbs), is larger than the female, at 2.6 kg (5.8 lbs). One of the largest birds in its habitat, the Helmeted Curassow is distributed in the eastern Andes of Venezuela and Colombia. The diet consists mainly of seeds, fruits, insects and small animals.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmeted_curassow,
  68. Spoon Billed Sandpiper
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           The Spoon-billed Sandpiper is a small wader which breeds in northeastern Russia and winters in Southeast Asia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spoon-billed_Sandpiper,
  69. Shoebill
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    The Shoebill also known as Whalehead or Shoe-billed Stork, is a very large stork-like bird. It derives its name from its massive shoe-shaped bill. Although it has a somewhat stork-like overall form and has previously been classified in the order Ciconiiformes, its true affiliations with other living birds is ambiguous. Some authorities now reclassify it with the Pelecaniformes. The adult is mainly grey while the juveniles are browner. It lives in tropical east Africa in large swamps from Sudan to Zambia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoebill,
  70. Ibisbill
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    The Ibisbill is a bird related to the waders that inhabits the shingle riverbanks of the high plateau of central Asia and the Himalayas. It is grey with a white belly, red legs and long down-curved bill, and a black face and black breast band.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibisbill,
  71. Cardinal
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    Cardinals are passerine birds found in North and South America. They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinctive appearances. The Northern Cardinal type species was named by colonists for the male’s red crest, reminiscent of a Catholic cardinal’s mitre. The “buntings” in this family are sometimes generically known as “tropical buntings” (though not all live in the tropics) or “North American buntings” (though there are other buntings in North America) to distinguish them from the true buntings, whose family does contain North American birds, but they are referred to as American sparrows, juncos, and towhees rather than buntings.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_(bird),
  72. Bali Myna
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    The Bali Myna, also known as Rothschild’s Mynah, Bali Starling, or Bali Mynah, locally known as Jalak Bali, is a medium-sized (up to 25 cm long), stocky myna, almost wholly white with a long, drooping crest, and black tips on the wings and tail. The bird has blue bare skin around the eyes, grayish legs and a yellow bill. Both sexes are similar.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bali_Myna,
  73. Bluejay
    1342
    The Blue Jay is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae, native to North America. It is resident through most of eastern and central US and southern Canada, although western populations may be migratory. It breeds in both deciduous and coniferous forests, and is common near and in residential areas. It is predominately blue with a white chest and underparts, and a blue crest. It has a black, U-shaped collar around its neck and a black border behind the crest. Sexes are similar in size and plumage, and plumage does not vary throughout the year. Four subspecies of the Blue Jay are recognized. It builds an open cup nest in the branches of a tree, which both sexes participate in constructing.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluejay,
  74. Whitehead’s Broadbill
    231
    The Whitehead’s Broadbill is a species of bird in the Eurylaimidae family. It is restricted to montane forest in northern Borneo. It is the largest member of the genus Calyptomena.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitehead%27s_Broadbill,
  75. Oriole
    213
    Orioles are generally slender with long tails and a pointed bill. The nest is a woven, elongated pouch. Species nesting in areas with cold winters (including most of the United States) are strongly migratory, while subtropical and tropical species are more sedentary. The name “oriole” was first recorded (in the Latin form oriolus) by Albertus Magnus in about 1250, and was stated by him to be onomatopoeic, from the song of the European Golden Oriole.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_World_oriole,
  76. Volgelkop Bowerbird
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    The Vogelkop Bowerbird, also known as the Vogelkop Gardener Bowerbird, is a medium-sized, bowerbird of the mountains of the Vogelkop Peninsula at Western New Guinea, Indonesia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vogelkop_Bowerbird,
  77. Tawny Frogmouth
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           The Tawny Frogmouth is an Australian species of frogmouth, a type of bird found throughout the Australian mainland, Tasmania and southern New Guinea. The Tawny Frogmouth is often mistaken for an owl. Many Australians refer to the Tawny Frogmouth by the colloquial names of “Mopoke” or “Morepork,” which usually are common alternative names for the Southern Boobook.
    Links: Top Ten Most Camouflaged Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tawny_Frogmouth,
  78. Bengaal Florican
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    The Bengal Florican, also called Bengal Bustard, is a very rare bustard species from the Indian Subcontinent, with a smaller separate population in Southeast Asia. This threatened species is now almost extinct; probably fewer than 1,000 and perhaps as few as 500 adult birds are still alive.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengal_florican,
  79. Araripe Manakin
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    The Araripe Manakin is a critically endangered bird from the family of Manakins. It was discovered in 1996 and scientifically described in 1998. Because of its helmet-like crown it has received the Portuguese name soldadinho-do-araripe which means “Little soldier of Araripe.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araripe_Manakin,
  80. Black Necked Red Cotinga
    231
    The Black-necked Red Cotinga is a species of bird, which is found in the western Amazon Basin of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; also the very southern border region of Venezuela with Amazonas state. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-necked_Red_Cotinga,
  81. Imperial Amazon Parrot
    123
    The Imperial Amazon also known as the Imperial Parrot, Dominican Amazon, August Amazon, or Sisserou, is a green-and-purple-plumaged amazon parrot. The Imperial Amazon is endemic to mountain forests of the Caribbean island nation of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, where it is the national bird and is featured on the Dominican flag. On Dominica, one of the last remaining habitats of the Imperial Amazon is in the slopes of Morne Diablotins, the highest volcanic peak of the Caribbean islands.
    Links:
  82. Scarlet-banded Barbet
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    The Scarlet-banded Barbet is a species of bird in the Capitonidae family. The Scarlet-banded Barbet is endemic to humid highland forest growing on a ridgetop known as Peak 1538 in the remote Cordillera Azul National Park in south-western Loreto, Peru. While it remains fairly common, its range is tiny and the total population has been estimated at less than 1,000 individuals.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarlet-banded_Barbet,
  83. Gurney’s Pitta
    3124
    Gurney’s Pitta is a medium-sized passerine bird. It breeds in the Malay Peninsula, with populations in Thailand and, especially, Burma. Its name commemorates English ornithologist John Henry Gurney. Its diet consists of slugs, insects, and earthworms.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurney%27s_pitta,
  84. Long-tailed Ground Roller
    123
    The Long-tailed Ground Roller is endemic to arid spiny forests near the coast in southwestern Madagascar. This species requires shade and a deep layer of leaves on the ground, and it is absent from parts of the spiny forest lacking these features. It is a medium-sized bird with a plump silhouette and a long tail. Calls are rarely made outside of the breeding season, though multiple courtship calls are made. The ground roller primarily runs through its habitat on its strong legs, as its wings are relatively weak. The species digs a tunnel in the sand, at the end of which is a wider chamber where it makes its nest out of leaves and earthy pellets. After the chicks fledge, the birds continue living in family groups before dispersing more widely across the scrubland.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-tailed_Ground-Roller,
  85. Kakapo
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    The Kakapo, also known as the owl parrot, is a species of large, flightless, nocturnal, ground dwelling parrot endemic to New Zealand. A certain combination of traits makes it unique among its kind, it is the world’s only flightless parrot, the heaviest parrot, nocturnal, herbivorous, visibly sexually dimorphic in body size, has a low basal metabolic rate, no male parental care, and is the only parrot to have a polygynous lek breeding system. It is also possibly one of the world’s longest-living birds. Its anatomy typifies the tendency of bird evolution on oceanic islands, with few predators and abundant food: a generally robust physique, with accretion of thermodynamic efficiency at the expense of flight abilities, reduced wing muscles, and a diminished keel on the sternum. Like many other New Zealand bird species, the Kakapo was historically important to the Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, appearing in many of their traditional legends and folklore. It was hunted and used as a resource by Māori, both for its meat as a food source and for its feathers, which were used to make highly valued pieces of clothing.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakapo,
  86. Kiwi
    231
    Kiwi are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. There are five recognized species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered. The kiwi is a national symbol of New Zealand, and the association is so strong that the term Kiwi is used all over the world as the colloquial demonym for New Zealanders.
    Links: Top Ten New Zealand Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiwi,
  87. Orange Throated Tanager
    bac
    The Orange-throated Tanager is a threatened species of bird found very locally in humid forests around the Ecuador-Peru border. It is the only member of the genus Wetmorethraupis, named after the ornithologist Alexander Wetmore. It is closely related to another genus of tanagers, Bangsia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange-throated_Tanager,
  88. Crested Argus
    123
    The Crested Argus are large and spectacular pheasant-like peafowl with dark-brown-spotted black and buff plumage, a heavy pink bill, brown irises and blue skin around the eyes. The head has two crests. The hind crest, which extends down the occiput is erected when alarmed and during intention behaviors including pair bonding and courtship displays. The male has a broad and greatly elongated tail of twelve feathers. The tail covert (or “train”) of the male is the longest of any bird and is believed to contain the longest (and widest) feathers to occur in a wild bird; the Reeve’s Pheasant has tail feathers of similar length but are considerably more narrow.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crested_Argus,
  89. Kokako
    132
    The Kōkako is a forest bird which is endemic to New Zealand. It is one of three species of New Zealand Wattlebird, the other two being the endangered Tieke (saddleback) and the extinct Huia. Previously widespread, Kōkako populations throughout New Zealand have been decimated by the predations of mammalian invasive species such as possums, stoats, cats and rats and their range has contracted significantly. There were formerly two sub-species of Kōkako, North Island and South Island, although the South Island subspecies may now be extinct. In the past this bird was called the New Zealand Crow: it is not a crow at all, but it looks like one from a distance.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokako,
  90. Bornean Bristlehead
    12
    The Bornean Bristlehead, also variously known as the Bristled Shrike, Bald-headed Crow or the Bald-headed Wood-Shrike, is the only member of the passerine family Pityriaseidae and genus Pityriasis. It is an enigmatic and uncommon species of the rainforest canopy of Borneo.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bornean_bristlehead,
  91. Yellow-crested Helmetshrike
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    The Yellow-crested Helmetshrike is a species of bird in the helmetshrike family Prionopidae, formerly usually included in the Malaconotidae. It is endemic to Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow-crested_Helmet-shrike,
  92. Carpentarian Grasswren
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    The Carpentarian Grasswren is a species of bird in the Maluridae family, which is endemic to Australia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. The habitat of this species is almost exclusively on top of sandstone escarpments in the Northern Territory.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpentarian_Grasswren,
  93. Rail-babbler
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    The Rail-babbler or Malaysian Rail-babbler is a strange, rail-like, brown and pied inhabitant of the floor of primary forest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, as well as Borneo, distantly related to African crow-like birds. The species is poorly known and rarely seen, in no small part due to its shyness.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail-babbler,
  94. Bonus: The Phoenix
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           In Greek mythology, a phoenix or phenix is a long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn. Associated with the sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. The phoenix was subsequently adopted as a symbol in Early Christianity. In his study of the phoenix, R. van der Broek summarizes, that, in the historical record, the phoenix “could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, time, the empire, metempsychosis, consecration, resurrection, life in the heavenly Paradise, Christ, Mary, virginity, the exceptional man, and certain aspects of Christian life.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(mythology),
  95. Links: Top Ten Flying Creatures,

Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaur)

Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaur)

  1. Megalodon
    Megalodon2MegalodonMegalodon1
    Although extinct, Megalodon was the largest shark to have ever lived, growing to lengths of 59 ft.
    Links: Top Ten Sharks,
  2. Gigantopithecus

    Gigantopithecus, “Giant Ape,” is an extinct genus of ape that existed from roughly nine million years to as recently as one hundred thousand years ago, in what is now China, India, and Vietnam, placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographical location as several hominin species. The fossil record suggests that individuals of the species Gigantopithecus blacki were the largest apes that ever lived, standing up to 3 m (9.8 ft), and weighing up to 540 kg (1,200 lb).
    Links: Top Ten Primates, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantopithecus,
  3. Giant Short Faced Bear (Arctodus Simus)

           The short-faced bear or bulldog bear, or Arctodus, is an extinct genus of bear endemic to North America during the Pleistocene about 3.0 Mya – 11,000 years ago, existing for around three million years. Arctodus simus may have once been Earth’s largest mammalian, terrestrial carnivore. The species described are all thought to have been larger than any living species of bear. It was the most common of early North American bears, being most abundant in California.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_Short_Faced_Bear,
  4. Cave Lion

    The American lion (Panthera leo atrox or P. atrox), also known as the North American lion, Naegele’s giant jaguar or American cave lion, is an extinct lion of the family Felidae, endemic to North America and northwestern South America during the Pleistocene epoch (0.34 mya to 11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 0.33 million years. It has been shown by genetic analysis to be a sister lineage to the Eurasian cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea or P. spelaea). The American lion is one of the largest types of cat ever to have existed, slightly larger than the Early Middle Pleistocene primitive cave lion, P. leo fossilis and about 25% larger than the modern African lion.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, Top Ten Big Cats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_lion,
  5. Saber Tooth Tiger

           A saber-toothed tiger, is any of various groups of predatory mammals related to modern cats, characterized by long, sabre-shaped canine teeth. These animals belonged to subfamilies of Machairodontinae (Felidae), Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae (both Feliformia) as well as two families related to marsupials that were found worldwide from the Eocene Epoch to the end of the Pleistocene Epoch (42 mya—11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 42 million years. The large maxillary canine teeth extended from the mouth even when it was closed. Despite the name, not all animals known as saber-toothed cats were closely related to modern felines. The Nimravidae are the oldest, entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, Top Ten SkullsTop Ten Human SkullsTop Ten Skull Artifacts,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saber-toothed_cat,
  6. Titanoboa

           Titanoboa is a genus of snake that lived approximately 60–58 million years ago, during the Paleocene epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the dinosaur extinction event. The only known species is Titanoboa cerrejonensis, the largest, longest, and heaviest snake ever discovered, which supplanted the previous record holder, Gigantophis. Researchers estimated T. cerrejonensis reached a maximum length of 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft), weighed about 1,135 kg (2,500 lb).
    Links: Top Ten Snakes, Top Ten Predators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanoboa,
  7. Argentavis

           Argentavis magnificens, literally “magnificent Argentine bird” is the largest flying bird ever discovered, larger in every aspect than any other flying aves, including the enormous Haast’s Eagle from the Pleistocene to Holocene of New Zealand. This bird, sometimes called the Giant Teratorn, is an extinct species known (as of 2009) from three sites from the late Miocene (6 million years before present) of central and northwestern Argentina, where a good sample of fossils has been obtained. The species apparently had stout, strong legs and large feet which enabled it to walk with ease. The bill was large, rather slender and had a hooked tip with a wide gape.
    Links: Top 100 Birds, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentavis,
  8. Wooly Mammoth and Mastodon

           A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch (from around 5 million years ago) into the Holocene at about 4,500 years ago in Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. They were members of the family Elephantidae which contains, along with mammoths, the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wooly_mamoth,
  9. Thylacine aka the Tasmanian Tiger
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           The Tasmanian Devil was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger (because of its striped back), the Tasmanian wolf and colloquially the Tassie tiger. Native to continental Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, it is thought to have become extinct in the 20th century. It was the last extant member of its genus, Thylacinus, although several related species have been found in the fossil record dating back to the early Miocene. The thylacine had become extremely rare or extinct on the Australian mainland before European settlement of the continent, but it survived on the island state of Tasmania along with several other endemic species, including the Tasmanian devil. Intensive hunting encouraged by bounties is generally blamed for its extinction, but other contributory factors may have been disease, the introduction of dogs, and human encroachment into its habitat. Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, though none proven.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats,
  10. Dodo Bird
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           The Dodo is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Its closest genetic relative was the also extinct Rodrigues Solitaire, which consists of pigeons and doves. The closest living relative of the Dodo is the Nicobar Pigeon. Subfossil remains show the Dodo was about 1 m (3.3 feet) tall and may have weighed 10–18 kg (22–40 lb) in the wild. The Dodo’s appearance in life is evidenced only by drawings, paintings and written accounts from the 17th century. Because these vary considerably, and because only some illustrations are known to have been drawn from live specimens, its exact appearance in life remains unresolved. It has been depicted with brownish-grey plumage, yellow feet, a tuft of tail feathers, a grey, naked head, and a black, yellow, and green beak. It is presumed that the Dodo became flightless because of the ready availability of abundant food sources and a relative absence of predators on Mauritius. The first recorded mention of the Dodo was by Dutch sailors in 1598. In the following years, the bird was hunted by sailors, their domesticated animals, and invasive species introduced during that time. The last widely accepted sighting of a Dodo was in 1662. The extinction of the Dodo within less than a century of its discovery called attention to the previously unrecognized problem of human involvement in the disappearance of entire species. The Dodo achieved widespread recognition from its role in the story of Alice in Wonderland, and it has since become a fixture in popular culture, often as a symbol of extinction and obsolescence.
    Links: Top Ten Disney Films, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodo,
  11. Links: Animals, Top Ten Dinosaurs, Top Ten Terrestrial Dinosaurs, Top Ten Aquatic Dinosaurs, Top Ten Predators, Top Ten Fossils, Top Ten Skeletons,

Top Ten Primates

Top Ten Primates

File:Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg

       A primate is a mammal, which arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests. Many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia. They range in size from Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern lowland gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb). According to fossil evidence, the primitive ancestors of primates may have existed in the late Cretaceous period around 65 million years ago; the oldest known primate is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, circa 55–58 million years ago.The order Primates has traditionally been divided into two main groupings: prosimians and anthropoids (simians). Prosimians have characteristics more like those of the earliest primates, and include the lemurs of Madagascar, lorisoids, and tarsiers. Simians include monkeys, apes and hominins. Primates are characterized by large brains relative to other mammals, as well as an increased reliance on stereoscopic vision at the expense of smell, the dominant sensory system in most mammals. These features are more developed in monkeys and apes and noticeably less so in lorises and lemurs. Three-color vision has developed in some primates. Most also have opposable thumbs and some have prehensile tails. Primates have slower rates of development than other similarly sized mammals and reach maturity later, but have longer lifespans.

  1. Humans
    File:The Creation of Adam.jpgEinsteinFile:Pataxo001.jpgMother TeresaWisdomHimalayas
    Humans (Homo sapiens) are primates of the family Hominidae, and the only extant species of the genus Homo. Humans are characterized by having a large brain relative to body size, with a particularly well developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, making them capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, problem solving and culture through social learning. This mental capability, combined with an adaptation to bipedal locomotion that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, as well as the only known species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. Homo sapiens originated in Africa, where it reached anatomical modernity about 200,000 years ago and began to exhibit full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. The human lineage diverged from the last common ancestor with its closest living relative, the chimpanzee, some five million years ago, evolving into the Australopithecines and eventually the genus Homo. Homo sapiens proceeded to colonize the continents, arriving in Eurasia 125,000-60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago.
    Links: People, Top 100 PeopleScience, Top 100 ScientistsTop Ten Drawings by Leonardo da VinciPaintings, Top Ten Paintings by Michelangelo, Alex Grey Paintings, Top Ten Paintings by Leonardo da Vinci, Top 100 Portrait Photographshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_sapiens,
  2. Silverback Gorilla
    File:Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg
    Gorillas comprise the eponymous genus Gorilla, the largest extant genus of primates by size. They are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Africa. The genus is divided into two species and either four or five subspecies. The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of a human, from 95–99% depending on what is counted, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the bonobo and common chimpanzee. Gorillas’ natural habitats cover tropical or subtropical forests in Africa. Although their range covers a small percentage of Africa, gorillas cover a wide range of elevations. The mountain gorilla inhabits the Albertine Rift montane cloud forests of the Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in altitude from 2,200–4,300 m (7,200–14,100 ft). Lowland gorillas live in dense forests and lowland swamps and marshes as low as sea level, with western lowland gorillas living in Central West African countries and eastern lowland gorillas living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo near its border with Rwanda.
    Links: Top 100 Photographs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silverback_gorilla#Group_life,
  3. Chimpanzee
    File:Chimpanzee Ham in Biopack Couch for MR-2 flight MSFC-6100114.jpg
    Chimpanzee is the common name for the two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan. The Congo River forms the boundary between the native habitats of the two species: Common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes (West and Central Africa) and Bonobo, Pan paniscus (forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Chimpanzees are members of the Hominidae family, along with gorillas, humans and orangutans. Chimpanzees split from the human branch of the family about four to six million years ago. The two chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives to humans, all being members of the Hominini tribe (along with extinct species of Hominina subtribe). Chimpanzees are the only known members of the Panina subtribe. The two Pan species split only about one million years ago.
    Links: Top Ten ChimpanzeesPosters, Top 100 Vintage PostersStreet Art, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimpanzee,
  4. Orangutan
    File:Orangutan -Zoologischer Garten Berlin-8a.jpg
    The orangutans are the two exclusively Asian species of extant great apes. Native to Indonesia and Malaysia, orangutans are currently found in only the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra. Since 1996, orangutans have been divided into two species: the Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus) and the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii). The orangutans are also the only surviving species of the subfamily Ponginae, which also included several other species, such as Gigantopithecus, the largest known primate. Orangutans diverged from the rest of the great apes 15.7 to 19.3 million years ago. Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes and spend most of their time in trees. Their hair is typically reddish-brown, instead of the brown or black hair typical of chimpanzees and gorillas. Males and females differ in size and appearance. Dominant adult males have distinctive cheek pads and produce long calls that attract females and intimidate rivals. Younger males do not have these characteristics and resemble adult females. Orangutans are the most solitary of the great apes, with social bonds occurring primarily between mothers and their dependent offspring, who stay together for the first two years. Fruit is the most important component of an orangutan’s diet, however, the apes will also eat vegetation, bark, honey, insects and even bird eggs. They can live over 30 years in both the wild and captivity. Orangutans are among the most intelligent primates; they use a variety of sophisticated tools and construct elaborate sleeping nests each night from branches and foliage. The apes have been extensively studied for their learning abilities. Field studies of the apes were pioneered by primatologist Birutė Galdikas. Both orangutan species are considered to be Endangered, with the Sumatran orangutan being Critically Endangered.
    Links: Top Ten Most Intelligent Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orangatan,
  5. Mandrill

    The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family, closely related to the baboons and even more closely to the drill. It is found in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforests and forest-savanna mosaics. They live in groups called hordes. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting mostly of fruits and insects. Their mating season takes place from June to October. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio, but recent research has determined they should be separated into their own genus, Mandrillus. The mandrill is the world’s largest species of monkey. Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man that “no other member in the whole class of mammals is colored in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrills.”
    Links: Top Ten Best Dressed Animals, Top 100 FilmsTop Ten Animated FilmsTop Ten Disney Films, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandrill,
  6. Gelada Baboon
    File:Geladas.jpg
    The gelada (Theropithecus gelada), sometimes called the gelada baboon, is a species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands, with large populations in the Semien Mountains. Theropithecus is derived from the Greek root words for “beast-ape.” Like its close relatives the baboons (genus Papio), it is largely terrestrial, spending much of its time foraging in grasslands.
    Links: Top Ten Ethiopian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelada,
  7. Spider Monkey
    File:Ateles fusciceps Colombia.JPG
    Spider monkeys of the genus Ateles are New World monkeys in the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae. Like other atelines, they are found in tropical forests of Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Brazil. The genus contains seven species, all of which are under threat; the black-headed spider monkey and brown spider monkey are critically endangered. Their disproportionately long limbs and long prehensile tails make them one of the largest New World monkeys and gives rise to their common name. Spider monkeys live in the upper layers of the rainforest, and forage in the high canopy, from 25 to 30 m (82 to 98 ft). They primarily eat fruits, but will also occasionally consume leaves, flowers, and insects. Due to their large size, spider monkeys require large tracts of moist evergreen forests, and prefer undisturbed primary rainforest. They are social animals and live in bands of up to 35 individuals but will split up to forage during the day. Recent meta-analyses on primate cognition studies indicated spider monkeys are the most intelligent New World monkeys. They can produce a wide range of sounds and will ‘bark’ when threatened; other vocalizations include a whinny similar to a horse and prolonged screams. The IUCN Red List lists one species as vulnerable, four species as endangered and two species as critically endangered.
    Links: Top Ten Most Intelligent Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_monkey,
  8. Philippine Tarsier
    File:Tarsius Syrichta-GG.jpgFile:Bohol.tarsier jtlimphoto.JPGFile:Angrytarsier.jpgFile:Babytarsier.jpg
    The Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta), known locally as mawmag in Cebuano/Visayan and mamag in Luzon, is a species of tarsier endemic to the Philippines. It is found in the southeastern part of the archipelago, particularly in the islands of Bohol, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. It is a member of the approximately 45 million year old family Tarsiidae, whose name is derived from its elongated “tarsus” or ankle bone. It is the only member of the genus Carlito, after the species was removed from the genus Tarsius. The new genus is named after Carlito Pizarras, known as the tarsier man, is the field manager at the Philippine tarsier and wildlife sanctuary on the island of Bohol, and a champion of tarsier conservation in the Philippines. Its geographic range also includes Maripipi Island, Siargao Island, Basilan Island and Dinagat Island. Tarsiers have also been reported in Sarangani, although they may be different subspecies. It was only introduced to Western biologists in the 18th century.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Tarsier,
  9. Japanese Macaque
    File:Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano Japan 001.jpgA
    The Japanese macaque is a terrestrial Old World monkey species native to Japan. It is also sometimes known as the snow monkey because it lives in areas where snow covers the ground for months each year, no primate, with the exception of humans, is more northern-living, nor lives in a colder climate. Individuals have brown-grey fur, red faces, and short tails.
    Links: Top Ten Japanese Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_macaque,
  10. Proboscis
    File:Portrait of a Proboscis Monkey.jpg
    The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) or long-nosed monkey, known as the bekantan in Malay, is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey that is endemic to the south-east Asian island of Borneo. It belongs in the monotypic genus Nasalis, although the pig-tailed langur has traditionally also been included in this genus – a treatment still preferred by some. The monkey also goes by the Malay name monyet belanda (“Dutch monkey”), or even orang belanda (“Dutchman”), as Indonesians remarked that the Dutch colonisers often had similarly large bellies and noses. This species of monkey is easily identifiable because of its unusually large nose.
    Links: Top Ten Unique Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proboscis_Monkey,
  11. Lemurs
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    Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. The word “lemur” derives from the word lemures (ghosts or spirits) from Roman mythology and was first used to describe a slender loris due to its nocturnal habits and slow pace, but was later applied to the primates on Madagascar. Lemurs arrived in Madagascar around 62 to 65 mya by rafting on mats of vegetation at a time when ocean currents favored oceanic dispersal to the island. Since that time, lemurs have evolved to cope with an extremely seasonal environment and their adaptations give them a level of diversity that rivals that of all other primate groups. Until shortly after humans arrived on the island around 2,000 years ago, there were lemurs as large as a male gorilla. Today, there are nearly 100 species of lemurs, and most of those species have been discovered or promoted to full species status since the 1990’s. Ranging in size from 30 g (1.1 oz) to 9 kg (20 lb), lemurs share many common, basal primate traits, such as divergent digits on their hands and feet and nails instead of claws (in most species). However, their brain-to-body size ratio is smaller than that of anthropoid primates. Lemurs are generally the most social of the strepsirrhine primates and communicate more with scents and vocalizations than with visual signals. Many lemur adaptations are in response to Madagascar’s highly seasonal environment. Lemurs are important for research because their mix of primitive characteristics and traits shared with anthropoid primates can yield insights on primate and human evolution.
    Links: Top Ten Madagascan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemur,
  12. Gibbon
    File:Hylobates lar pair of white and black 01.jpgFile:Witwanggibbon M.jpgFile:Suneko - shout (by).jpgFile:Hylobates lar - Kaeng Krachan WB.jpgFile:Agilegibbon.jpgFile:Hylobates lar sitting on a stump over water.jpg
    Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae. Gibbons live in tropical and subtropical rainforests from northeast India to Indonesia and north to southern China, including the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. Also called the lesser apes, gibbons differ from great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, in not making nests, and in certain anatomical details in which they superficially more closely resemble monkeys than great apes do. But like all apes, gibbons evolved to become tailless. Gibbons also display pair-bonding, unlike most of the great apes. Gibbons are masters of their primary mode of locomotion, brachiation, swinging from branch to branch for distances of up to 15 m (50 ft), at speeds as high as 55 km/h (34 mph). They can also make leaps of up to 8 m (26 ft), and walk bipedally with their arms raised for balance. They are the fastest and most agile of all tree-dwelling, non-flying mammals. Depending on species and gender, gibbons’ fur coloration varies from dark to light brown shades, and anywhere between black and white. It is rare to see a completely white gibbon. Gibbon species include the siamang, the white-handed or lar gibbon, and the hoolock gibbons.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbon,
  13. Bonus: Gigantopithecus
    Gigantopithecus, “Giant Ape,” is an extinct genus of ape that existed from roughly nine million years to as recently as one hundred thousand years ago, in what is now China, India, and Vietnam, placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographical location as several hominin species. The fossil record suggests that individuals of the species Gigantopithecus blacki were the largest apes that ever lived, standing up to 3 m (9.8 ft), and weighing up to 540 kg (1,200 lb).
    Links: Top Ten Largest Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantopithecus,
  14. Howler Monkey
    File:Jouvenile howler monkey picking a berry in costa rica.jpg
    Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys. Fifteen species are currently recognized. Previously classified in the family Cebidae, they are now placed in the family Atelidae. These monkeys are native to South and Central American forests. Threats to howler monkeys include human predation, habitat destruction and being captured for captivity as pets or zoo animals.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howler_monkey,
  15. Cebidaes
    File:Capuchin Costa Rica.jpgFile:Baker.jpgFile:Common.squirrel.monkey.arp.jpgFile:Cebus albifrons edit.jpg
    The Cebidae is one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognized. It includes the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. These species are found throughout tropical and subtropical South and Central America.
    Links: Top Ten Most Intelligent AnimalsTop Ten Animals Who’ve Visited Space, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cebidae,
  16. Emperor Tamarin
    File:Tamarin portrait.JPG
    The mantled guereza is a black-and-white colobus, native to much of west central and east Africa, including Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Chad. The species consists of several subspecies that differ in appearance. It has a distinctive appearance which is alluded to in its name; the long white fringes of hair the run along each side of its black trunk are known as a mantle. Its face is framed with white hair and it has a large white tail tuft. The emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator, is a species of tamarin allegedly named for its resemblance to the German emperor Wilhelm II. It lives in the southwest Amazon Basin, in east Peru, north Bolivia and in the west Brazilian states of Acre and Amazonas. The fur of the emperor tamarin is predominantly grey colored, with yellowish speckles on its chest. The hands and feet are black and the tail is brown. Outstanding is its long, white mustache, which extends to both sides beyond the shoulders. The animal reaches a length of 23–26 cm (9–10 in), plus a 35–41.5 cm (14–16.3 in) long tail and weighs approximately 500 grams (18 oz). This primate inhabits tropical rain forests, living deep in the forest and also in open tree-covered areas. This diurnal species walks or runs quadrupedally through the forest, spending the majority of its days in the trees with quick, safe movements and broad jumps among the limbs. The emperor tamarin lives together in groups of eight to ten individuals. The oldest female leads the group above several mature males. Mutual grooming plays an important role for bonding and socializing. The emperor tamarin is known to form mixed-species associations with the brown-mantled tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis). It has various cries which help them to promptly recognize interlopers.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_tamarin,
  17. Mantled Guereza
    File:Colobuses in Murchison Falls National Park.JPGFile:Black-and-white Colubus.jpg
    The mantled guereza is diurnal and arboreal, found in both deciduous and evergreen forests. It is an adaptable species that can cope with habitat disturbance and prefers secondary forest close to rivers or lakes. Although previously thought only to eat leaves, it also eats seeds, fruits, and arthropods. It is able to digest plant material with a high fibre content with its specialized stomach and may only eat from a few plant species at a time. It is preyed on by birds of prey and some mammals such as the common chimpanzee and the leopard. The mantled guereza lives in social groups of three to fifteen individuals. These groups normally include a dominant male, several females, and the offspring of the females. It has a polygynous mating system and copulation is initiated with vocal communication. The mantled guereza is well known for its dawn chorus, the males’ “roar” is a method of long distance communication which reinforces territorial boundaries. It also makes other vocalization and uses body postures, movements, and facial expressions to communicate.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantled_guereza,
  18. Links: Animals, Top Ten Most Intelligent Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primates,

Top Ten Best Dressed Animals

Top Ten  Best Dressed Animals

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       Some animals just like to dress to impress.

  1. Chameleon
    ChameleonsChameleons5Chameleons2Chameleons1Chameleons3Chameleons4Chameleons6
           Dressed for any occasion, the chameleon can alter its skin cells to blend into each unique environment it enters.
    Links: Top Ten Lizards, 
  2. Peacock
    PeacockPeacock1Peacock2Peacock3Peacock4Peacock5
           The term peafowl can refer to the two species of bird in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. Peafowl are best known for the male’s extravagant tail, which it displays as part of courtship. The male is called a peacock and the female a peahen. The female peafowl is brown or toned grey and brown. Peachicks can be between yellow, to a tawny color with darker brown patches.
    Links: Top 100 Birds, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacock,
  3. Birds of Paradise
    171812321Greater Bird of Paradise, Paradisaea apoda!Job:     3578, Layout:        0!68Varirata Nat'l Park Raggiana lek1514OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA592211191213
           The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found in Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua (Papua and Irian Jaya Province) and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Maluku Islands and eastern Australia. The family has forty-one species in 14 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of the sexually dimorphic species (the majority), in particular the highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings, tail or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-type polygamy. The family is of cultural importance to the inhabitants of New Guinea. The trade in skins and feathers of the birds-of-paradise has been going on for two thousand years. The birds have also been of considerable interest to Western collectors, ornithologists and writers. A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.
    Links: Top 100 Birds, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birds_of_Paradise,
  4. Picasso Triggerfish
    Picasso Triggerfish1Picasso Triggerfish2Picasso Triggerfish3
           The lagoon triggerfish also known as the blackbar triggerfish, the Picassofish, and the Jamal, is a triggerfish, up to 30 cm in length, found on reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. The Hawaiian name for the fish, humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa shares the same name with the reef triggerfish, the state fish of Hawaii. This species has been studied in a range of research contexts, from locomotion to color vision research.
    Links: Top 100 Fish, Top 50 Paintings by Pablo Picasso, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picasso_triggerfish,
  5. Glaucus Atlanticus
    File:Glaucus atlanticus 1 cropped.jpg
    Glaucus atlanticus (commonly known as the sea swallow, blue glaucus, blue dragon, blue sea slug and blue ocean slug) is a species of small-sized blue sea slug, a pelagic aeolid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Glaucidae. This is the only species in the genus Glaucus, but is closely related to Glaucilla marginata, which sometimes is included in Glaucus.
    Links:
  6. Mandarinfish
    File:Synchiropus splendidus 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
    The Mandarinfish or Mandarin dragonet (Synchiropus splendidus), is a small, brightly colored member of the dragonet family, which is popular in the saltwater aquarium trade. The mandarinfish is native to the Pacific, ranging approximately from the Ryukyu Islands south to Australia.
    Links: Top 100 Fishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish,
  7. Scarlet Macaw
    File:Ara macao -Fort Worth Zoo-8.jpgFile:Ara macao -Diergaarde Blijdorp -flying-8a.jpgFile:Ara macao - two at Lowry Park Zoo.jpg
    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is a large, red, yellow and blue South American parrot, a member of a large group of Neotropical parrots called macaws. It is native to humid evergreen forests of tropical South America. Range extends from extreme south-eastern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Bolivia and Brazil in lowlands up to 500 m (1,640 ft) (at least formerly) up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft). It has suffered from local extinction through habitat destruction and capture for the parrot trade, but locally it remains fairly common. Formerly it ranged north to southern Tamaulipas. It can still be found on the island of Coiba. It is the national bird of Honduras.
    Links: Top Ten Honduran Attractionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarlet_Macaw,
  8. Spiny Flower Mantis
    Praying MantisFile:Insect camouflage PP08338.pngFile:Pseudocreobotra wahlbergii 03.jpg
    Flower Mantises are species of praying mantis that mimic flowers. Their coloration is an example of aggressive mimicry, a form of camouflage in which a predator’s colors and patterns lure prey. Most species of flower mantis are in the family Hymenopodidae. Their behavior varies, but typically involves climbing a plant until they reach a suitable flower, and then staying still until a prey insect comes within range.
    Links: Top Ten Insects, Top Ten Most Camoflouged AnimalsTop 100 Flowershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower_mantis,
  9. Lionfish
    File:Clearfin lionfish (Pterois radiata).JPG
    Pterois, commonly known as lionfish, is a genus of venomous marine fish found mostly in the Indo-Pacific. Pterois is characterized by red, white and black bands, showy pectoral fins and venomous spiky fin rays. Pterois are classified into nine different species, but Pterois radiata, Pterois volitans and Pterois miles are the most commonly studied. Pterois are popular aquarium fish and are readily utilized in the culinary world. In the mid 1990s, the species P. volitans and P. miles were unintentionally introduced into the Atlantic Ocean and have become an invasive species along the East Coast of the United States, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, and the wider Caribbean. They are now also found in the Gulf of Mexico.
    Links: Top 100 Fish, Top Te  Most Poisonous Animals,
  10. Mandrill

    The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family, closely related to the baboons and even more closely to the drill. It is found in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforests and forest-savanna mosaics. They live in groups called hordes. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting mostly of fruits and insects. Their mating season takes place from June to October. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in genus Papio, but recent research has determined they should be separated into their own genus, Mandrillus. The mandrill is the world’s largest species of monkey. Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man that “no other member in the whole class of mammals is colored in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrills.”
    Links: Top Ten Primates, Top 100 FilmsTop Ten Animated FilmsTop Ten Disney Films, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandrill,
  11. California Red Sided Garter Snake

    The garter snake is a colubrid snake genus (Thamnophis) common across North America, ranging from the Alaskan Panhandle to Central America. It is the single most widely distributed genus of reptiles in North America. The garter snake is also the Massachusetts state reptile. With no real consensus on the classification of species of Thamnophis, disagreement among taxonomists and sources, such as field guides, over whether two types of snakes are separate species or subspecies of the same species is common.
    Links: Reptiles, Top Ten Snakeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garter_snake,
  12. Chromodoris Geminus

    Goniobranchus geminus is a species of very colorful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Chromodorididae.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromodoris_geminus,
  13. Zebra

           Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white stripes. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small harems to large herds. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the Grévy’s zebra and the mountain zebra. The unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands, mountains, and coastal hills.
    Links: Top Ten Horses, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra,
  14. Bonus: Emperor Penguin
    Emperor PenguinEmperor Penguin1Emperor Penguin2
           The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm (48 in) in height and weighing anywhere from 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb). The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat. Its diet consists primarily of fish, but can also include crustaceans, such as krill, and cephalopods, such as squid. In hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18 minutes, diving to a depth of 535 m (1,755 ft). It has several adaptations to facilitate this, including an unusually structured hemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, and the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down non-essential organ functions. The Emperor Penguin is perhaps best known for the sequence of journeys adults make each year in order to mate and to feed their offspring. The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, it treks 50–120 km (31–75 mi) over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed; parents subsequently take turns foraging at sea and caring for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals may live to 50 years of age.
    Links: Top 100 Birdshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_penguins,
  15. Links: Animals, Top Ten Bioluminescent Animals, Top Ten Transparent Animals, 

Top Ten Predators

Top Ten Predators

Great White SharkTylosaurus

  1. Spinosaurus
    SpinosaurusSpinosaurus1Spinosaurus2Spinosaurus3Spinosaurus4Spinosaurus5
           Spinosaurus (meaning “spine lizard”) is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to lower Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 97 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in WWII, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species S. maroccanus has been recovered from Morocco. Spinosaurus may be the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Estimates published in 2005 and 2007 suggest that it was 12.6 to 18 m (41 to 59 ft) in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes (7.7 to 23.0 short tons) in weight. The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow like that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is thought to have eaten fish; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian. The distinctive spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1.65 m (5.4 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump. Multiple functions have been put forward for this structure, including thermoregulation and display.
    Links: Top Ten Terrestrial Dinosaurs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinosaurus,
  2. Predator X
    Predator X
           Predator X is an informal name for a prehistoric marine predator, thought by scientists to be a new species in the pliosaur family. The skull of the predator was excavated in mid-2008 in Svalbard, near the Arctic, by a Norwegian team lead by Dr. Jørn Hurum. It is claimed by researchers to be the “most fearsome animal ever to swim in the oceans.” The remains were discovered in June 2006 during a two-week expedition led by Dr. Hurum of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo. The team found 20,000 fragments of the creature’s skeleton, which is being assembled at the museum. Due to distribution pattern of pliosaurs, scientists believe that the species were cosmopolitan, like some groups of modern-day whales.
    Links: Top Ten Aquatic Dinosaurs, Top Ten Largets Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predator_X,
  3. Giganotosaurus
    GiganotosaurusGiganotosaurus1Giganotosaurus2
            Giganotosaurus is a genus of carcharodontosaurid dinosaur that lived around 97 million years ago during the early Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period. It is one of the largest known terrestrial carnivores, slightly larger than Tyrannosaurus, but smaller than Spinosaurus. Its fossils have been found in Argentina. The name means “giant southern lizard,” derived from the Ancient Greek gigas, meaning “giant,” and notos meaning “south wind” and -saurus meaning “lizard.”
    Links: Top Ten Skulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giganotosaurus,
  4. Tyrannosaurus Rex
    Tyrannosaurus RexTyrannosaurus Rex1
           Tyrannosaurus, meaning “tyrant lizard,” is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meaning “king” in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture. It lived throughout what is now western North America, at the time an island continent termed Laramidia, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 67 to 65.5 million years ago. It was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two clawed digits. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators, measuring up to 12.3 m (40 ft.) in length, up to 4 m (13 ft.) tall at the hips, and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight. By far the largest carnivore in its environment, Tyrannosaurus rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, although some experts have suggested it was primarily a scavenger. The debate over Tyrannosaurus as apex predator or scavenger is among the longest running in paleontology. More than 30 specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens. The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits, physiology and potential speed of Tyrannosaurus rex are a few subjects of debate. Its taxonomy is also controversial, with some scientists considering Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to represent a second species of Tyrannosaurus and others maintaining Tarbosaurus as a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.
    Links: Top Ten Skullshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannosaurus,
  5. Megalodon
    Megalodon2MegalodonMegalodon1
           Although extinct, Megalodon was the largest shark to have ever lived, growing to lengths of 59 ft.
    Links: Top Ten Sharks, Top Ten Largest Animals, Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaurs)Top Ten Dinosaurs, 
  6. Tylosaurus
    TylosaurusTylosaurus1Tylosaurus2
           Tylosaurus (Greek for “protuberance, knob lizard”) was a mosasaur, a large, predatory marine lizard closely related to modern monitor lizards and to snakes. Along with plesiosaurs, sharks, fish and other genera of mosasaurs, it was a dominant predator of the Western Interior Seaway during the Late Cretaceous. Tylosaurus proriger was among the largest of all the mosasaurs (along with Hainosaurus and Mosasaurus hoffmannii), reaching maximum lengths of 15 meters or more (49+ ft). A distinguishing characteristic of Tylosaurus is its elongated, cylindrical premaxilla (snout) from which it takes its name and which may have been used to ram and stun prey and also in intraspecific combat. Stomach contents associated with specimens of Tylosaurus proriger indicate that this ferocious mosasaur had a varied diet, including fish, sharks, smaller mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and flightless diving birds such as Hesperornis.
    Links: Top Ten Aquatic Dinosaurs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylosaurus,
  7. Utahraptor

    Although the velacirapto gets the majority of the attention, the Utahraptor was truly king of the raptors. The Utahraptor, meaning “Utah’s predator,” was a genus of theropod dinosaurs, which included the largest known members of the family Dromaeosauridae. Fossil specimens date to the upper Barremian stage of the early Cretaceous period (in rock strata dated to 126 ± 2.5 million years ago). It contains a single species, Utahraptor ostrommaysorum. The largest described U. ostrommaysorum specimens are estimated to have reached up to 7 m (23 ft) long and somewhat less than 500 kg (1,100 lb) in weight, comparable to a grizzly bear in size. Some undescribed specimens in the BYU collections may have reached up to 11 m (36 ft) long, though these await more detailed study.
    Links: Top Ten Terrestrial Dinosaurs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor,
  8. Titanboa

    Titanoboa is a genus of snake that lived approximately 60–58 million years ago, during the Paleocene epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the dinosaur extinction event. The only known species is Titanoboa cerrejonensis, the largest, longest, and heaviest snake ever discovered, which supplanted the previous record holder, Gigantophis. Researchers estimated T. cerrejonensis reached a maximum length of 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft), weighed about 1,135 kg (2,500 lb).
    Links: Top Ten Snakes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanoboa,
  9. Killer Whale (48 MPH)
    Killer Whale
           The killer whale (Orcinus orca), also referred to as the orca whale or orca, is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family. Killer whales are found in all oceans, from the frigid Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales as a species have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as sea lions, seals, walruses, and even large whales. Killer whales are regarded as apex predators, lacking natural predators. Killer whales are highly social; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviors, which are often specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of culture. In late 2005, the “southern resident” population of killer whales that inhabits British Columbia and Washington state waters were placed on the US Endangered Species list. Killer whales feature strongly in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers.
    Links: Top Ten WhalesTop Ten Fastest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killer_whale,
  10. Great White Shark
    Great White SharkGreat White Shark1Great White Shark2Great White Shark3
           The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as the white pointer, white shark, or white death, is a species of large lamniform shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The great white shark is mainly known for its size, with the largest individuals known to have approached or exceeded 6 m (20 ft) in length, and 2,268 kg (5,000 lb) in weight. This shark reaches its maturity around 15 years of age and can have a life span of over 30 years. The great white shark is arguably the world’s largest known extant macropredatory fish, and is one of the primary predators of marine mammals. It is also known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals, including fish and seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its genus Carcharodon, and is ranked first in having the most attacks on humans.
    Links: Top Ten Sharks, Top Ten Deadliest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_white_shark,
  11. Giant Short Faced Bear

    The short-faced bear or bulldog bear, or Arctodus, is an extinct genus of bear endemic to North America during the Pleistocene about 3.0 Mya – 11,000 years ago, existing for around three million years. Arctodus simus may have once been Earth’s largest mammalian, terrestrial carnivore. The species described are all thought to have been larger than any living species of bear. It was the most common of early North American bears, being most abundant in California.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_Short_Faced_Bear,
  12. Cave Lion

    The American lion (Panthera leo atrox or P. atrox), also known as the North American lion, Naegele’s giant jaguar or American cave lion, is an extinct lion of the family Felidae, endemic to North America and northwestern South America during the Pleistocene epoch (0.34 mya to 11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 0.33 million years. It has been shown by genetic analysis to be a sister lineage to the Eurasian cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea or P. spelaea). The American lion is one of the largest types of cat ever to have existed, slightly larger than the Early Middle Pleistocene primitive cave lion, P. leo fossilis and about 25% larger than the modern African lion.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, Cave Paintings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_lion,
  13. Saber-Tooth Tiger

    A saber-toothed tiger, is any of various groups of predatory mammals related to modern cats, characterized by long, sabre-shaped canine teeth. These animals belonged to subfamilies of Machairodontinae (Felidae), Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae (both Feliformia) as well as two families related to marsupials that were found worldwide from the Eocene Epoch to the end of the Pleistocene Epoch (42 mya—11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 42 million years. The large maxillary canine teeth extended from the mouth even when it was closed. Despite the name, not all animals known as saber-toothed cats were closely related to modern felines. The Nimravidae are the oldest, entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, Top Ten Extinct AnimalsTop Ten SkullsTop Ten Human SkullsTop Ten Skull Artifactshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saber-toothed_cat,
  14. African Lion
    LionLion2
    The lion is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with an endangered remnant population in Gir Forest National Park in India, having disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans. They were found in most of Africa, across Eurasia from Western Europe to India, and in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru. The lion is a vulnerable species, having seen a possibly irreversible population decline of 30 to 50% over the past two decades in its African range. Lion populations are untenable outside designated reserves and national parks. Although the cause of the decline is not fully understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are currently the greatest causes of concern. Lions live for 10 to 14 years in the wild, while in captivity they can live longer than 20 years. In the wild, males seldom live longer than 10 years, as injuries sustained from continual fighting with rival males greatly reduce their longevity. Lions are unusually social compared to other cats. A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. Lions are apex and keystone predators, although they scavenge as opportunity allows. Highly distinctive, the male lion is easily recognized by its mane, and its face is one of the most widely recognized animal symbols in human culture. Depictions have existed from the Upper Paleolithic period, with carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves, through virtually all ancient and medieval cultures where they once occurred. Lions have been kept in menageries since the time of the Roman Empire and have been a key species sought for exhibition in zoos the world over since the late 18th century.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_lion,
  15. Links: Animals,

Top Ten Fastest Animals

Top Ten Fastest Animals

Fastest AnimalsPeregrine Falcon

       Survival of the fittest sometimes means survival of the fastest and when it comes to speed, these animals are tough to catch up with or worse, escape.

  1. Peregrine Falcon (200 MPH when diving)
    Peregrine FalconPeregrine Falcon1Peregrine Falcon2
    The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the “Duck Hawk” in North America, is a cosmopolitan bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It is a large, crow-sized falcon, with a blue-gray back, barred white underparts, and a black head and “moustache.” It can reach speeds over 320 km/h (200 mph) in a stoop, making it the fastest creature on the planet. As is common with bird-eating raptors, the female is much bigger than the male. Experts recognize 17–19 subspecies, which vary in appearance and range; there is disagreement over whether the distinctive Barbary Falcon is a subspecies or a distinct species. The Peregrine’s breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the Tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions, very high mountains and most tropical rainforests; the only major ice-free landmass from which it is entirely absent is New Zealand. This makes it the world’s most widespread bird of prey. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean “wandering falcon,” referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. While its diet consists almost exclusively of medium-sized birds, the Peregrine will occasionally hunt small mammals, small reptiles or even insects. It reaches sexual maturity at one year and mates for life. It nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures. The Peregrine Falcon became an endangered species in many areas due to the use of pesticides, especially DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the beginning of the 1970’s onwards, the populations recovered, supported by large scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
    Links: Top 100 Birdshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peregrine_Falcon,
  2. Swift (106 MPH)
    SwiftSwift1
    The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows but are actually not closely related to passerine species at all; swifts are in the separate order Apodiformes, which they share with the hummingbirds. The treeswifts are closely related to the true swifts, but form a separate family, the Hemiprocnidae. The resemblances between swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight. The family scientific name comes from the Ancient Greek απους, apous, meaning “without feet,” since swifts have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead on vertical surfaces. The tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet.
    Links: Top 100 Birdshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift,
  3. Cheetah (75 MPH)

           The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large-sized feline (family Felidae) inhabiting most of Africa and parts of the Middle East. The cheetah is the only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, most notable for modifications in the species’ paws. As such, it is the only felid with non-retractable claws and pads that, by their scope, disallow gripping (therefore cheetah cannot climb vertical trees, although they are generally capable of reaching easily accessible branches). The cheetah, however, achieves by far the fastest land speed of any living animal, between 112 and 120 km/h (70 and 75 mph) in short bursts covering distances up to 500 m (1,600 ft), and has the ability to accelerate from 0 to over 100 km/h (62 mph) in three seconds.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheetah,
  4. Sailfish (70 MPH)
    SailfishSailfish1Sailfish2
    Sailfish are fish in the genus Istiophorus, living in warmer sections of all the oceans of the world. They are predominately blue to gray in color and have a characteristic erectile dorsal fin known as a sail, which often stretches the entire length of the back. Another notable characteristic is the elongated bill, resembling that of the swordfish and other marlins. They are therefore described as billfish in sport fishing circles.
    Links: Top 100 Fishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailfish,
  5. Marlin (50 MPH)
    MarlinMarlin1
    Marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae. It has an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor’s marlinspike. Even more so than their close relatives, the scombrids, marlin are incredibly fast swimmers, reaching speeds of about 110 km per hour (68 mph). The larger species include the Atlantic blue marlin, Makaira nigricans, which can reach 5 m (16.4 ft) in length and 818 kg (1,800 lb) in weight and the black marlin, Istiompax indica, which can reach in excess of 5 m (16.4 ft) in length and 670 kg (1,500 lb) in weight.
    Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marlin,
  6. Pronghorn Antelope (61 MPH)
    Pronghorn Antelope, Cabin Lake Road, Fort Rock, OregonPronghorn Antelope1Pronghorn Antelope2
    The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal endemic to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is often known colloquially in North America as the prong buck, pronghorn antelope, or simply antelope, as it closely resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to convergent evolution. It is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene period, 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. About five existed when humans entered North America and all but A. americana are now extinct.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronghorn_Antelope,
  7. Mako Shark (60 MPH)
    Shortfin Mako Shark 026
    Isurus is a genus of mackerel sharks in the family Lamnidae, commonly known as the mako sharks. There are two living species, the common shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the rare longfin mako shark (Isurus paucus), and several extinct species known from fossils. They range in length from 2.5 to 4.5 m (9 to 15 feet), and have an approximate maximum weight of 800 kg (1,750 lb). The family Lamnidae also includes sharks such as the great white shark and porbeagle. The mako shark is capable of swimming at speeds of up to 60 km/h, and jumping up to 7 m (24 ft) in the air.
    Links: Top Ten Sharks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mako_shark,
  8. Thomson’s Gazelle (50 MPH)
    Thomson’s GazelleThomson’s Gazelle1Thomson’s Gazelle2
    The Thomson’s gazelle is one of the best-known gazelles. It is named after explorer Joseph Thomson and is sometimes referred to as a “tommie.” It is considered by some to be a subspecies of the red-fronted gazelle and was formerly considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas, before Eudorcas was elevated to genus status. Thomson’s gazelles can be found in numbers exceeding 500 thousand in Africa and are recognized as the most common type of gazelle in East Africa.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomson%27s_Gazelle,
  9. Wildebeest (50 MPH)
    Wilder Beastwilder beast migration in landscape Masi Mara in Kenya Africa wildlifeWilder Beast2
    The wildebeest, Dutch for “wild beast,” is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. Connochaetes includes two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest, or white-tailed gnu (C. gnou), and the blue wildebeest, or brindled gnu (C. taurinus). Fossil records suggest these two species diverged about one million years ago, resulting in northern and southern species. The blue wildebeest changed very little from the ancestor species, while the black wildebeest took on more morphological changes to adapt to a habitat of open grassland in the south. Today, the blue wildebeest has five subspecies, while the black wildebeest has no named subspecies. In East Africa, the wildebeest is the most abundant big-game species, both in population and biomass.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilde_beast,
  10. African Lion (50 MPH)
    LionLion2
    The lion is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with an endangered remnant population in Gir Forest National Park in India, having disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. Until the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 years ago, the lion was the most widespread large land mammal after humans. They were found in most of Africa, across Eurasia from Western Europe to India, and in the Americas from the Yukon to Peru. The lion is a vulnerable species, having seen a possibly irreversible population decline of 30 to 50% over the past two decades in its African range. Lion populations are untenable outside designated reserves and national parks. Although the cause of the decline is not fully understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are currently the greatest causes of concern. Lions live for 10 to 14 years in the wild, while in captivity they can live longer than 20 years. In the wild, males seldom live longer than 10 years, as injuries sustained from continual fighting with rival males greatly reduce their longevity. Lions are unusually social compared to other cats. A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. Lions are apex and keystone predators, although they scavenge as opportunity allows. Highly distinctive, the male lion is easily recognized by its mane, and its face is one of the most widely recognized animal symbols in human culture. Depictions have existed from the Upper Paleolithic period, with carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves, through virtually all ancient and medieval cultures where they once occurred. Lions have been kept in menageries since the time of the Roman Empire and have been a key species sought for exhibition in zoos the world over since the late 18th century.
    Links: Top Ten Big Cats, Top Ten Predators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_lion,
  11. Killer Whale (48 MPH)
    Killer Whale
    The killer whale (Orcinus orca), also referred to as the orca whale or orca, is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family. Killer whales are found in all oceans, from the frigid Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. Killer whales as a species have a diverse diet, although individual populations often specialize in particular types of prey. Some feed exclusively on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as sea lions, seals, walruses, and even large whales. Killer whales are regarded as apex predators, lacking natural predators. Killer whales are highly social; some populations are composed of matrilineal family groups which are the most stable of any animal species. Their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviors, which are often specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of culture. In late 2005, the “southern resident” population of killer whales that inhabits British Columbia and Washington state waters were placed on the US Endangered Species list. Killer whales feature strongly in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers.
    Links: Top Ten Whales, Top Ten Predators,
  12. Links: Animals, Top Ten Fastest Humans, Top Ten Fastest Vehicles, Top 100 Films,

Top Ten Horns/Antlers

Top Ten Horns/Antlers

HornsHorns1African Rhinoceros2OryxMarkhor2

  1. Triceratops
    TriceratopsTriceratops1Triceratops2
    Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65.5 million years ago (Mya) in what is now North America. It was one of the last non-avian dinosaur genera to appear before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on its large four-legged body, and conjuring similarities with the modern rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs and the best known ceratopsid. It shared the landscape with and was preyed upon by the fearsome Tyrannosaurus. Specimens representing life stages from hatchling to adult have been found. The function of the frills and three distinctive facial horns has long inspired debate. Traditionally these have been viewed as defensive weapons against predators. More recent theories, noting the presence of blood vessels in the skull bones of ceratopsids, find it more probable that these features were primarily used in identification, courtship and dominance displays, much like the antlers and horns of modern reindeer, mountain goats, or rhinoceros beetles. The theory finds additional support if Torosaurus represents the mature form of Triceratops, as this would mean the frill also developed holes (fenestrae) as individuals reached maturity, rendering the structure more useful for display than defense.
    Links: Top Ten Dinosaurs, Top Ten Terrestrial Dinosaurs, Top Ten SkeletonsTop Ten Skulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triceratops,
  2. African Rhinoceros
    African RhinocerosAfrican Rhinoceros1African Rhinoceros2
    Rhinoceros is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia. The rhinoceros family is characterized by its large size (one of the largest remaining megafauna), with all of the species able to reach one ton or more in weight; an herbivorous diet; a thick protective skin, 1.5–5 cm thick, formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size (400–600 g); and a large horn. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their powerful premolar and molar teeth to grind up plant food. Rhinoceros are killed by humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the black market, and which are used by some cultures for ornamental or medicinal purposes. The horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Both African species and the Sumatran Rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan Rhinoceros have a single horn.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinoceros,
  3. Alaska Moose
    Alaska MooseAlaska Moose1Alaska Moose2
    The moose (North America) or Eurasian elk (Europe) (Alces alces) is the largest extant species in the deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males; other members of the family have antlers with a dendritic (“twig-like”) configuration. Moose typically inhabit boreal and mixed deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Moose used to have a much wider range but hunting and other human activities greatly reduced it over the years. Moose have been re-introduced to some of their former habitats. Their diet consist of both terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are wolves, bears, and humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose are solitary animals and do not form herds. Although generally slow moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move surprisingly fast if angered or startled. Their mating season in the autumn can lead to spectacular fights between males competing for the right to mate with a particular female.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moose,
  4. Narwhale
    NarwhaleNarwhale1Narwhale2Narwhale3
    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized toothed whale that lives year-round in the Arctic. One of two living species of whale in the Monodontidae family, along with the beluga whale, the narwhal males are distinguished by a characteristic long, straight, helical tusk extending from their upper left jaw. Found primarily in Canadian Arctic and Greenlandic waters, rarely south of 65°N latitude, the narwhal is a uniquely specialized Arctic predator. In the winter, it feeds on benthic prey, mostly flatfish, at depths of up to 1,500 m under dense pack ice. Narwhal have been harvested for over a thousand years by Inuit people in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, and a regulated subsistence hunt continues to this day. While populations appear stable, the narwhal has been deemed particularly vulnerable to climate change due to a narrow geographical range and specialized diet.
    Links: Top Ten Whales, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narwhale,
  5. Markhor
    MarkhorMarkhor1Markhor2
    The Markhor (Capra falconeri) is a large species of wild goat that is found in northeastern Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan, Hunza-Nagar Valley, northern and central Pakistan, and some parts of Jammu and Kashmir), India, southern Tajikistan and southern Uzbekistan. The species is classed by the IUCN as Endangered, as there are fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, though they continue to decline by an estimated 20% over 2 generations. The Markhor is the National Animal of Pakistan.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markhor,
  6. Walia Ibex
    Walia IbexWalia Ibex1Walia Ibex2
    The walia ibex is a species of ibex that is endangered. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the Alpine Ibex. Threats against the species include habitat loss, poaching, and restricted range. Only about 500 individuals survive in the mountains of Ethiopia, concentrated in the Semien Mountains, largely due to past poaching and habitat depletion. If the population were to increase, the surrounding mountain habitat would be sufficient enough to sustain only 2,000 ibex. The adult walia ibex’s only known wild predator is the hyena. However young ibex are often hunted by a variety of fox and cat species. The ibex are members of the goat family and the walia ibex is the southernmost of today’s ibexes. In the late 1990’s the walia ibex went from endangered to critically endangered due to the declining population. The walia ibex is also known as the abyssinian ibex.
    Links: Top Ten Ethiopian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walia_Ibex,
  7. Texas Longhorn
    Texas LonghornTexas Longhorn1Texas Longhorn2
    The Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to 7 feet (2.1 m) tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows, and 36 to 80 inches (0.91 to 2.0 m) tip to tip for bulls. Horns can have a slight upward turn at their tips or even triple twist. Texas Longhorns are known for their diverse coloring. The Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America and the International Texas Longhorn Association serve as the recognized registries for the breed. Texas Longhorns with elite genetics can often fetch $40,000 or more at auction with the record of $170,000 in recent history for a cow. Due to their innate gentle disposition and intelligence, Texas Longhorns are increasingly being trained as riding steers. The Cattlemen’s Texas Longhorn Registry (CTLR), is the recognized breed registry dedicated to preserving the purest Texas Longhorn bloodlines. Using visual inspection of cattle by the most knowledgeable Texas Longhorn breeders and the use of blood type analysis to further identify parentage, CTLR has the ideal of preserving fullblood Texas Longhorn cattle that are genetically and historically correct for posterity.
    Links: Top Ten Bulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_longhorn_%28cattle%29,
  8. Water Buffalo
    Water Buffalo
    The water buffalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovine animal, frequently used as livestock in southern Asia, and also widely in South America, southern Europe, north Africa, and elsewhere. In 2000, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that there were approximately 158 million water buffalo in the world, and that 97% of them (approximately 153 million animals) were in Asia. There are established feral populations in northern Australia, but the dwindling true wild populations are thought to survive in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand. All the domestic varieties and breeds descend from one common ancestor, the wild water buffalo, which is now an endangered species. The domestic water buffalo, although derived from the wild water buffalo, is the product of thousands of years of selective breeding in either South Asia or Southeast Asia. Buffalo are used as draft, meat, and dairy animals. Their dung is used as a fertilizer and as a fuel when dried. In Chonburi, Thailand, Pakistan and in southwestern region of Karnataka, India, there are annual water buffalo races known as Kambala. A few have also found use as pack animals carrying loads even for special forces. American bison are known as buffalo in parts of North America, but not normally in other usages; bison are more closely related to cattle, gaur, banteng, and yaks than to Asian buffalo. The water buffalo genus includes water buffalo, tamaraw and anoas, all Asian species. The ancestry of the African buffalo is unclear, but it is not believed to be closely related to the water buffalo.
    Links: Top Ten Deadly Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_buffalo,
  9. Oryx
    OryxOryx1Oryx2
    Oryx is one of four large antelope species of the genus Oryx. Three of the species are native to arid parts of Africa, with a fourth native to the Arabian Peninsula. Their pelage is pale with contrasting dark markings in the face and on the legs, and their long horns are almost straight. The exception is the Scimitar Oryx, which lacks dark markings on the legs, only has faint dark markings on the head, has an ochre neck, and horns that are clearly decurved. The Arabian Oryx was only saved from extinction through a captive breeding program and reintroduction to the wild. The Scimitar Oryx, which is now listed as Extinct in the Wild, also relies on a captive breeding program for its survival. Small populations of several Oryx species, such as the Scimitar Oryx, exist in Texas and New Mexico (USA) in wild game ranches.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryx,
  10. Red Deer
    Red DeerRed Deer1
    The Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species. Depending on taxonomy, the Red Deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, and central Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red Deer have been introduced to other areas including Australia, New Zealand and Argentina. In many parts of the world the meat (venison) from Red Deer is used as a food source. Red Deer are ruminants, characterized by an even number of toes, and a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates that the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) as traditionally defined is a species group rather than a single species, although it remains disputed exactly how many species the group includes (see Taxonomy). The ancestor of all Red Deer probably originated in Central Asia and probably resembled Sika Deer. Although at one time Red Deer were rare in some areas, they were never close to extinction. Reintroduction and conservation efforts, especially in the UK, have resulted in an increase of Red Deer populations, while other areas, such as North Africa, have continued to show a population decline.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Deer,
  11. Impala
    ImpalaImpala1Impala2
    An impala is a medium-sized African antelope. The name impala comes from the Zulu language meaning “gazelle.” They are found in savannas and thick bushveld in Kenya, Tanzania, Swaziland, Mozambique, northern Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, southern Angola, northeastern South Africa and Uganda. Impalas can be found in numbers of up to 2 million in Africa.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impala,
  12. Horned Lizard/Frog
    Horned LizardFrogHorned LizardFrog1Horned LizardFrog2
    Horned lizards (Phrynosoma) are a type of lizards that are a genus of the Phrynosomatidae family of lizards. The horned lizard is popularly called a “horned toad,” “horny toad,” or “horned frog,” but it is neither a toad nor a frog. The popular names come from the lizard’s rounded body and blunt snout, which make it resemble a toad or frog. The spines on its back and sides are made from modified scales, whereas the horns on the heads are true horns (i.e. they have a bony core). There are 14 species of horned lizards in North America, eight of which are native to the U.S. The largest-bodied and most widely distributed of the U.S. species is the Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum).
    Links: Top Ten Frogs/Toads, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horned_toad,
  13. Bonus: Unicorn
    UnicornUnicorn1Unicorn2Unicorn3
    The unicorn is a legendary animal commonly portrayed as a white horse with a goat’s beard and a large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead. First mentioned by the ancient Greeks, it became the most important imaginary animal of the middle ages and Renaissance when it was commonly described as an extremely wild woodland creature, a symbol of purity and grace, which could only be captured by a virgin. In the encyclopedias its horn was said to have the power to render poisoned water potable and to heal sickness. Until the 19th century, belief in unicorns was widespread among historians, alchemists, writers, poets, naturalists, physicians and theologians.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicorn,
  14. Bonus: Elasmotherium
    ElasmotheriumElasmotherium1Elasmotherium2
    Elasmotherium (“Thin Plate Beast”), more informally sometimes called the Steppe Rhinoceros, is an extinct genus of giant rhinoceros endemic to Eurasia during the Late Pliocene through the Pleistocene, documented from 2.6 million years ago to as late as 50,000 years ago, possibly later, in the Late Pleistocene, an approximate span of slightly less than 2.6 million years. Three species are recognized. The best known, E. sibiricum was the size of a mammoth and is thought to have borne a large, thick horn on its forehead, which it undoubtedly used for the same purposes as all the other horned savanna giants then and now: defense, attracting mates, driving away competitors, sweeping snow from the grass in winter and digging for water and plant roots. Like all rhinoceroses, elasmotheres were herbivorous. Unlike any others, its high-crowned molars were ever-growing. Its legs were longer than those of other rhinos and were designed for galloping, giving it a horse-like gait. The Russian paleontologists of the 19th century who discovered and named the initial fossils were influenced by ancient legends of a huge unicorn roaming the steppes of Siberia.
    Links:
  15. Links: Animals,

Top Ten Dinosaurs

Top Ten Dinosaurs

Spinosaurus1Predator X

  1. Spinosaurus
    SpinosaurusSpinosaurus1Spinosaurus2Spinosaurus3Spinosaurus4Spinosaurus5
    Spinosaurus (meaning “spine lizard”) is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to lower Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 97 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in WWII, but additional material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species S. maroccanus has been recovered from Morocco. Spinosaurus may be the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Estimates published in 2005 and 2007 suggest that it was 12.6 to 18 m (41 to 59 ft) in length and 7 to 20.9 tonnes (7.7 to 23.0 short tons) in weight. The skull of Spinosaurus was long and narrow like that of a modern crocodilian. Spinosaurus is thought to have eaten fish; evidence suggests that it lived both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian. The distinctive spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae, grew to at least 1.65 m (5.4 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump. Multiple functions have been put forward for this structure, including thermoregulation and display.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinosaurus,
  2. Predator X
    Predator X
    Predator X is an informal name for a prehistoric marine predator, thought by scientists to be a new species in the pliosaur family. The skull of the predator was excavated in mid-2008 in Svalbard, near the Arctic, by a Norwegian team lead by Dr. Jørn Hurum. It is claimed by researchers to be the “most fearsome animal ever to swim in the oceans.” The remains were discovered in June 2006 during a two-week expedition led by Dr. Hurum of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo. The team found 20,000 fragments of the creature’s skeleton, which is being assembled at the museum. Due to distribution pattern of pliosaurs, scientists believe that the species were cosmopolitan, like some groups of modern-day whales.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, Top Ten Largets Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predator_X,
  3. Giganotosaurus
    GiganotosaurusGiganotosaurus1Giganotosaurus2
    Giganotosaurus is a genus of carcharodontosaurid dinosaur that lived around 97 million years ago during the early Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period. It is one of the largest known terrestrial carnivores, slightly larger than Tyrannosaurus, but smaller than Spinosaurus. Its fossils have been found in Argentina. The name means “giant southern lizard,” derived from the Ancient Greek gigas, meaning “giant,” and notos meaning “south wind” and -saurus meaning “lizard.”
    Links: Top Ten Skulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giganotosaurus,
  4. Tyrannosaurus Rex
    Tyrannosaurus RexTyrannosaurus Rex1
    Tyrannosaurus, meaning “tyrant lizard,” is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meaning “king” in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture. It lived throughout what is now western North America, at the time an island continent termed Laramidia, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 67 to 65.5 million years ago. It was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two clawed digits. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators, measuring up to 12.3 m (40 ft.) in length, up to 4 m (13 ft.) tall at the hips, and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight. By far the largest carnivore in its environment, Tyrannosaurus rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, although some experts have suggested it was primarily a scavenger. The debate over Tyrannosaurus as apex predator or scavenger is among the longest running in paleontology. More than 30 specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens. The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits, physiology and potential speed of Tyrannosaurus rex are a few subjects of debate. Its taxonomy is also controversial, with some scientists considering Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to represent a second species of Tyrannosaurus and others maintaining Tarbosaurus as a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.
    Links: Top Ten Skullshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannosaurus,
  5. Tylosaurus
    TylosaurusTylosaurus1Tylosaurus2
    Tylosaurus (Greek for “protuberance, knob lizard”) was a mosasaur, a large, predatory marine lizard closely related to modern monitor lizards and to snakes. Along with plesiosaurs, sharks, fish and other genera of mosasaurs, it was a dominant predator of the Western Interior Seaway during the Late Cretaceous. Tylosaurus proriger was among the largest of all the mosasaurs (along with Hainosaurus and Mosasaurus hoffmannii), reaching maximum lengths of 15 meters or more (49+ ft). A distinguishing characteristic of Tylosaurus is its elongated, cylindrical premaxilla (snout) from which it takes its name and which may have been used to ram and stun prey and also in intraspecific combat. Stomach contents associated with specimens of Tylosaurus proriger indicate that this ferocious mosasaur had a varied diet, including fish, sharks, smaller mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and flightless diving birds such as Hesperornis.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylosaurus,
  6. Utahraptor

    Although the velacirapto gets the majority of the attention, the Utahraptor was truly king of the raptors. The Utahraptor, meaning “Utah’s predator,” was a genus of theropod dinosaurs, which included the largest known members of the family Dromaeosauridae. Fossil specimens date to the upper Barremian stage of the early Cretaceous period (in rock strata dated to 126 ± 2.5 million years ago). It contains a single species, Utahraptor ostrommaysorum. The largest described U. ostrommaysorum specimens are estimated to have reached up to 7 m (23 ft) long and somewhat less than 500 kg (1,100 lb) in weight, comparable to a grizzly bear in size. Some undescribed specimens in the BYU collections may have reached up to 11 m (36 ft) long, though these await more detailed study.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utahraptor,
  7. Quetzalcoatlus
    File:Life restoration of a group of giant azhdarchids, Quetzalcoatlus northropi, foraging on a Cretaceous fern prairie.pngFile:Quetzscale1.png
    Quetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage, about 68–66 million years ago), and one of the largest known flying animals of all time. It was a member of the Azhdarchidae, a family of advanced toothless pterosaurs with unusually long, stiffened necks. Its name comes from the Mesoamerican feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatl.
    Links: Top Ten Flying AnimalsTop Ten Largest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quetzalcoatlus,
  8. Sauroposeidon

    Sauroposeidon, meaning “earthquake god lizard,” after the Greek god Poseidon, is a genus of sauropod dinosaur known from several incomplete specimens including a bone bed and fossilized trackways that have been found in the US states of Oklahoma, Wyoming, and Texas. The fossils were found in rocks dating from near the end of the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-early Albian), a time when sauropod diversity in North America had greatly diminished. It was the last known North American sauropod prior to an absence of the group on the continent of roughly 40 million years that ended with the appearance of Alamosaurus during the Maastrichtian. Paleoecological analysis indicates that Sauroposeidon lived on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, in a river delta. Extrapolations based on its more completely known relative Brachiosaurus indicate that the head of Sauroposeidon could reach 17 m (56 ft) in height with its neck extended, making it the tallest known dinosaur. With an estimated length of up to 34 m (112 ft) and a mass of 50–60 t (55–66 short tons), it also ranks among the longest and heaviest.
    Links: Top Ten Largest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sauroposeidon,
  9. Kronosaurus
    KronosaurusKronosaurus1Kronosaurus2
    Kronosaurus was a 33 ft., 11 ton carnivore that was among the most powerful predators of all time. It had a seven ft. skull with teeth the size of bananas. It roamed the seas of Australia 110 to 98 million years ago.
    Links:
  10. Godzilla
    Godzilla
    The reptile nicknamed Godzilla stretched 13 ft long and roamed the coasts of Argentina 135 million years ago.
    Links:
  11. Thalassomedon
    ThalassomedonThalassomedon1Thalassomedon2
    Thalassomedon is a genus of plesiosaur, named by Welles in 1943. Greek for thalassa, “Sea lord,” the Thalassomedon could span a massive 40 ft. in length. This genus of plesiosaur occurred in North America about 95 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous period. Its closest relative is the Elasmosaurus and together they make up the family Elasmosauridae. There are six specimens of varying state of preservation on display at various U.S. museums.
    Links: Top Ten Skeletonshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalassomedon,
  12. Liopleurodon

    Liopleurodon, meaning ‘smooth-sided teeth,’ is a genus of large, carnivorous marine reptile belonging to the Pliosauroidea, a clade of short-necked plesiosaurs. The two species of Liopleurodon lived during the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic Period (c. 160 to 155 mya). It was the apex predator of the Middle to Late Jurassic seas that covered Europe. The largest species, L. ferox, is estimated to have grown up to 6.39 m (21.0 ft) in length.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liopleurodon,
  13. Ticinnosuchus
    TicinnosuchusTicinnosuchus1
    Ticinosuchus is an extinct genus of rauisuchian archosaur from the Middle Triassic of Switzerland. Ticinosuchus was about 3 m (10 ft) long, and its whole body, even the belly, was covered in thick, armoured scutes. The structure of the hips shows that its legs were placed under the body almost vertically. Coupled with the development of a calcaneus and a specialized ankle joint, this would have made Ticinosuchus a fast runner, unlike most earlier reptiles.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ticinosuchus,
  14. Velociraptor
    Velociprot
    Velociraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 75 to 71 million years ago during the later part of the Cretaceous Period. Two species are currently recognized, although others have been assigned in the past. The type species is V. mongoliensis; fossils of this species have been discovered in Mongolia. A second species, V. osmolskae, was named in 2008 for skull material from Inner Mongolia, China. Smaller than other dromaeosaurids like Deinonychus and Achillobator, Velociraptor nevertheless shared many of the same anatomical features. It was a bipedal, feathered carnivore with a long tail and an enlarged sickle-shaped claw on each hindfoot, which is thought to have been used to kill its prey. Velociraptor can be distinguished from other dromaeosaurids by its long and low skull, with an upturned snout. Velociraptor is one of the dinosaur genera most familiar to the general public due to its prominent role in the Jurassic Park motion picture series. In the films it was shown with anatomical inaccuracies, including being much larger than it was in reality and without feathers. It is also well known to paleontologists, with over a dozen described fossil skeletons—the most of any dromaeosaurid. One particularly famous specimen preserves a Velociraptor locked in combat with a Protoceratops.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velociraptor,
  15. Links: Animals, Top Ten Terrestrial Dinosaurs, Top Ten Aquatic Dinosaurs,

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