Top Ten Sharks

Top Ten Sharks

Chain Cat SharkGoblin SharkGreat White SharkHammerhead SharkFrilled Shark

       Sharks are a group of fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha (or Selachii), and are the sister group to the rays. However, the term “shark” has also been used for extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthus. Under this broader definition, the earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago. Since that time, sharks have diversified into over 470 species. They range in size from the small dwarf lanternshark (Etmopterus perryi), a deep sea species of only 17 cm (6.7 in) in length, to the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), the largest fish in the world, which reaches approximately 12 m (39 ft). Sharks are found in all seas and are common down to depths of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). They generally do not live in freshwater although there are a few known exceptions, such as the bull shark and the river shark, which can survive in both seawater and freshwater. They breathe through five to seven gill slits. Sharks have a covering of dermal denticles that protects their skin from damage and parasites in addition to improving their fluid dynamics. They also have several sets of replaceable teeth.

  1. Great White Shark
    Great White SharkGreat White Shark1Great White Shark2Great White Shark3
            The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as the white pointer, white shark, or white death, is a species of large lamniform shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The great white shark is mainly known for its size, with the largest individuals known to have approached or exceeded 6 m (20 ft) in length, and 2,268 kg (5,000 lb) in weight. This shark reaches its maturity around 15 years of age and can have a life span of over 30 years. The great white shark is arguably the world’s largest known extant macropredatory fish, and is one of the primary predators of marine mammals. It is also known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals, including fish and seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its genus Carcharodon, and is ranked first in having the most attacks on humans.
    Links: Top Ten Predators, Top Ten Deadliest Animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_white_shark,
  2. Whale Shark
    Whale SharkWhale Shark1
            The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow-moving filter feeding shark and the largest known extant fish species. The largest confirmed individual had a length of 12.65 meters (41.50 ft) and a weight of more than 21.5 metric tons (47,000 lb), and there are unconfirmed reports of considerably larger whale sharks. Claims of individuals over 14 meters (46 ft) long and weighing at least 30 metric tons (66,000 lb) are not uncommon. The whale shark holds many records for sheer size in the animal kingdom, most notably being by far the largest living non-mammalian vertebrate, rivaling many of the largest dinosaurs in weight. It is the sole member of the genus Rhincodon and the family, Rhincodontidae (called Rhiniodon and Rhinodontidae before 1984), which belongs to the subclass Elasmobranchii in the class Chondrichthyes. The species originated approximately 60 million years ago. The whale shark is found in tropical and warm oceans and lives in the open sea with a lifespan of about 70 years. Although whale sharks have very large mouths, as filter feeders they feed mainly, though not exclusively, on plankton, which are microscopic plants and animals. However, the BBC program Planet Earth filmed a whale shark feeding on a school of small fish. The same documentary showed footage of a whale shark timing its arrival to coincide with the mass spawning of fish shoals and feeding on the resultant clouds of eggs and sperm. 
    Links: Top Ten Largest AnimalsTop 100 Fish, Top Ten Whales,
  3. Tiger Shark
    Tiger SharkTiger Shark1
           The tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, is a species of requiem shark and the only member of the genus Galeocerdo. Commonly known as sea tiger, the tiger shark is a relatively large macropredator, capable of attaining a length of over 5 m (16 ft). It is found in many tropical and temperate waters, and it is especially common around central Pacific islands. Its name derives from the dark stripes down its body which resemble a tiger’s pattern, which fade as the shark matures. The tiger shark is a solitary, mostly nocturnal hunter. Its diet includes a wide variety of prey, ranging from crustaceans, fish, seals, birds, squid, turtles, and sea snakes to dolphins and even other smaller sharks. The tiger shark is considered a near threatened species due to finning and fishing by humans. While the tiger shark is considered to be one of the sharks most dangerous to humans, the attack rate is low according to researchers. The tiger is second on the list of number of recorded attacks on humans, with the great white shark being first. They often visit shallow reefs, harbors and canals, creating the potential for encounter with humans.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger_shark,
  4. Whitetip Reef Shark                                            Blacktip Reef Shark                               Oceanic Whitetip
    Whitetip Reef SharkBlacktip Reef SharkOceanic Whitetip
           The oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) is a large pelagic shark inhabiting tropical and warm temperate seas. Its stocky body is most notable for its long, white-tipped, rounded fins. This aggressive but slow-moving fish dominates feeding frenzies, and is a danger to shipwreck or air crash survivors. Recent studies show steeply declining populations because its large fins are highly valued as the chief ingredient of shark fin soup and, as with other shark species, the whitetip faces mounting fishing pressure throughout its range.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanic_whitetip_shark,
  5. Goblin Shark
    Goblin Shark
            The goblin shark is a rare, poorly known species of deep-sea shark. Sometimes called a “living fossil,” it is the only extant representative of the family Mitsukurinidae, a lineage some 125 million years old. This species looks unlike any other shark, with a long flattened snout, highly protrusible jaws containing prominent nail-like teeth, and pink coloration. It is usually between 3-4 m (10–13 ft) long when mature, though can grow considerably larger. Goblin sharks inhabit upper continental slopes, submarine canyons, and seamounts around the world at depths greater than 100 m (330 ft), with adults found deeper than juveniles. Various anatomical features of the goblin shark, such as its flabby body and small fins, suggest that it is sluggish in nature. This species hunts for teleost fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans both near the sea floor and in the middle of the water column. Its long snout is covered with ampullae of Lorenzini that enable it to sense minute electric fields produced by nearby prey, which it can snatch up by rapidly extending its jaws.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goblin_shark,
  6. Hammerhead Shark
    Hammerhead SharkFile:Hammerhead shark, Cocos Island, Costa Rica.jpgHammerhead Shark1
           The hammerhead sharks are a group of sharks in the family Sphyrnidae, so named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads, which are flattened and laterally extended into a “hammer” shape called a “cephalofoil.” Most hammerhead species are placed in the genus Sphyrna while the winghead shark is placed in its own genus, Eusphyra. Many not necessarily mutually exclusive functions have been proposed for the cephalofoil, including sensory reception, maneuvering, and prey manipulation. Hammerheads are found worldwide in warmer waters along coastlines and continental shelves. Unlike most sharks, hammerheads usually swim in schools during the day, becoming solitary hunters at night. Some of these schools can be found near Malpelo Island in Colombia, Cocos Island off Costa Rica, and near Molokai Island in Hawaii. Large schools are also seen in southern and eastern Africa.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerhead_shark,
  7. Mako Shark (60 MPH)
    Shortfin Mako Shark 026
            Isurus is a genus of mackerel sharks in the family Lamnidae, commonly known as the mako sharks. There are two living species, the common shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the rare longfin mako shark (Isurus paucus), and several extinct species known from fossils. They range in length from 2.5 to 4.5 m (9 to 15 feet), and have an approximate maximum weight of 800 kg (1,750 lb). The family Lamnidae also includes sharks such as the great white shark and porbeagle. The mako shark is capable of swimming at speeds of up to 60 km/h, and jumping up to 7 m (24 ft) in the air.
    Links: Top Ten Fastest Animals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mako_shark,
  8. Angel Shark
    Angel SharkAngel Shark1Angel Shark2
           An angel shark is a shark in the genus Squatina, which are unusual in having flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to rays. Twenty-three species are known to exist in the genus, which is the only one in its family, Squatinidae, and order Squatiniformes. They occur worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. Most species inhabit shallow temperate or tropical seas, but one species inhabits deeper water, down to 1,300 m (4,300 ft).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angel_sharkrhead_shark,
  9. Spotted  Wobbegong
    LNS_03-12-2009_EGN_12_LNS0312Y_fct496x305_t460Spotted  Wobbegong
           The spotted wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus, is a carpet shark in the family Orectolobidae, found in the eastern Indian Ocean from Western Australia to southern Queensland, between latitudes 20° S to 40° S. It reaches a length of 3 m (10 feet).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_wobbegong,
  10. Saw Shark
    Saw SharkSaw Shark1
    The sawsharks or saw sharks are an order (Pristiophoriformes) of sharks bearing long blade-like snouts edged with teeth, which they use to slash and disable their prey. Most occur in waters from South Africa to Australia and Japan, at depths of 40 m (130 ft) and below; in 1960 the Bahamas sawshark was discovered in the deeper waters (640 m to 915 m) of the northwestern Caribbean.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saw_shark,
  11. Zebra Shark
    File:Stegostoma fasciatum thailand.jpgZebra Shark
           The zebra shark is a species of carpet shark and the sole member of the family Stegostomatidae. It is found throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific, frequenting coral reefs and sandy flats to a depth of 62 m (210 ft). Adult zebra sharks are distinctive in appearance, with five longitudinal ridges on a cylindrical body, a low caudal fin comprising nearly half the total length, and a pattern of dark spots on a pale background. Young zebra sharks under 50–90 cm (20–35 in) long have a completely different pattern, consisting of light vertical stripes on a brown background, and lack the ridges. This species attains a length of 2.5 m (8.2 ft). Zebra sharks are nocturnal and spend most of the day resting motionless on the sea floor. At night, they actively hunt for molluscs, crustaceans, small bony fishes, and possibly sea snakes inside holes and crevices in the reef. Though solitary for most of the year, they form large seasonal aggregations. The zebra shark is oviparous: females produce several dozen large egg capsules, which they anchor to underwater structures via adhesive tendrils.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra_shark,
  12. Frilled Shark
    Frilled Shark
           This is a rare primitive species of shark that has evolved very little over the centuries and is considered a ‘living fossil’ shark species. Frilled sharks are found off the coast of Southern Africa.
    Links:
  13. Bonus: Megalodon
    Megalodon2MegalodonMegalodon1
            Although extinct, Megalodon was the largest shark to have ever lived, growing to lengths of 59 ft.
    Links: Top Ten Largest Animals, Top Ten Extinct Animals (Non-Dinosaurs), Top Ten Dinosaurs
  14. Basking Shark
    Basking Shark
            The basking shark is the second largest living fish, after the whale shark, and the second of three plankton-eating sharks, the other two being the whale shark and megamouth shark. It is a cosmopolitan migratory species, found in all the world’s temperate oceans. The basking shark is usually greyish-brown in color with mottled skin. The caudal (tail) fin has a strong lateral keel and a crescent shape. The teeth of the basking shark are very small and numerous and often number one hundred per row. The teeth themselves have a single conical cusp, are curved backwards and are the same on both the upper and lower jaws. Basking sharks are a migrating species and are believed to overwinter in deep waters. They may occur in either small schools or alone. Small schools in the Bay of Fundy have been seen swimming nose to tail in circles in what may be a form of mating behavior. Despite their large size and threatening appearance, basking sharks are not aggressive and are harmless to people. It has long been a commercially important fish, as a source of food, shark fin, animal feed and shark liver oil. Overexploitation has reduced its populations to the point where some have disappeared and others need protection.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basking_shark,
  15. Bullhead Shark
    Bullhead SharkBullhead Shark1File:Hornhai (Heterodontus francisci).JPG
           The Bullhead sharks are a small order (Heterodontiformes) of basal modern sharks (Neoselachii). There are nine living species in a single genus, Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae. All are relatively small, with the largest species being just 150 cm (59 in) in adult length. They are bottom feeders in tropical and subtropical waters. The Heterodontiforms appear in the fossil record in the Early Jurassic, well before any of the other Galeomorphii, a group which includes all modern sharks except the dogfish and its relatives. However, they have never been common, and it is likely their origin lies even further back.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullhead_shark,
  16. Leopard Shark
    File:Leopard shark in kelp.jpg
           The leopard shark is a species of houndshark found along the Pacific coast of North America from Oregon, USA to Mazatlán, Mexico. Typically measuring 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft) long, this slender-bodied shark is immediately identifiable by the striking pattern of black saddle-like markings and large spots over its back, from which it derives its common name. Large schools of leopard sharks are a common sight in bays and estuaries, swimming over sandy or muddy flats or rock-strewn areas near kelp beds and reefs. They are most common near the coast, in water less than 4 m (13 ft) deep. Active-swimming predators, groups of leopard sharks often follow the tide onto intertidal mudflats to forage for food, mainly clams, spoon worms, crabs, shrimp, bony fish and fish eggs. Most leopard sharks tend to remain within a particular area rather than undertaking long movements elsewhere, which has led to genetic divergence between populations of sharks living in different regions. From March to June, the female gives birth to as many as 37 young after a gestation period of 10–12 months.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopard_shark,
  17. Chain Cat Shark                                                                                         and                            Banded Cat Shark
    Chain Cat SharkBanded Cat Shark
           Catsharks are ground sharks of the family Scyliorhinidae, with over 150 known species. While they are generally known as catsharks, many species are commonly called dogfish. Catsharks are found in temperate and tropical seas worldwide, ranging from very shallow intertidal waters to depths of 2,000 m (6,600 ft) or more, depending on species.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_shark,
  18. Links: Animals, Top Ten Predators, Top Ten Deadliest Animals,

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