Paintings by Ingo Swann

Ingo Swann

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       Ingo Douglas Swann, (14 September 1933, Telluride, Colorado – 31 January 2013, New York City) was a psychic, artist, and author known for being the co-creator, along with Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, of remote viewing, and specifically the Stargate Project.

  1. Superpowers of the Human Biomind
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  2. Hatching
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  3. The View 
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  4. The Doctor
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  5. Rockstar
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  6. Sign Waves
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  7. Day
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  8. Night
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  9. SUN STREAK
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  10. Light
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  11. Links: Top Ten Remote Viewers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingo_Swann,

Photography

Photography

Top Ten Hubble Photographs

Top Ten Hubble Photographs

       The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a space shuttle in April 1990. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well-known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency and is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. Hubble was funded in the 1970’s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope’s capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble’s orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble’s Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe’s most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe. Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. Four servicing missions were performed from 1993–2002, but the 5th was canceled on safety grounds following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved one final servicing mission, completed in 2009. The telescope is now expected to function until at least 2014, when its ‘successor,’ the James Webb Space Telescope, is due to be launched.

  1. The Sombrero Galaxy
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           The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as M 104 or NGC 4594 ) is an unbarred spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It has a bright nucleus, an unusually large central bulge, and a prominent dust lane in its inclined disk. The dark dust lane and the bulge give this galaxy the appearance of a sombrero. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of +9.0, making it easily visible with amateur telescopes. The large bulge, the central super massive black hole, and the dust lane all attract the attention of professional astronomers.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sombrero_Galaxy,
  2. Ant Nebula
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           Menzel 3 is a young bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Norma that is composed of a bright core and four distinct high-velocity outflows that have been named lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. These nebulosities are described as: two spherical bipolar lobes, two outer large filamentary hour-glass shaped columns, two cone shaped rays, and a planar radially expanding, elliptically shaped chakram. Mz 3 is a complex system composed of three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and an equatorial ellipse. Its lobes all share the same axis of symmetry but each have very different morphologies and opening angles. It is an unusual PN in that it is believed, by some researchers, to contain a symbiotic binary at its center. Study suggests that the dense nebular gas at its center may have originated from a source different than that of its extended lobes. The working model to explain this hypothesizes that this PN is composed of a giant companion that caused a central dense gas region to form, and a white dwarf that provides ionizing photons for the PN.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_Nebula,
  3. Hourglass Nebula
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           The Engraved Hourglass Nebula (also known as MyCn 18) is a young planetary nebula situated in the southern constellation Musca about 8,000 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by Annie Jump Cannon and Margaret W. Mayall during their work on an extended Henry Draper Catalogue (1918-1924). At the time, it was designated simply as a small faint planetary nebula. Much improved telescopes and imaging techniques allowed the hourglass shape of the nebula to be discovered by Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on January 18, 1996. It is conjectured that MyCn 18’s hourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is denser near its equator than its poles. The formation of the shape of the inner “eye” is not yet fully understood. The Hourglass Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. A less-famous “Hourglass Nebula” is located inside the Lagoon Nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hourglass_Nebula,
  4. UFO in the Rings of Saturn
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    Pictures taken by Voyager 1 in 1980, as well as images taken by the Hubble Telescope, apparently show a very large craft in the rings of Saturn. A book entitled “The Ringmakers of Saturn, by Ames National Laboratory Research Scientist, Norman Bergrun, attempts to address what is going on in the rings. To watch the very insightful interview with Norman Bergrun, click on the link below.
    Watch Interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHmgZymhJL8,
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  5. Cartwheel Galaxy

    The Cartwheel Galaxy (also known as ESO 350-40) is a lenticular galaxy and ring galaxy about 500 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. It is an estimated 150,000 light-years across, has a mass of about 2.9–4.8 × 109 solar masses, and rotates at 217 km/s. It was discovered by Fritz Zwicky in 1941. Zwicky considered his discovery to be “one of the most complicated structures awaiting its explanation on the basis of stellar dynamics.” An estimation of the galaxy’s span resulted in a conclusion of 150,000 light years, which is slightly larger than the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartwheel_Galaxy,
  6. The Antennae Galaxy

           The Antennae Galaxies (also known as NGC 4038/NGC 4039) are a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Corvus. They were both discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel in 1785. Located in the NGC 4038 group with five other galaxies, these two galaxies are known as the ‘Antennae’ because the two long tails of stars, gas and dust thrown out of the galaxies as a result of the collision resemble the antennae of an insect. This is likely the future of our Milky Way when it collides with the Andromeda Galaxy in some two billion years. Two supernovae have been discovered in the galaxy: SN 2004GT and SN 2007sr. A recent study finds that these interacting galaxies are closer to the Milky Way than previously thought, at 45 million light-years instead of 65 million light-years.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antennae_Galaxies,
  7. Cat’s Eye Nebula
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           The Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543, Caldwell 6) is a planetary nebula in the constellation of Draco. Structurally, it is one of the most complex nebulae known, with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations revealing remarkable structures such as knots, jets, bubbles and sinewy arc-like features. In the center of the Cat’s Eye there is a bright and hot star; around 1,000 years ago this star lost its outer envelope, producing the nebula. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 15th, 1786, and was the first planetary nebula whose spectrum was investigated by the English amateur astronomer William Huggins in 1864. The results of the latter investigation demonstrated for the first time that planetary nebulae consist of hot gases, but not stars. Currently the nebula has been observed across the full electromagnetic spectrum, from far-infrared to X-rays. Modern studies reveal several mysteries. The intricacy of the structure may be caused in part by material ejected from a binary central star, but as yet, there is no direct evidence that the central star has a companion. Also, measurements of chemical abundances reveal a large discrepancy between measurements done by two different methods, the cause of which is uncertain. Hubble Telescope observations revealed a number of faint rings around the Eye, which are spherical shells ejected by the central star in the distant past. The exact mechanism of those ejections, however, is unclear.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat%27s_Eye_Nebula,
  8. Eskimo Nebula

    The Eskimo Nebula, also known as the Clownface Nebula or Caldwell 39, is a bipolar double-shell planetary nebula. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel in 1787. The formation resembles a person’s head surrounded by a parka hood. It is surrounded by gas that composed the outer layers of a Sun-like star. The visible inner filaments are ejected by a strong wind of particles from the central star. The outer disk contains unusual light-year long filaments. NGC 2392 lies more than 2,870 light-years away and is visible with a small telescope (but more preferably with a larger telescope) in the constellation of Gemini.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eskimo_nebula,
  9. Crab Nebula
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           The Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant and pulsar wind nebula in the constellation of Taurus. Corresponding to a bright supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054, the nebula was observed later by English astronomer John Bevis in 1731. At an apparent magnitude of 8.4, comparable to that of the largest moon of Saturn, it is not visible to the naked eye but can be made out using binoculars under favorable conditions. At X-ray and gamma ray energies above 30 keV, the Crab is generally the strongest persistent source in the sky, with measured flux extending to above 10 TeV. Located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years (2 kpc) from Earth, the nebula has a diameter of 11 light years (3.4 pc, corresponding to an apparent diameter of some 7 arc minutes) and expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second (0.5% c). It is part of the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star 28–30 km across with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves. The nebula was the first astronomical object identified with a historical supernova explosion. The nebula acts as a source of radiation for studying celestial bodies that occult it. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, the Sun’s corona was mapped from observations of the Crab’s radio waves passing through it, and in 2003, the thickness of the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan was measured as it blocked out X-rays from the nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_nebula,
  10. God’s Eye Nebula (Helix Nebula)
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           The Helix Nebula, also known as The Helix, NGC 7293, is a large planetary nebula (PN) located in the constellation Aquarius. Discovered by Karl Ludwig Harding, probably before 1824, this object is one of the closest to the Earth of all the bright planetary nebulae. The estimated distance is about 215 parsecs or 700 light-years. It is similar in appearance to the Cat’s Eye Nebula and the Ring Nebula, whose size, age, and physical characteristics are similar to the Dumbbell Nebula, varying only in its relative proximity and the appearance from the equatorial viewing angle. The Helix Nebula has sometimes been referred to as the “Eye of God” in pop culture.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helix_Nebula,
  11. Eagle Nebula
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           The Eagle Nebula, also known as the Star Queen Nebula, is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape that is thought to resemble an eagle. It contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, including the famous “Pillars of Creation,” photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_nebula,
  12. Egg Nebula
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           The Egg Nebula is a bipolar protoplanetary nebula approximately 3,000 light-years away from Earth. Its peculiar properties were first described in 1975 using data from the 11 µm survey obtained with sounding rocket by Air Force Geophysical Laboratory in 1971 to 1974. Before this, the object was catalogued by Fritz Zwicky as a pair of galaxies. The Egg Nebula’s defining feature is the series of bright arcs and circles surrounding the central star. A dense layer of gas and dusts enshrouds the central star, blocking its direct light from our view. However, the light from the central star penetrates the thinner regions of this dusty enclosure, illuminating the outer layers of gas to create the arcs. The dusty enclosure around the central star is very likely a disc. The bipolar outflows in the image indicate that the system has angular momentum, which is very likely generated by an accretion disc. In addition, a disc geometry would account for the varying thickness of the enclosure that allows light to escape along the disc’s axis and illuminate the outer layers of gas, but still blocks it from our direct view along the disc edge. Although dusty discs have been confirmed around several post-AGB objects (S. De Ruyter et al., 2006), a disc around the Egg Nebula is yet to be confirmed. The Egg Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The Egg Nebula emits polarized light which can also be detected visually by a medium-sized telescope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_Nebula,
  13. NGC 604
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           NGC 604 is a H II region inside the Triangulum Galaxy. It was discovered by William Herschel on September 11, 1784. It is one of the largest H II regions in the Local Group of galaxies; at the galaxy’s estimated distance of 2.7 million light-years its longest diameter is roughly 1,500 light years (460 parsecs), over 40 times the size of the visible portion of the Orion Nebula. It is over 6,300 times more luminous than the Orion Nebula, and if it were at the same distance it would outshine Venus. Like all emission nebulae, its gas is ionized by a cluster of massive stars at its center, with 200 stars of spectral type O and WR, a mass of 105 solar masses, and an age of 3.5 million years; however, unlike the Large Magellanic Cloud’s Tarantula Nebula central cluster (R136), NGC 604’s one is much less compact and more similar to a large stellar association, being considered the prototypical example of a Scaled OB Association (SOBA).
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_604,
  14. Great Nebula in Carina
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           The Great Carina Nebula is a large bright nebula that has within its boundaries several related open clusters of stars. Some papers generally refer to this as the Carina Nebula, mostly because of differentiating the many paper published on this object, but the historical precedence as determined by southern observers like James Dunlop and John Herschel, who have both termed it the Eta Argus Nebula or Eta Carinae Nebula. John Herschel also describes “The star η Argus, with the Great nebula about it.” with many of his subsequent published papers supporting this. Eta Carinae and HD 93129A, two of the most massive and luminous stars in our Milky Way galaxy, are among them. The nebula lies at an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light years from Earth. It appears in the constellation of Carina, and is located in the Carina–Sagittarius Arm. The nebula contains multiple O-type stars. The nebula is one of the largest diffuse nebulae in our skies. Although it is some four times as large and even brighter than the famous Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is much less well known, due to its location in the southern sky. It was discovered by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1751–52 from the Cape of Good Hope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carina_Nebula,
  15. Jellyfish Nebula
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           IC 443 (also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sharpless 248 (Sh2-248)) is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Gemini. On the plan of the sky, it is located near the star Eta Geminorum. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth. IC 443 may be the remains of a supernova that occurred 3,000 – 30,000 years ago. The same supernova event likely created the neutron star CXOU J061705.3+222127, the collapsed remnant of the stellar core. IC 443 is one of the best-studied cases of supernova remnants interacting with surrounding molecular clouds.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish_nebula,
  16. Tarantula Nebula
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           The Tarantula Nebula is an H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was originally thought to be a star, but in 1751 Nicolas Louis de Lacaille recognized its nebular nature. The Tarantula Nebula has an apparent magnitude of 8. Considering its distance of about 49 kpc (160,000 light years), this is an extremely luminous non-stellar object. Its luminosity is so great that if it were as close to Earth as the Orion Nebula, the Tarantula Nebula would cast shadows. In fact, it is the most active starburst region known in the Local Group of galaxies. It is also one of the largest such region in the Local Group with an estimated diameter of 200 pc. The nebula resides on the leading edge of the LMC, where ram pressure stripping, and the compression of the interstellar medium likely resulting from this, is at a maximum. At its core lies the compact star cluster R136 (approximate diameter 35 light years) that produces most of the energy that makes the nebula visible. The estimated mass of the cluster is 450,000 solar masses, suggesting it will likely become a globular cluster in the future. In addition to R136, the Tarantula Nebula also contains an older star cluster – catalogued as Hodge 301 – with an age of 20–25 million years. The most massive stars of this cluster have already exploded in supernovae. The closest supernova observed since the invention of the telescope, Supernova 1987A, occurred in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarantula_nebula,
  17. Mayall’s Object (Pac-Man Galaxy)

    Mayall’s Object (also classified under the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 148) is the result of two colliding galaxies located 500 million light years away within the constellation of Ursa Major. It was discovered by Nicholas U. Mayall of the Lick Observatory on 13 March 1940, using the Crossley reflector. When first discovered, Mayall’s Object was described as a peculiar nebula, shaped like a question mark. Originally theorized to represent a galaxy reacting with the intergalactic medium, it is now thought to represent the collision of the two original galaxies has resulted in a new object consisting of a ring-shaped galaxy with a tail emerging from it. It is thought that the original collision between the two original galaxies created a shockwave that initially drew matter into the center which then formed the ring.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, Top Ten Arcade Gameshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayall%27s_Object,
  18. IOK-1 (Most Remote Galaxy)
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           IOK-1, probably one of the oldest and most distant galaxies yet found, seen as it was 12.88 billion years ago, was discovered in April 2006 by Masanori Iye at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan using the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. Its emission of Lyman alpha radiation has a redshift of 6.96, corresponding to just 750 million years after the Big Bang. While some scientists have claimed other objects (such as Abell 1835 IR1916) to be even older, the IOK-1’s age and composition have been more reliably established. “IOK” stands for the observers’ names Iye, Ota, and Kashikawa.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOK-1,
  19. NGC 2207 and IC 2163
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    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 are a pair of colliding spiral galaxies about 80 million light-years away in the constellation Canis Major. Both galaxies were discovered by John Herschel in 1835. So far four supernovae have been observed in NGC 2207 (type Ia SN 1975a in January 1975, type Ib SN 1999ec in October 1999, type Ib SN 2003H—discovered halfway between the two galaxies and type II supernova SN 2013ai in March 2013. NGC 2207 is in the process of tidally stripping IC 2163. NGC 2207 is in the process of colliding and merging with IC 2163. But unlike the Antennae or the Mice Galaxies, they are still two separate spiral galaxies. They are only in the first step of colliding and merging. Soon they will collide, probably looking a bit more like the Mice Galaxies. In about a billion years time they are expected to merge and become an elliptical galaxy.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies,
  20. “Starry Night” Image (Star in the Milky Way Surrounded by a Halo of Light)

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    Links: Top Ten Stars,
  21. Omega Nebula
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           The Omega Nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, Checkmark Nebula, Lobster Nebula, and the Horseshoe Nebula (catalogued as Messier 17 or M17 and as NGC 6618) is an H II region in the constellation Sagittarius. It was discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux in 1745. Charles Messier catalogued it in 1764. It is located in the rich starfields of the Sagittarius area of the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan_nebula,
  22. Mesier 51, Grand Design Spiral Galaxy
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           The Whirlpool Galaxy (also known as Messier 51a, M51a, or NGC 5194) is an interacting grand-design spiral galaxy located at a distance of approximately 23 million light-years in the constellation Canes Venatici. It is one of the most famous galaxies in the sky. The galaxy and its companion (NGC 5195) are easily observed by amateur astronomers, and the two galaxies may even be seen with binoculars. The Whirlpool Galaxy is also a popular target for professional astronomers, who study it to further understand galaxy structure (particularly structure associated with the spiral arms) and galaxy interactions. A grand design spiral galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy with prominent and well-defined spiral arms, as opposed to multi-arm and flocculent spirals which have subtler structural features. The spiral arms of a grand design galaxy extend clearly around the galaxy through many radians and can be observed over a large fraction of the galaxy’s radius. Approximately ten percent of spiral galaxies are classified as grand design type spirals, including M81, M51 and M74. Density wave theory is the preferred explanation for the well-defined structure of grand design spirals. According to this theory, the spiral arms are created inside density waves that turn around the galaxy at different speeds from the stars in the galaxy’s disk. Stars are clumped in these dense regions due to gravitational attraction towards the dense material, though their location in the spiral arm may not be permanent. When they come close to the spiral arm, they are pulled towards the dense material by the force of gravity; and as they travel through the arm, they are slowed from exiting by the same gravitational pull. This causes material to clump in the dense regions.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whirlpool_Galaxy,
  23. Centaurus A
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           Centaurus A (also known as NGC 5128) is a lenticular galaxy about 11 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. It is one of the closest radio galaxies to Earth, so its active galactic nucleus has been extensively studied by professional astronomers. The galaxy is also the 5th brightest in the sky, making it an ideal amateur astronomy target, although the galaxy is only visible from low northern latitudes and the southern hemisphere. A relativistic jet which extracts energy from the vicinity of what is believed to be a super massive black hole at the center of the galaxy is responsible for emissions in the X-ray and radio wavelengths. By taking radio observations of the jet separated by a decade, astronomers have determined that the inner parts of the jet are moving at about one half of the speed of light. X-rays are produced farther out as the jet collides with surrounding gases resulting in the creation of highly energetic particles. As observed in other starburst galaxies, a collision is responsible for the intense burst of star formation. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope scientists confirm that Centaurus A is going through a galaxy collision by devouring a spiral galaxy.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A,
  24. ISOHDFS 27

           ISOHDFS 27 is the most massive spiral galaxy known so far. It is approximately 6 billion light years from Earth. It has a mass of 1.04 × 1012 solar masses (M), about four times as massive as the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISOHDFS_27,
  25. Galaxies

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    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, 
  26. Links: Photography, Top 100 Photographs, Top Ten Modern Wonders of the World, Top Ten Telescopes,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Telescope,

Top Ten Indian Temples

Top Ten Indian Temples

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  1. Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple, Madurai
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             Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple or Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located in the holy city of Madurai in India. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, who is known here as Sundareswarar or Beautiful Lord, and his consort, Parvati who is known as Meenakshi. The temple forms the heart and lifeline of the 2,500 year old city of Madurai. The complex houses 14 magnificent Gopurams or towers including two golden Gopurams for the main deities that are elaborately sculptured and painted. The temple is a significant symbol for the Tamil people and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure is believed to have been built in 1600. The tallest temple tower is 51.9 m (170 ft) high.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meenakshi_Sundareswarar_Temple,
  2. Ellora Caves and Kailash Temple

           Ellora is an archaeological site, 29 km (18 mi) North-West of the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra built by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. It is also known as Elapura (in the Rashtrakuta literature). Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. The 34 “caves” – actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist (caves 1–12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30–34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.
    Links: Top Ten Rock-Cut Architecture, Top Ten Caves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellora_Caves,
  3. Ajaṇṭā Caves
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           The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India are about 300 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BC to about 480 or 650 AD. The caves include paintings and sculptures described by the government Archaeological Survey of India as “the finest surviving examples of Indian art, particularly painting”, which are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. The caves were built in two phases starting around the 2nd century BC, with the second group of caves built around 400–650 AD according to older accounts, or all in a brief period of 460 to 480 according to the recent proposals of Walter M. Spink. The site is a protected monument in the care of the Archaeological Survey of India. The caves are 100 km (62 miles) from the Ellora Caves, which contain Hindu and Jain temples as well as Buddhist caves, the last dating from a period similar to Ajanta. The Ajanta caves are cut into the side of a cliff that is on the south side of a U-shaped gorge on the small river Waghora (or Wagura), and although they are now along and above a modern pathway running across the cliff they were originally reached by individual stairs or ladders from the side of the river 35 to 110 feet below. The area was previously heavily forested, and after the site ceased to be used the caves were covered by jungle until accidentally rediscovered in 1819 by a British officer on a hunting party. They are Buddhist monastic buildings, apparently representing a number of distinct “monasteries” or colleges. The caves are numbered 1 to 28 according to their place along the path, beginning at the entrance. Several are unfinished and some barely begun and others are small shrines. Further round the gorge are a number of waterfalls, which when the river is high are audible from outside the caves. The caves form the largest corpus of early Indian wall-painting; other survivals from the area of modern India are very few, though they are related to 5th-century paintings at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka. The elaborate architectural carving in many caves is also very rare, and the style of the many figure sculptures is highly local, found only at a few nearby contemporary sites.
    Links: Top Ten Caves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajanta_Caves,
  4. Srikalahasti Temple, Andhra Pradesh
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           Srikalahasti Temple is located in the town of Srikalahasti, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is one of the most famous Shiva temples in South India, and is said to be the site where Kannappa, one of the 63 Saivite Nayanars, was ready to offer both his eyes to cover blood flowing from the Siva linga before the Lord Siva stopped him and granted him mukti. Sri Kalahasti temple, situated 36 km away from Tirupati is famous for its Vayu deva temple, which is the only shrine for the God of Wind in India. Constructed in the 12th century by the Chola king, Rajendra Chola, Vayu is incarnated as Lord Shiva and worshipped as Kalahasteeswara.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalahasti_temple,
  5. Konark Sun Temple, India
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    Konark Sun Temple is a 13th century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I (1238-1250 AD) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty. The temple is one of the most renowned temples in India and is one of the Seven Wonders of India. Legend has it that the temple was constructed by Samba, the son of Lord Krishna. It is said that Samba was afflicted by leprosy, brought about by his father’s curse on him. After 12 years of penance, he was cured by Surya, the Sun God, in whose honor he built the magnificent Konark Sun Temple.
    Links: Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten Hindu DeitiesTop 100 SculpturesTop 100 Asian Sculptures, Top Ten RelievesTop Ten Asian Relieveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark_Sun_Temple,
  6. Lotus Temple, Delhi
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           The Bahá’í House of Worship in Delhi, India, popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its flowerlike shape, is a Bahá’í House of Worship and also a prominent attraction in Delhi. It was completed in 1986 and serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. It has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles.
    Links: Top 100 Flowershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_temple,
  7. Punjab and the Harmandir Sahib (“Golden Temple”)
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           The Harmandir Sahib, also Darbar Sahib, the “Golden Temple,” is a prominent Sikh Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It was built by the 5th Sikh guru, Guru Arjan, in the 16th Century. In 1604, Guru Arjun completed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, and installed it in the Gurdwara. There are four doors to get into the Harmandir Sahib, which symbolize the openness of the Sikhs towards all people and religions. The present day Gurdwara was rebuilt in 1764 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with the help of other Sikh Misls. In the early 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from outside attack and covered the upper floors of the Gurdwara with gold, which gives it its distinctive appearance and its English name.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmandir_Sahib,
  8. Annamalaiyar Temple, Tamilnadu
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           Annamalaiyar Temple is a noted Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, located at the bottom of the Annamalai hill in Thiruvannamalai town in Tamilnadu, India. It is the home of Annamalaiyar or Arunachaleswarar (Lord Shiva worshipped as a Shiva Lingam) and Unnamalaiyaal (Apitakuchambaal – Parvati), and is one of the largest temples in India. It occupies a special place in the Saivite realm and is regarded as one of the Pancha Bhoota Sthalams (one of the five grand temples associated with the five basic elements), associated with the element Fire; the other four being Thiruvanaikaval Jambukeswara (water), Chidambaram Natarajar (sky), Kanchi Ekambareswara (earth) and Kalahasti Nathar (wind). It is said that the Saivite saint poet Manikkavasagar composed the Tiruvempaavai while at Thiruvannamalai.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annamalaiyar_Temple,
  9. Chidambaram Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Chidambaram Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram, 78 km south of Pondicherry and 60 km north of Karaikal in Cuddalore District, the east-central part of the Tamil Nadu state of southeastern India. The Sangam classics refer to Viduvelvidugu Perumtaccan, respected clan of traditional Vishwakarmas, as being the chief architect of the temple renovation. There have been several renovations in its history, particularly during the days of Pallava/Chola emperors in ancient and pre-medieval periods. In Hindu literature, Chidambaram is one of the five holiest Shiva temples, each representing one of the five natural elements; Chidambaram represents akasha (aether). The other four temples in this category are: Thiruvanaikaval Jambukeswara (water), Kanchi Ekambareswara (earth), Thiruvannamalai Arunachaleswara (fire) and Kalahasti Nathar (wind).
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, Top 100 Indian Sculptures,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chidambaram_Temple, 
  10. Buddhist Pilgrimage of Lumbinī, Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya and Sarnath
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           Lumbinī, “the lovely,” is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi district of Nepal. It is the place where Queen Mayadevi gave birth to Siddhartha Gautama and where he lived roughly between 623 and 543 BC and founded Buddhism as Gautama Buddha. Lumbini is one of four magnets for pilgrimage that sprang up in places pivotal to the life of the Buddha, the others being at Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya and Sarnath. Lumbini, where the Buddha lived until the age of 29, has a number of temples, including the Mayadevi temple and others under construction. Also located here is the Puskarini or Holy Pond where the Buddha’s mother took the ritual dip prior to his birth and where he, too, had his first bath, as well as the remains of Kapilavastu palace. At other sites near Lumbini, earlier Buddhas were, according to tradition, born, achieved ultimate awakening and finally relinquished earthly form. Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the place where Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained Enlightenment (Bodhimandala). For Buddhists, Bodh Gaya is the most important of the main four pilgrimage sites related to the life of Gautama Buddha. Sarnath is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 km north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India. Singhpur, a village one km away from the site, was the birthplace of Shreyansanath, the 11th Tirthankara of Jainism, and a temple dedicated to him, is an important pilgrimage site. Isipatana is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit, if they wanted to visit a place for that reason. It was also the site of the Buddha’s Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, which was his first teaching after attaining enlightenment, in which he taught the four noble truths and the teachings associated with it. Kushinagar is a town and a Nagar Panchayat in Gorakhpur district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important to Buddhists, as it is the site, where Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumbinihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarnath, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodh_Gaya, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushinagar,
  11. Khajuraho Group of Monuments
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    The Khajuraho Group of Monuments in Khajuraho, a town in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, located in Chhatarpur District, about 620 km (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, famous for their erotic sculptures. Between 950 and 1150, the Chandela monarchs built these temples when the Tantric tradition may have been accepted. In the days before the Mughal conquests, when boys lived in hermitages, following brahmacharya until they became men, they could learn about the world and prepare themselves to become householders through examining these sculptures and the worldly desires they depicted. The name Khajuraho, ancient “Kharjuravāhaka,” is derived from the Sanskrit words kharjura = date palm and vāhaka = “one who carries.” Locals living in the Khajuraho village always knew about and kept up the temples as best as they could. They were pointed out to the English in the late 19th century when the jungles had taken a toll on the monuments. In the 19th century, British engineer T.S. Burt arrived in the area, followed by General Alexander Cunningham. Cunningham put Khajuraho on the world map when he explored the site on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India and described what he found in glowing terms. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is considered to be one of the “seven wonders” of India.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khajuraho_Group_of_Monuments,
  12. Srisailam Temple, Andhra Pradesh
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           Srisailam is a holy town and mandal, situated in Nallamala Hills of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the banks of River Krishna, about 232 km south of Hyderabad. Bhramaramba Mallikarjunaswamy Temple dedicated to Lord Mallikarjuna Swamy (a form of Shiva) and Devi Bhramaramba (a form of Parvathi) is located here and it is one of the 12 Jyotirlinga temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. Srisailam Dam, located about 245 km from Hyderabad and 132 km from Nandyal, is a multipurpose dam has been built across River Krishna and caters to the irrigation and power needs of the state.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srisailam,
  13. Ekambareswarar Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Ekambareswarar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Kanchipuram in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the five major Shiva temples or Pancha Bootha Sthalams (each representing a natural element) representing the element Earth. The other four temples in this category are Thiruvanaikaval Jambukeswara (water), Chidambaram Natarajar (ether), Thiruvannamalai Arunachaleswara (fire) and Kalahasti Nathar (wind). All of the four revered Saivite Saints have sung the glories of this temple. Legend has it that once Parvati was doing tapas under the temple’s ancient Mango Tree. In order to test her devotion Lord Shiva sent fire on her. Goddess Parvati prayed to her brother, Lord Vishnu, for help. In order to save her, he took the Moon from Lord Shiva’s head and showed the rays which then cooled down the tree as well as Parvati. After that, Lord Shiva again sent the river Ganga (Ganges) to disrupt Parvati’s tapas. Parvati devi prayed to Ganga and convinced her that both of them were sisters and so should not harm her. And so Ganga did not disturb her penance after that. Then Parvati made a Shiva Linga out of sand and got united with Lord Shiva. According to another legend, it is believed that Parvati worshipped Shiva in the form of a Prithivi Lingam (or a Lingam improvised out of sand), under a mango tree. Legend has it that the neighboring Vegavati River overflowed and threatened to engulf the Shiva Lingam and that Parvati or Kamakshi embraced the Lingam. Shiva touched by the gesture materialized in person and married her. In this context he is referred to as Tazhuva kuzhainthaar (“He who melted in Her embrace”) in Tamil.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekambareswarar_Temple,
  14. Kanyakumari Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Kanyakumari is a town in the state of Tamil Nadu in India, sometimes referred to as Cape Comorin. Located at the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, it is the geographical end of the Indian mainland. The district in Tamil Nadu where the town is located is called Kanyakumari District. The closest major cities are Nagercoil, the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District, (22 km) and Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of Kerala (85 km). The town is a popular tourist place in India.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanyakumari,
  15. Rameshwaram Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Rameswaram is a town in Ramanathapuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on Pamban Island separated from mainland India by the Pamban channel and is about 50 kilometres from Mannar Island, Sri Lanka. Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, is connected to mainland India by the Pamban Bridge. Rameswaram is the terminus of the railway line from Chennai and Madurai. Together with Kashi, it is considered to be one of the holiest places in India to Hindus, and part of the Char Dham pilgrimages. Hence, it is a bustling pilgrim centre. It is situated in the Gulf of Mannar at the very tip of the Indian peninsula. According to legend, this is the place from where Lord Rama built a bridge Ram Setu (also known as Adam’s Bridge) across the sea to Lanka to rescue his consort Sita from her abductor Ravana. Both the Vaishnavites and Shaivites visit this pilgrimage centre which is known as the Varanasi of the south. Ex-president of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, hails from a fishing hamlet called Dhanushkodi situated on this island.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rameshwaram,
  16. Thiruvanaikaval Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Thiruvanaikaval is a famous Shiva temple in Tiruchirapalli (Trichy), located in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple was built by Kocengannan (Kochenga Chola), one of the Early Cholas, around 1,800 years ago. It is adjacent to the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam. Thiruvanaikal is one of the five major Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu(Panchabhoota Sthalams) representing the Mahābhūta or five great elements; this temple represents the element of water, or neer in Tamil. The other Panchabhoota Sthalams are located at Chidambaram (sky/ space), Kalahasti (wind), Tiruvannamalai (fire) and Kanchipuram (earth).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jambukeswarar_Temple,_Thiruvanaikaval,
  17. Sun Temple, Modhera, Gujarat, India
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           The Sun Temple, Modhera, at Modhera in Gujarat, is a temple dedicated to the Hindu Sun-God, Surya. It was built in 1026 AD by King Bhimdev of the Solanki dynasty. The Modhera sun temple is situated on the bank of the river Pushpavati, 25 km from Mehsana and 102 km from Ahmedabad.
    Links: Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten Columns/Pillars,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Temple,_Modhera,
  18. Tiruchendur Temple, Tamil Nadu
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            Thiruchendur is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This town has a different name called Thirucheer Alaiwai.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiruchendur,
  19. Nellaiappar Temple, Tamil Nadu
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           Nellaiappar Temple is one of the famous Shiva Temples situated at the heart of Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Links: Top Ten Pillars/Columns, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nellaiappar_Temple,
  20. Great Living Chola Temples
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    The Great Living Chola Temples are temples built during the Chola rule in the south of India. These temples are the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Peruvudaiyar Kovil, also known as Brihadeeswara Temple, RajaRajeswara Temple and Rajarajeswaram, at Thanjavur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and an art of the work achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. This is the largest temple in India and one of India’s most prized architectural sites. The Kumbam (Kalasha or Chikharam) (apex or the bulbous structure on the top) of the temple is carved out of a single stone and it weighs around 80 tons. The entire temple structure is made out of granite, the nearest sources of which are close to Tiruchchirapalli, about 60 km to the west of Thanjavur, where the temple is. Gangaikonda Cholapuram was erected as the capital of the Cholas by Rajendra Chola I, the son and successor of Rajaraja Chola, the great Chola who conquered a large area in South India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Sumatra, Kadaram (Kedah in Malaysia) at the beginning of the 11th century AD. It occupies an important place in the history of India. As the capital of the Cholas from about 1025 AD for about 250 years, the city controlled the affairs of entire southern India, from the Tungabhadra in the north to Ceylon in the south and other Southeast Asian countries. The great temple of Siva at this place is next only to the Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur in its monumental nature and surpasses it in sculptural quality. The Gangaikondaan temple is an architectural and engineering marvel because the shadow of the main tower never falls on the ground throughout the year. Airavatesvara Temple is a Hindu temple of Dravidian architecture located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This temple, built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century AD.
    Links: Top Ten Pillars/Columns,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brihadisvara_Temple,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangaikonda_Cholapuram,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airavatesvara_Temple,
  21. Brihadeeswarar Temple
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    Thanjavur is a city in southern India state of Tamil Nadu. Scholars believe the name Thanjavur is derived from Tanjan, a legendary demon in Hindu mythology. While the early history of Thanjavur remains unclear, the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire. After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British Empire. It has been a part of independent India since 1947 and an important center of South Indian religion, art and architecture. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the center of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. The city is an important agricultural center located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the “Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu.” Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city also has rail connectivity.  The Peruvudaiyar Kovil, also known as Brihadeeswara Temple, RajaRajeswara Temple and Rajarajeswaram, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and an art of the work achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. This is the largest temple in India and one of India’s most prized architectural sites. The temple stands amidst fortified walls that were probably added in the 16th century. The vimana or (temple tower) is 216 ft. (66 m) high and is among the tallest of its kind in the world. The Kumbam (Kalasha or Chikharam) (apex or the bulbous structure on the top) of the temple weighs around 80 tons. There is a big statue of Nandi (sacred bull), carved out of a single rock, at the entrance measuring about 16 ft. long and 13 ft. high. The entire temple structure is made out of granite, the nearest sources of which are close to Tiruchchirapalli, about 60 km to the west of Thanjavur, where the temple is. Built in 1010 AD by Raja Raja Chola I in Thanjavur, Brihadeeswarar Temple, also popularly known as the ‘Big Temple,’ turned 1000 years old in 2010.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanjavurhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brihadeeswarar_Temple,
  22. Yaganti, Andhra Pradesh
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           Sri Yaganti Uma Maheswara Temple or Yaganti is a temple to Lord Shiva in Kurnool District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaganti,
  23. Hampi and Vijayanagara
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    Hampi is a village in northern Karnataka state, India. It is located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Predating the city of Vijayanagara, it continues to be an important religious center, housing the Virupaksha Temple, as well as several other monuments belonging to the old city. In around 1500 Vijaynagar had 500,000 inhabitants, probably making it the 2nd largest city in the world after Peking-Beijing and twice the then size of Paris.
    Links: Top Ten Columns/Pillars, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vijayanagara,
  24. Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India,

Top Ten African Pyramids

Top Ten African Pyramids

  1. The Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 African Sculptures,
  2. Red Pyramid, Dashur, Egypt

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,
  3. Bent Pyramid, Egypt
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    The Bent Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 km south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2600 BC). A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt, this was the 2nd pyramid built by Sneferu. The lower part of the pyramid rises from the desert at a 54-degree inclination, but the top section is built at the shallower angle of 43 degrees, lending the pyramid its very obvious “bent” appearance. Archaeologists now believe that the Bent Pyramid represents a transitional form between step-sided and smooth-sided pyramids. It has been suggested that due to the steepness of the original angle of inclination the structure may have begun to show signs of instability during construction, forcing the builders to adopt a shallower angle to avert the structure’s collapse. It is also unique amongst the approximately 90 pyramids to be found in Egypt, in that its original polished limestone outer casing remains largely intact.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent_pyramid,
  4. Saqqara and the Pyramid of Unas, Egypt

           Saqqara is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas (Arabic word meaning ‘bench’). Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km (4.3 by 0.93 mi). At Saqqara, the oldest complete stone building complex known in history was built: Djoser’s step pyramid, built during the 3rd dynasty. Another 16 Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation or dilapidation. High officials added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire pharaonic period. It remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times. Contrary to popular belief, the name Saqqara is not derived from the ancient Egyptian funerary god Sokar, but from the Beni Saqqar who are a local Berber tribe. Their name means “Sons of Saqqar.” Since they are not indigenous to the area it would not follow that they would fashion themselves as being born of an ancient Egyptian god whose identity was unknown until the age of archaeology.
    Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Necropolises,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqqara,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Unas,
  5. Abusir, Egypt

           Abusir, “the House or Temple of Osiris,” is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality, specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions, in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. The name is also that of a neighboring village in the Nile Valley, whence the site takes its name. Abusir is located several km north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri. Abusir is one relatively small segment of the extensive “pyramid field” that extends from north of Giza to below Saqqara, the locality of Abusir took its turn as the focus of the prestigious western burial rites operating out of the then-capital of Memphis during the Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty. As an elite cemetery, neighboring Giza had by then “filled up” with the massive pyramids and other monuments of the 4th Dynasty, leading the 5th Dynasty pharaohs to seek sites elsewhere for their own funerary monuments. Abusir was the origin of the largest find of Old Kingdom papyri to date, the Abusir Papyri. In the late 19th century, a number of Western museums acquired collections of fragmentary papyri from the administrative (temple) records of one Abusir funerary cult, that of king Neferirkare Kakai. This discovery was supplemented in the late 20th century when excavations by a Czech expedition to the site revealed papyri from two other cult complexes, that of the pharaoh Neferefre (also read Raneferef) and for the king’s mother Khentkaus II. The Czech Institute of Egyptology of the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague has been conducting excavations at Abusir since 1976. They are presently directed by Miroslav Bárta. There are considerable catacombs near the ancient town of Busiris. To the south of Busiris one great cemetery appears to have stretched over the plain. The Heptanomite Busiris was in fact a hamlet standing at one extremity of the necropolis of Memphis.
    Links: Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten TombsTop Ten Sarcophagi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abusir,
  6. Meroë, Sudan

           Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum. Near the site are a group of villages called Bagrawiyah. This city was the capitol of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries. The Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë gave its name to the Island of Meroë, which was the modern region of Butana, a region bounded by the Nile (from the Atbarah River to Khartoum), the Atbarah, Ethiopia and the Blue Nile. The city of Meroë was on the edge of Butana and there were two other Meroitic cities in Butana, Musawwarat es-Sufra, and Naqa. The site of the city of Meroë is marked by more than 200 pyramids in three groups, of which many are in ruins. They are identified as Nubian pyramids because of their distinctive size and proportions.
    Links: Top Ten Sudanese Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mero%C3%AB,
  7. Jebel Barkal, Sudan

           Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. In 2003, the mountain, together with the historical city of Napata (which sits at its feet), were named World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Around 1450 BC, the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III extended his empire to that region and considered Gebel Barkal its southern limit. There, he campaigned near the city of Napata that, about 300 years later, became the capital of the independent kingdom of Kush. The 25th Dynasty Nubian king Piye later greatly enlarged the New Kingdom Temple of Amun in this city and erected his Year 20 Victory stela within it. The ruins around Gebel Barkal include at least 13 temples and 3 palaces that were first described by European explorers in the 1820’s. In 1862 five inscriptions from the Third Intermediate Period were recovered by an Egyptian officer and transported to the Cairo Museum, but not until 1916 were scientific archeological excavations performed by a joint expedition of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston. From the 1970’s, explorations continued by teams from the University of Rome La Sapienza and Boston Museum. The larger temples, such as that of Amun, are even today considered sacred to the local population. The mountain is 98 m tall, has a flat top, and apparently was used as a landmark by the traders in the important route between central Africa, Arabia and Egypt, as the point where it was easier to cross the great river.
    Links: Top Ten Sudanese Attractions,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebel_Barkal_and_the_Sites_of_the_Napatan_Region,
  8. Pyramid of Meidum, Egypt
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           Located about 100 km south of modern Cairo, Meidum or Maidum is the location of a large pyramid, and several large mud-brick mastabas.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meidum,
  9. Mauritian Pyramids
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    Links: Top Ten Mauritian Attractions,
  10. Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, 

Top Ten South American Pyramids

Top Ten South American Pyramids

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  1.  Huaca del Sol (Pyramid of the Sun), Peru

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  2. Sipan Pyramid, Peru
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  3. Cahuachi Pyramids, Peru

    Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD-500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines. The Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures. The huge architectural complex covers 0.6 sq. miles (1.5 km2). The American archeologist Helaine Silverman has also conducted long term, multi-stage research and written about the full context of Nazca society at Cahuachi, published in a lengthy study in 1993. Scholars once thought the site was the capital of the Nazca state but have determined that the permanent population was quite small. They believe that it was a pilgrimage center, whose population increased greatly in relation to major ceremonial events. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions. Support for the pilgrimage theory comes from archaeological evidence of sparse population at Cahuachi, the spatial patterning of the site, and ethnographic evidence from the Virgin of Yauca pilgrimage in the nearby Ica Valley.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahuachi,
  4. Túcume Pyramids, Peru
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    Túcume is a pre-Hispanic site in Peru, south of the La Leche River on a plain around La Raya Mountain. It covers an area of over 540 acres (220 ha) and encompassing 26 major pyramids and mounds. The area is referred to as Purgatorio (purgatory) by local people. This site was a major regional center, maybe even the capital of the successive occupations of the area by the Lambayeque/Sican (800-1350 AD), Chimú (1350–1450 AD) and Inca (1450–1532 AD). Local shaman healers (curanderos) invoke power of Tucume and La Raya Mountain in their rituals, and local people fear these sites. Hardly anyone other than healers venture out in this site at night. The plains of Túcume are part of the Lambayeque Valley, the largest valley of the North Coast of Peru. The Lambayeque Valley is the site of scores of natural and man-made waterways and is also a region of about 250 brick pyramids.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%BAcume,
  5. Caral Pyramids, Peru
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    Caral, or Caral-Supe, was a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas, and is a well-studied site of the Caral civilization or Norte Chico civilization.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caral,
  6. San Isidro Pyramid, Peru

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    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  7. Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, 

Top Ten North American Pyramids

Top Ten North American Pyramids

  1. Teotihuacán, Mexico

           Teotihuacán is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Apart from the pyramidal structures, Teotihuacan is also known for its large residential complexes, the Avenue of the Dead, and numerous colorful, well-preserved murals. Additionally, Teotihuacan produced a thin orange pottery style that spread through Mesoamerica. The city is thought to have been established around 100 BC and continued to be built until about 250 AD. The city may have lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th centuries AD. At its zenith, perhaps in the first half of the 1st millennium AD, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, with a population of perhaps 125,000 or more, placing it among the largest cities of the world in this period. Teotihuacan was even home to multi-floor apartment compounds built to accommodate this large population. The civilization and cultural complex associated with the site is also referred to as Teotihuacan or Teotihuacano. Although it is a subject of debate whether Teotihuacan was the center of a state empire, its influence throughout Mesoamerica is well documented; evidence of Teotihuacano presence can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region. The Aztecs may have been influenced by this city. The ethnicity of the inhabitants of Teotihuacan is also a subject of debate. Possible candidates are the Nahua, Otomi or Totonac ethnic groups. Scholars have also suggested that Teotihuacan was a multiethnic state. The city and the archaeological site are located in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacán municipality in the State of México, Mexico, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Mexico City. It is the most visited archaeological site in Mexico.
    Links: Pyramids, Museums and Galleries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teotihuacan,
  2. Chichen Itza, Mexico

           Chichen Itza, “at the mouth of the well of the Itza,” was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya civilization. The archaeological site is located in the municipality of Tinum, in the Mexican state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classic (600–900 AD) through the Terminal Classic (800–900) and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period (900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion. Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site. The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, and the site’s stewardship is maintained by Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History, INAH). The land under the monuments had been privately-owned until March 29, 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico; an estimated 1.2 million tourists visit the ruins every year.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chichen_Itza,
  3. The Great Pyramid of Cholula, Mexico
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    The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for “artificial mountain”), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World. The pyramid stands 55 m (180 ft.) above the surrounding plain, and in its final form it measured 400 by 400 m (1,300 by 1,300 ft.). The pyramid is a temple that has traditionally been viewed as having been dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The architectural style of the building was closely linked to that of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, although influence from the Gulf Coast is also evident, especially from El Tajín.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Cholula,
  4. Templo Mayor, Mexico
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    The Templo Mayor was one of the main temples of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. The temple was called the huei teocalli in the Nahuatl language and dedicated simultaneously to two gods, Huitzilopochtli, god of war and Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture, each of which had a shrine at the top of the pyramid with separate staircases. The temple, measuring approximately 100 by 80 m (328 by 262 ft.) at its base, dominated a Sacred Precinct. Construction of the first temple began sometime after 1325, and it was rebuilt six times after that. The temple was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521. The modern-day archeological site lies just to the northeast of the Zocalo, or main plaza of Mexico City, on the corner of what are now Seminario and Justo Sierra streets.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Templo_Mayor,
  5. Calakmul, Mexico
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    Calakmul is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region. It is 35 km (22 mi) from the Guatemalan border. Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands. Calakmul was a major Maya power within the northern Petén region of the Yucatán of southern Mexico. Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph of the snake head sign, to be read “Kaan.” Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Kingdom of the Snake. This Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period. Calakmul itself is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 people and had governance, at times, over places as far away as 150 km. There are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul the largest of which is the great pyramid at the site. Structure 2 is over 45 m (148 ft.) high, making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids. Four tombs have been located within the pyramid. Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica the pyramid at Calakmul increased in size by building upon the existing temple to reach its current size. The size of the central monumental architecture is approximately 2 square km (0.77 sq mi) and the whole of the site, mostly covered with dense residential structures, is about 20 square km (7.7 sq mi). Throughout the Classic Period, Calakmul maintained an intense rivalry with the major city of Tikal to the south, and the political maneuverings of these two cities have been likened to a struggle between two Maya superpowers.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calakmul,
  6. El Mirador, Guatemala
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    El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian Mayan settlement, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala.
    Links: Top Ten Guatemalan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Mirador,
  7. Area 51 Pyramid, USA

    Area 51, first brought to the public’s attention by Las Vegas investigative television journalist George Knapp, has long been a hotbed of UFO speculation and investigations into the likelihood of the secretive desert base being used to reverse-engineer captured alien technology. If true, and there’s strong circumstantial evidence that at least some of the allegations made by Bob Lazar and others that the USAF top-secret test base is hip deep in ET artifacts and technology, then some of that technology must require a charge-up to power the unearthly devices. The Chinese scientists may be on to something. For if the pyramid in Qinghai truly was erected to power up extraterrestrial spacecraft, then the USAF may require something similar when their scientists and engineers reach the stage in the decades-long project to back-engineer unworldly technology that’s allegedly stumped some of the world’s best thinkers for more than two generations. If the USAF reached the stage where they need a massive, alien-designed, power base they would more than likely build a pyramidal structure very much like the one in China. And they have.
    Links: Top Ten Asian Pyramids, Top Ten Chinese Pyramids,
  8. El Tajín, Mexico

           El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 AD, at which time numerous temples, palaces, ballcourts and pyramids were built. From the time the city fell in 1230 to near the end of the 18th century, no European seems to have known of its existence, until a government inspector chanced upon the Pyramid of the Niches in 1785. The architecture at El Tajín includes the use of decorative niches and cement in forms unknown in the rest of Mesoamerica. Its best-known monument is the Pyramid of the Niches, but other important monuments include the Arroyo Group, the North and South Ballcourts and the palaces of Tajín Chico. In total there have been 17 ballcourts discovered at this site. Since the 1970’s, El Tajin has been the most important archeological site in Veracruz for tourists, attracting over 650,000 visitors a year. It is also the site of the annual Cumbre Tajin Festival, which occurs each March featuring indigenous and foreign cultural events as well as concerts by popular musicians.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 North American SculpturesTop 100 Busts, Top Ten Relieves, Top Ten South American Relieves,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Tajin,
  9. Uxmal, Mexico

           Uxmal is an ancient Mayan city of the classical period. Today is one of the most important archaeological sites of Mayan culture, along with those of Chichen Itza and Tikal. It is located in the called Puuc region and is the city most representative of this architectural style. It is located 62 km south of Mérida, capital of Yucatán state in Mexico. Its buildings are noted for their size and decoration. Among them, as well as to other cities in the area, there are built few roads called sacbes. Its buildings are typical of the Puuc style, with smooth low walls that open on ornate friezes based on representations of typical Mayan huts, which are represented by columns (representing the reeds with which were built the walls of the huts) and trapezoidal shapes (representing the thatched roofs), entwined snakes and, in many cases two-headed snakes, masks of the rain god, Chaac with its big noses that represent the rays of the storms, and feathered serpents with open fangs leaving from the same human beings. Also seen in some cities influences of Nahua origin and the follow of the cult of Quetzalcoatl and Tlaloc that were integrated with the original bases of the Puuc tradition. The buildings take advantage of the terrain to gain height and acquire important volumes, include the Pyramid of the Magician, with five levels, and the Governor’s Palace which covers an area of more than 1.200m².
    Links: Pyramids, Top 100 Maskshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Hispanic_Town_of_Uxmal,
  10. Temple of the Inscription, Mexico
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    The Temple of the Inscriptions is the largest Mesoamerican stepped pyramid structure at the pre-Columbian Maya civilization site of Palenque, located in the modern-day state of Chiapas, Mexico. The structure was specifically built as the funerary monument for K’inich Janaab’ Pakal, ajaw or ruler of Palenque in the 7th century whose reign over the polity lasted almost 70 years. Construction of this monument commenced in the last decade of his life, and was completed by his son and successor K’inich Kan B’alam II. Within Palenque, the Temple of the Inscriptions is located in an area known as the Temple of the Inscriptions’ Court and stands at a right angle to the Southeast of the Palace. The Temple of the Inscriptions has been significant in the study of the ancient Maya, owing to the extraordinary sample of hieroglyphic text found on the Inscription Tablets, the impressive sculptural panels on the piers of the building, and the finds inside the tomb of Pakal.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Inscriptions,
  11. Luxor Las Vegas, USA

    Luxor Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The 30-story hotel, which is operated by MGM Resorts International, features a 120,000 square ft (11,000 square m) casino floor that includes over 2,000 slot machines and 87 table games. It has a new, highly modernized and contemporary design and contains a total of 4,400 rooms, including 442 suites, lining the interior walls of a pyramid style tower and within twin 22-story ziggurat towers that were built as later additions. The hotel is named after the city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt. Luxor is the 2nd largest hotel in Las Vegas (the largest being the MGM Grand Las Vegas) and the 3rd largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Modern Pyramids, Top Ten Casinos, Top Ten North American Casinos, Top Ten Las Vegas Casinos, Top Ten Vegas Hotels, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxor_Las_Vegas,
  12. Tikal, Guatemala

           Tikal (or Tik’al according to the modern Mayan orthography) is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centers of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala. Situated in the department of El Petén, the site is part of Guatemala’s Tikal National Park and in 1979 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tikal was the capital of a conquest state that became one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya. Though monumental architecture at the site dates back as far as the 4th century BC, Tikal reached its apogee during the Classic Period (200-900 AD). During this time, the city dominated much of the Maya region politically, economically and militarily, while interacting with areas throughout Mesoamerica such as the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the distant Valley of Mexico. There is evidence that Tikal was conquered by Teotihuacan in the 4th century AD. Following the end of the Late Classic Period, no new major monuments were built at Tikal and there is evidence that elite palaces were burned. These events were coupled with a gradual population decline, culminating with the site’s abandonment by the end of the 10th century. Tikal is the best understood of any of the large lowland Maya cities, with a long dynastic ruler list, the discovery of the tombs of many of the rulers on this list and the investigation of their monuments, temples and palaces.
    Links: Top Ten Guatemalan Attractions, Top 100 Busts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikal,
  13. Comalcalco, Mexican
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    Comalcalco is both a modern-day city located in Comalcalco Municipality about 45 miles (60 km) northwest of Villahermosa in the Mexican state of Tabasco and a Pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site. The literal English translation of “Comalcalco” is “In the house of the comals.” A comal is a pan used to prepare food.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comalcalco,
  14. Caracol, Belize

    Caracol or El Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya archaeological site, located in what is now the Cayo District of Belize. It is situated approximately 40 km south of Xunantunich and the town of San Ignacio Cayo, at an elevation of 460 m above sea-level, in the foothills of the Maya Mountains. The site was the most important political center of Lowland Maya during the Classic Period within Belize. In 650 AD, the urban area of Caracol had a radius of approximately 10 km. It covered an area much larger than present-day Belize City (the largest metropolitan area in the country) and supported more than twice the modern city’s population.
    Links: Top Ten Belizean Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracol,
  15. Lamanai, Belize
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    Lamanai (from Lama’anayin, “submerged crocodile” in Yucatec Maya) is a Mesoamerican archaeological site, and was once a considerably sized city of the Maya civilization, located in the north of Belize, in Orange Walk District. The site’s name is pre-Columbian, recorded by early Spanish missionaries, and documented over a millennium earlier in Maya inscriptions as Lam’an’ain.
    Links: Top Ten Belizean Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamanai,
  16. Tula de Allende, Mexico

           Tula, formally, Tula de Allende, is a town and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 305.8 km² (118.07 square mi), and as of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 93,296, with 28,432 in the town. The municipality includes numerous smaller outlying towns, the largest of which are El Llano, San Marcos, and San Miguel Vindho. It comprised one of the 56 defined Zona Metropolitana (ZM), of which Tula has 5 municipios, 184,691 people in 2005 Census, up from 169,901 in 2000 Census covering 592 square km. It is located some 100 km to the north-northwest of Mexico City. It covers part of the southeastern portion of the Pre-Columbian city. Nearby are the remains of the ancient capital city of the Toltecs, also known as “Tula” or as “Tollan.” Usually identified as the Toltec capital around 980 AD, the city was destroyed at some time between 1168 and 1179. Tula became the capital city following Teotihuacan, although it never reached the same size due to competing cities in the area.
    Links: Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tula,_Mexico,
  17. Pyramid off the Island of Cozumel, Mexico

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    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten Underwater Ruins,
  18. Moody Gardens, Galveston, Texas, USA

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    Links: Top Ten Aquariums,
  19. The Muttart Conservatory, Edmonton, Canada

           The Muttart Conservatory is a botanical garden located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from downtown Edmonton. The conservatory consists of four glass, pyramid-shaped structures that showcase plants from arid, tropical, and temperate climates, providing a welcome oasis of warmth during winter. The fourth pyramid hosts a theme that changes throughout the year. A donation from the Gladys and Merrill Muttart Foundation provided momentum for the conservatory’s construction, with the remaining monies supplied by the Province of Alberta and the City of Edmonton. The conservatory is staffed and operated by the Edmonton Parks and Recreation Department. The conservatory’s unusual structure, designed by architect Peter Hemingway is composed of four glassed pyramids built around a central service core. The two larger’ pyramids are 660 square m in area, and the two medium-sized ones are 410 square m in size. Three of the pyramids are devoted to displays of plants from the tropical, temperate, and arid regions respectively, the 4th being used for shows that change with the seasons and which feature massed displays of ornamental flowering plants. The Temperate Pavilion houses plants typical of temperate climes, from such zones as the southern Great Lakes, Australia, and even the mountainous areas of Asia. Near the entrance and fed by a stream is a bog area, with white water lilies and parrot’s feather. The bog merges into a woodland with mostly eastern deciduous trees and low shrubs but including redwoods, cedars and pampas grass. Eucalyptus trees and flowering shrubs complement the Australian section. In the woodland floor and alpine section are many tiny flowering plants, some native to Alberta and others from all over the world. The barren, rocky slopes of the Arid Pavilion offer contrast to the other houses. The Tropical Pavilion provides an enormous diversity of species; under a canopy of tall palms, banana and weeping fig are orchids, various hibiscus and the bird of paradise, to mention a few. In a smaller pyramid, the Feature Pavilion offers seasonal displays. Arriving with summer are geraniums, begonias, roses and others. The Muttart Conservatory offers a Horticultural Extension Service, allowing the general public to receive expert help in the diagnoses of the ills of their plants, both indoors and out. The conservatory also teaches courses on the care of plants.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, Top Ten Birds, Top Ten Greenhouseshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muttart_Conservatory,
  20. Edmonton City Hall, Canada

           Edmonton’s City Hall was designed by Dub Architects, and completed in 1992. It features two steel and glass pyramids, one 43 m high (ground to peak), on top of a three-story concrete structure. One pyramid provides natural light for the main atrium, the other for the council chambers. The building also features a 200-foot clock tower topped with a 25-bell carillon. Edmonton’s City Hall met with some controversy when it was first announced. The original designs called for the building to be topped with five cones. The cones were meant to pay tribute to the tipis that the First Nations once lived in on the site. The design met with much negative feedback from the public, and was dubbed “the Cone Dome” by the press. Dub Architects then revised their design to replace the cones with the pyramids, with the pyramids designed to be evocative of the Rocky Mountains. The design was received much more warmly by the public, and was dubbed “Pyramid Power” by the press. Located on the eastern edge of the financial district in Edmonton’s downtown, the building is the main feature on Sir Winston Churchill Square. In the winter, the fountain is converted to a skating rink.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmonton_City_Hall,
  21. Munks Mount, Illinois, USA

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    Links: Top Ten US Attractions,
  22. Links: Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten Modern Pyramids,

Top Ten Tombs

Top Ten Tombs

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  1. Pyramids at Giza and Valley of the Kings, Egypt


           The Giza Plateau is a plateau that is located in Giza, Egypt. The famous Giza Necropolis is located in this geographical area, which is characterized by a sandy, desert climate and terrain with little vegetation.
    Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Egyptian Artifacts,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_Plateau,
  2. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City
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           The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as Saint Peter’s Basilica, is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City. Saint Peter’s Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world. While it is neither the official mother church of the Roman Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, Saint Peter’s is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites. It has been described as “holding a unique position in the Christian world” and as “the greatest of all churches of Christendom.” In Roman Catholic tradition, the basilica is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, the first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession. Tradition and some historical evidence hold that Saint Peter’s tomb is directly below the altar of the basilica. For this reason, many Popes have been interred at St. Peter’s since the Early Christian period. There has been a church on this site since the 4th century. Construction of the present basilica, over the old Constantinian basilica, began on April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18, 1626. St. Peter’s is famous as a place of pilgrimage, for its liturgical functions and for its historical associations. It is associated with the papacy, with the Counter-reformation and with numerous artists, most significantly Michelangelo. As a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age. Contrary to popular misconception, Saint Peter’s is not a cathedral, as it is not the seat of a bishop. It is properly termed a papal basilica. The Archbasilica of St. John Lateran is the cathedral church of Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Vatican City Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Peter%27s_Basilica,
  3. Valley of the Kings, Egypt



           The Valley of the Kings, also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th centuries BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the 18th to the 20th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs are situated) and West Valley. With the 2006 discovery of a new chamber (KV63), and the 2008 discovery of 2 further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain at least 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from a simple pit to a complex tomb with over 120 chambers), and was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, together with those of a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the rulers of this time. This area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the 18th century, and its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest. In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun (with its rumors of the Curse of the Pharaohs), and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. Exploration, excavation and conservation continues in the valley and a new tourist center has recently been opened.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Tombshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_Of_The_Kings,
  4. Taj Mahal, India
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           The Taj Mahal, meaning “crown of palaces,” is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.” Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian and Indian architectural styles. While the white domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar component of the Taj Mahal, it is actually an integrated complex of structures. The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma’mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_mahal,
  5. Eastern Qing Tombs, China

           The Eastern Qing Tombs, located in Zunhua, 125 km northeast of Beijing, are among the finest and largest extant Mausoleum complexes in China. Altogether 5 emperors (Shunzhi, Kangxi, Qianlong, Xianfeng, and Tongzhi), 15 empresses, 136 imperial concubines, 3 princes, and 2 princesses of the Qing Dynasty were buried here. Surrounded by Changrui Mountain, Jinxing Mountain, Huanghua Mountain, and Yingfei Daoyang Mountain, the Tombs take up a total of 80 square km of space.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Qing_Tombs,
  6. Ming Dynasty Tombs, China

           The Ming Dynasty Tombs are located some 50 km due north of urban Beijing, China. The site was chosen by the 3rd Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle (1402–1424), who moved the capital of China from Nanjing to the present location of Beijing. He is credited with envisioning the layout of the ancient city of Beijing as well as a number of landmarks and monuments located therein. After the construction of the Imperial Palace (the Forbidden City) in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. The Ming tombs of the 13 emperors of the Ming Dynasty were located on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain (originally Mount Huangtu). From the Yongle Emperor onwards, 13 Ming Dynasty Emperors were buried in this area. The tombs of the first two Ming Emperors are located near Nanjing (the capital city during their reigns). Emperor Jingtai was also not buried here, as the Emperor Tianshun had denied Jingtai an imperial burial, but was instead buried west of Beijing. The last Chongzhen Emperor, who hanged himself in April 1644, named Si Ling by the Qing emperor, was the last to be buried here, but on a much smaller scale than his predecessors. During the Ming dynasty the tombs were off limits to commoners, but in 1644 Li Zicheng’s army ransacked and set many of the tombs on fire before advancing and capturing Beijing in April of that year.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, Top Ten Crowns,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ming_Dynasty_Tombs,
  7. Hadrian’s Tomb Rome, Italy

           The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant’Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum.
    Links: Top Ten Italian AttractionsTop Ten MausoleumsSculptures, Top 100 European Sculptures, Top Ten Bridgeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castel_Sant%27Angelo,
  8. Pantheon, Rome, Italy
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           The Pantheon, “temple consecrated to all gods,” is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome, and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon’s dome is still the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 m (142 ft.). It is one of the best-preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church dedicated to “St. Mary and the Martyrs,” but informally known as “Santa Maria della Rotonda.” The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Domes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantheon,_Rome,
  9. Pantheon, Paris, France

           The Panthéon, “Every god,” is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris. It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve and to house the reliquary châsse containing her relics, but after many changes, now functions as a secular mausoleum containing the remains of distinguished French citizens. It is an early example of neoclassicism, with a façade modeled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto.” Located in the 5th arrondissement on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the Panthéon looks out over all of Paris. Designer Jacques-Germain Soufflot had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the gothic cathedral with classical principles, but its role as a mausoleum required the great gothic windows to be blocked. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important architectural achievements of its time and the first great neoclassical monument.
    Links: Top Ten French AttractionsSculptures, Top 100 European Sculptures, Top Ten Friezes,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panth%C3%A9on_%28Paris%29,
  10. Westminister Abbey, London, UK
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    Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic, church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the UK and is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus (d. 624), a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church was begun in 1245, on the orders of Henry III. Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held here. Since 1100, there have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although before 1919 there had been none for some 500 years.
    Links: Top Ten English Attractions, Top Ten Abbeys, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminister_Abbey,
  11. Terracota Army, Xi’an, China
    273142012_TerracottaWarriors_130.tifMausolée du premier empereur Qin
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    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, 
  12. Tomb of Muhammad, Medina, Saudi Arabia
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           Muhammad, Muhammed, Mohammad or Mohammed, (26 April 570 – 8 June 632), was the founder of the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God, the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims, the last prophet of God as taught by the Quran. Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets. He was also active as a social reformer, diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, military leader, humanitarian, philanthropist, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action. Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One,” that complete “surrender” to Him (literally “islām”) is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets. Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity. The revelations (or Ayah, “Signs of God”), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur’an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned. While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom and pre-modern times were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far less so.
    Links: Top Ten Religious Figures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad,
  13. Rock Cut Tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran
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           The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepolis, copying that of Darius, is usually assumed to be that of Xerxes.
    Links: Top Ten Iranian Attractions, Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Relieves, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerxes_I_of_Persia,
  14. Tomb of Imam Reza, Mashad, Iran
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    Links: Top Ten Iranian Attractions,
  15. Newgrange, Ireland
    123456Brú na Bóinne2
           Newgrange is a prehistoric monument located in County Meath, on the eastern side of Ireland, about one km north of the River Boyne. It was built around 3200 BC, during the Neolithic period. There is no agreement about what the site was used for, but it has been speculated that it had some form of religious significance because it is aligned with the rising sun, which floods the stone room with light on the winter solstice. Newgrange is also older than Stonehenge and the great pyramids of Giza It is in fact just one monument within the Neolithic Brú na Bóinne complex, alongside the similar passage tomb mounds of Knowth and Dowth. Newgrange also shares many similarities with other Neolithic constructions around Western Europe, such as Maeshowe tomb in Orkney, Scotland and the Bryn Celli Ddu site in Wales. After its initial use, the entrance to Newgrange was sealed and it remained closed for several millennia, subsequently gaining several associations in local folklore and mythology. It first began to be studied as a prehistoric monument by antiquarians in the 17th century AD, and over subsequent centuries various archaeological excavations took place at the site before it was largely restored to an interpretation of its original Neolithic appearance by conservators in the 1970’s. Today, Newgrange is a popular tourist site, and according to the archaeologist Colin Renfrew, is “unhesitatingly regarded by the prehistorian as the great national monument of Ireland” and is also widely recognised as one of the most important megalithic structures in Europe.
    Links: Top Ten Irish Attractions, 
  16. Western Xia Tombs, China

           Occupying an area of some 50 square km (19 sq mi), the Western Xia tombs at the foot of the Helan Mountains in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of northwestern China includes nine imperial mausoleums and 250 tombs of imperial relatives and officials. This burial complex lies some 40 km (25 mi) westward from capital city of the Western Xia, the Xingqing fu or Xingqing, what is modern-day Yinchuan, capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Some 17,000 square m (180,000 sq ft) have so far been excavated, and efforts are underway to secure and preserve the remains of this poorly understood era. The Western Xia dynasty (also known as Tangut Empire), existed between 1038 and 1227, when it was finally conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The empire was founded by the Tangut ethnic group, about which little is currently known. Of current excavations, only the #3 mausoleum has been adequately excavated and researched. This mausoleum is attributed to Western Xia’s first emperor Jingzong, born Li Yuanhao, (1003-1048), has been determined as a pavilion-tower construction fusing both traditional mausoleum and temple styles with Buddhist characteristics. The Western Xia capital city and the burial complex eluded early 20th century explorers of Central Asia, including Nikolay Kozlov, Aurel Stein and Sven Hedin. During modern times, it was first reported by Wulf-Dieter Graf zu Castell, who recorded the site in an aerial photograph, published in 1938 in book Chinaflug.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Pyramids, Top Ten Asian Pyramids,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Xia_tombs,
  17. Western Qing Tombs, China

           The Western Qing Tombs are located some 140km (87 miles) southwest of Beijing in Hebei province near the town of Yixian. The Western Qing Tombs is a necropolis that incorporate four royal mausoleums where 78 royal members in all are buried. These include four emperors of the Qing Dynasty and their empresses, imperial concubines, princes and princesses, as well as other royal servants.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Qing_Tombs,
  18. Catacombs of Paris, France
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           The Catacombs of Paris or Catacombes de Paris is an underground ossuary in Paris, France. Located south of the former city gate (the “Barrière d’Enfer” at today’s Place Denfert-Rochereau), the ossuary holds the remains of about six million people and fills a renovated section of caverns and tunnels that are the remains of Paris’s stone mines. Opened in the late 18th century, the underground cemetery became a tourist attraction on a small scale from the early 19th century, and has been open to the public on a regular basis from 1874. Following an incident of vandalism, they were closed to the public in September 2009 and reopened 19 December of the same year. The Catacombs are one of the 14 City of Paris’ Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées. The official name for the catacombs is l’Ossuaire Municipal. Although this cemetery covers only a small section of underground tunnels comprising “les carrières de Paris” (“the quarries of Paris”), Parisians today often refer to the entire tunnel network as “the catacombs.”
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Cities, Top Ten Cities, Top Ten European Cities,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catacombs_of_Paris,
  19. Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Turkey
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           The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his wife and his sister. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. The Mausoleum was approximately 45 m (148 ft) in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors, Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb.
    Links: Monuments and Wonders, Top Ten Ancient Wonders of the World, Top Ten Turkish Attractions,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mausoleum_at_Halicarnassus,
  20. Valley of the Golden Mummies, Egypt


           The Valley of the Golden Mummies is a huge burial site at Bahariya Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt, discovered by Dr. Zahi Hawass in 1996. Hawass and his Egyptian team found around 250 mummies over several seasons; however, the site has more than this number, according to the excavator even more than 10,000. The site dates to Greco-Roman Egypt.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top 100 Masks, Top Ten ValleysTop Ten Oases,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_of_the_Golden_Mummies,
  21. Deir el-Bahari, Egypt

           Deir el-Bahari or Deir el-Bahri (“The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. The first monument built at the site was the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty. During the 18th dynasty, Amenhotep I and Hatshepsut also built extensively at the site.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Monasterieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deir-el-Bahari,
  22. Abusir, Egypt


           Abusir, “the House or Temple of Osiris,” is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality, specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions, in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. The name is also that of a neighboring village in the Nile Valley, whence the site takes its name. Abusir is located several km north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri. Abusir is one relatively small segment of the extensive “pyramid field” that extends from north of Giza to below Saqqara, the locality of Abusir took its turn as the focus of the prestigious western burial rites operating out of the then-capital of Memphis during the Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty. As an elite cemetery, neighboring Giza had by then “filled up” with the massive pyramids and other monuments of the 4th Dynasty, leading the 5th Dynasty pharaohs to seek sites elsewhere for their own funerary monuments. Abusir was the origin of the largest find of Old Kingdom papyri to date, the Abusir Papyri. In the late 19th century, a number of Western museums acquired collections of fragmentary papyri from the administrative (temple) records of one Abusir funerary cult, that of king Neferirkare Kakai. This discovery was supplemented in the late 20th century when excavations by a Czech expedition to the site revealed papyri from two other cult complexes, that of the pharaoh Neferefre (also read Raneferef) and for the king’s mother Khentkaus II. The Czech Institute of Egyptology of the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague has been conducting excavations at Abusir since 1976. They are presently directed by Miroslav Bárta. There are considerable catacombs near the ancient town of Busiris. To the south of Busiris one great cemetery appears to have stretched over the plain. The Heptanomite Busiris was in fact a hamlet standing at one extremity of the necropolis of Memphis.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten TombsTop Ten Sarcophagi,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abusir,
  23. King Udimu Tomb, Egypt
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           Den, also known as Hor-Den, Dewen and Udimu, is the Horus name of an early Egyptian king who ruled during the 1st dynasty. He is the best archaeologically attested ruler of this period. Den is said to have brought prosperity to his realm and numerous innovations are attributed to his reign. He was the first to use the title King of Lower- and Upper Egypt, and the first depicted as wearing the double crown (red and white). The floor of his tomb at Umm el-Qa’ab near Abydos is made of red and black granite, the first time in Egypt this hard stone was used as a building material. During his long reign he established many of the patterns of court ritual and royalty used by later rulers and he was held in high regard by his immediate successors.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Den_(pharaoh),
  24. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Bihar, India

    The tomb of Sher Shah Suri is in the Sasaram town of Bihar state, India. The tomb was built in memory of Emperor Sher Shah Suri, a Pathan from Bihar who defeated the Mughal Empire and founded the Suri Empire in northern India. He died in an accidental gunpowder explosion in the fort of Kalinjar on 10th day of Rabi’ al-awwal, A.H. 952 or 13 May 1545 AD.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb_of_Sher_Shah_Suri,
  25. Chor-Bakr, Uzbekistan

           The memorial complex of Chor-Bakr was built over the ostensible burial place of Abu-Bakr-Said, who died in the year 360 of the Muslim Calendar (970-971 AD), and who was one of the four of Abu-Bakrs (Chor-Bakr), descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. The complex includes the necropolis of family tombs, and courtyards enclosed with walls.
    Links: Top Ten Uzbekistani Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chor-Bakr,
  26. Fengdu Ghost City, China

           Fengdu Ghost City is a necropolis situated in Fengdu County about 170 km (110 miles) downstream from Chongqing Municipality on the north bank of the Yangtze River in the People’s Republic of China. Fengu Ghost City is a Yangtze cruise tourist attraction featuring buildings and ghosts that provide a model of hell.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese AttractionsSculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, Top Ten GhostsTop Ten Ghost Towns,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fengdu_Ghost_City,
  27. The Golden Larnax

           The Golden Larnax, housed at the Museum of Vergina, quite possibly contains the remains of King Philip II.
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Kings
  28. Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy
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           The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are burial catacombs in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. Today they provide a somewhat macabre tourist attraction as well as an extraordinary historical record. Palermo’s Capuchin monastery outgrew its original cemetery in the 16th century and monks began to excavate crypts below it. In 1599 they mummified one of their number, recently dead brother Silvestro of Gubbio, and placed him into the catacombs. The bodies were dehydrated on the racks of ceramic pipes in the catacombs and sometimes later washed with vinegar. Some of the bodies were embalmed and others enclosed in sealed glass cabinets. Monks were preserved with their everyday clothing and sometimes with ropes they had worn as a penance. Originally the catacombs were intended only for the dead friars. However, in the following centuries it became a status symbol to be entombed into the Capuchin catacombs. In their wills, local luminaries would ask to be preserved in certain clothes, or even to have their clothes changed at regular intervals. Relatives would visit to pray for the deceased and also to maintain the body in presentable condition.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capuchin_catacombs_of_palermo,
  29. Sedlec Ossuary, Czech Republic
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           The Sedlec Ossuary is a small Roman Catholic chapel, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints in Sedlec, a suburb of Kutná Hora in the Czech Republic. The ossuary is estimated to contain the skeletons of between 40,000 and 70,000 people, whose bones have in many cases been artistically arranged to form decorations and furnishings for the chapel. The ossuary is among the most visited tourist attractions of the Czech Republic, attracting over 200,000 visitors yearly. Four enormous bell-shaped mounds occupy the corners of the chapel. An enormous chandelier of bones, which contains at least one of every bone in the human body, hangs from the center of the nave with garlands of skulls draping the vault. Other works include piers and monstrances flanking the altar, a large Schwarzenberg coat of arms, and the signature of Rint, also executed in bone, on the wall near the entrance.
    Links: Top Ten Czech Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedlec_Ossuary,
  30. Nikola Tesla’s Tomb
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    Links: Science, Top 100 ScientistsTop Ten Inventors, Top Ten Laboratories, 
  31. Lenin’s Tomb, Red Square, Moscow, Russia
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           Lenin’s Mausoleum, also known as Lenin’s Tomb, situated in Red Square in the center of Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the current resting place of Vladimir Lenin. His embalmed body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924 (with rare exceptions in wartime). Aleksey Shchusev’s diminutive but monumental granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid and the Tomb of Cyrus the Great.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Squares, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenin%27s_Tomb,
  32. Tomb of Cyrus the Great, Iran
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    Links: Top Ten Iranian Attractions, 
  33. Tana Toraja, Indonesia
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           Tana Toraja is a regency of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, home of Toraja ethnic group people. The local government seat is in Makale, where the center of Toraja culture is in Rantepao. Tana Toraja has been divided to two regencies that consist of Tana Toraja with capital is Makale and Toraja Utara with capital is Rantepao. Tana Toraja boundary was determined by the Dutch East Indies government in 1909. In 1926, Tana Toraja was under the administration of Bugis state, Luwu. Since 1984, Tana Toraja has been named as the second tourist destination after Bali by the Ministry of Tourism, Indonesia. Since then, hundreds of thousands of foreign visitors have visited this regency. In addition, numerous Western anthropologists have come to Tana Toraja to study the indigenous culture and people of Toraja.
    Links: Top Ten Indonesian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tana_Toraja,
  34. Tomb of Christopher Columbus, Spain
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    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus,
  35. Tomb of Pietro Strozzi by Giulio Romano (1529)
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    Links: Top Ten Paintings by Giulio Romano,
  36. Mohammed V Mausoleum, Rabat, Morocco
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           The Mausoleum of Mohammed V is a historical building located on the opposite side of the Hassan Tower on the Yacoub al-Mansour esplanade in Rabat, Morocco. It contains the tombs of the Moroccan king and his two sons, late King Hassan II and Prince Abdallah. The building is considered a masterpiece of modern Alaouite dynasty architecture, with its white silhouette, topped by a typical green tiled roof. Its construction was completed in 1971. Hassan II was buried there following his death in 1999.
    Links: Top Ten Moroccan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mausoleum_of_Mohammed_V,
  37. Tomb of John of Nepomuk inside St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic
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           John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is a national saint of the Czech Republic, who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia. Later accounts state that he was the confessor of the queen of Bohemia and refused to divulge the secrets of the confessional. On the basis of this account, John of Nepomuk is considered the first martyr of the Seal of the Confessional, a patron against calumnies and, because of the manner of his death, a protector from floods.
    Links: Top Ten Czech Attractions, Top Ten Cathedrals, Top Ten Saints, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Nepomuk,
  38. Saladin’s Tomb, Damascus, Syria
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           Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (1138 – March 4, 1193), better known in the Western world as Saladin, was a Kurdish Muslim, who became the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founded the Ayyubid dynasty. He led Muslim and Arab opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, Hejaz and Yemen. Under his personal leadership, his forces defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, leading the way to his re-capture of Palestine, which had been seized from the Fatimid Egyptians by the Crusaders 88 years earlier. Though the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem would continue to exist for a period, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslims and Arabs. As such, Saladin is a prominent figure in Kurdish, Arab and Muslim culture. Saladin was a strict adherent of Sunni Islam. His chivalrous behavior was noted by Christian chroniclers, especially in the accounts of the Siege of Kerak, and despite being the nemesis of the Crusaders, he won the respect of many of them, including Richard the Lionheart; rather than becoming a hated figure in Europe, he became a celebrated example of the principles of chivalry.
    Links: Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Syrian Attractions, 
  39. Grant’s Tomb NY, USA
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    Links: Top Ten US Attractions,
  40. City of the Dead in Northern Ossetia, Russia
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    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions,
  41. Links: Architecture, Architecture by Type/Use, Top Ten Necropolises, http://www.socyberty.com/History/Top-10-Most-Famous-and-Historically-Significant-Tombs-in-the-World.260513,

Top Ten European Pyramids

Top Ten European Pyramids

  1. The Louvre
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    The Musée du Louvre is one of the world’s largest museums, the most visited art museum in the world and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet). The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace which began as a fortress, whose remnants are still visible, built in the late 12th century under Philip II. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of antique sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum, to display the nation’s masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The size of the collection increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed the Musée Napoléon. After the defeat of Napoléon at Waterloo, many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and gifts since the Third Republic, except during the two World Wars. As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Louvre Works of Art, Top Ten Museums, Top 100 Artifacts, Top 100 Paintings, Top 100 Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louvre,
  2. Pyramid of Cestius, Italy

           The Pyramid of Cestius is an ancient pyramid in Rome, Italy, near the Porta San Paolo and the Protestant Cemetery. It stands at a fork between two ancient roads, the Via Ostiensis and another road that ran west to the Tiber along the approximate line of the modern Via della Marmorata. Due to its incorporation into the city’s fortifications, it is today one of the best-preserved ancient buildings in Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Cestius,
  3. Palace (Pyramid) of Peace and Reconciliation, Kazakhstan

           The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation is a building in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. It was designed by the British architects Foster and Partners (lead design). Turkish architects, Tabanlıoğlu Architecture undertook construction information packages for the Foster design and engineers Buro Happold undertook lead structural and services design. The Foster team was led by architects Nigel Dancey, Lee Hallman and Peter Ridley. Sembol Construction undertook a Design and Build contract, and were ultimately responsible for the final details and finishes, some of which varied considerably from the Foster and Tabanlıoğlu (Tabanlioglu) intent. The Pyramid was specially constructed to host the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. A 1,500-seat opera house is built into the lower levels, with auditorium and performance equipment design by Anne Minors Performance Consultants and acoustics by Sound Space Design.
    Links: Top Ten Kazakhstani Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Peace_and_Reconciliation,
  4. Russian Pyramids
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           These pyramids represent Russian experiments dealing with the pyramidal shape and its relationship to energy, and its impact/relationship with consciousness.
    Links:
  5. Greek Pyramids
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    Greek pyramids, also known as the Pyramids of Argolis, refers to several structures located in the plain of Argolid, Greece. The best known of these is known as the Pyramid of Hellinikon. In the time of the geographer Pausanias it was considered to be a tomb. Twentieth century researchers have suggested other possible uses.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_pyramids,
  6. Center of Europe, Lithuania

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    Links: Top Ten Lithuanian Attractions, 
  7. Pyramid Concert Hall, Kazan, Russia

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Concert Halls,
  8. The Pyramid at Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, Germany
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           Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is a unique landscape park in Kassel, Germany. Art historian Georg Dehio (1850–1932), inspirator of the modern discipline of historic preservation, described the park as “possibly the most grandiose combination of landscape and architecture that the Baroque dared anywhere.” The area of the park is 2.4 square km (590 acres), making it the largest European hillside park, and 2nd largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Construction of the Bergpark, or “mountain park,” began in 1696 at the behest of the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and took about 150 years.
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top Ten Parks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergpark_Wilhelmsh%C3%B6he,
  9. Bosnian Pyramids (Hoax)

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    Links:
  10. Links: Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten European Attractions, 

Top Ten Modern Pyramids

Top Ten Modern Pyramids
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  1. Area 51 Pyramid, US

    Area 51, first brought to the public’s attention by Las Vegas investigative television journalist George Knapp, has long been a hotbed of UFO speculation and investigations into the likelihood of the secretive desert base being used to reverse-engineer captured alien technology. If true, and there’s strong circumstantial evidence that at least some of the allegations made by Bob Lazar and others that the USAF top-secret test base is hip deep in ET artifacts and technology, then some of that technology must require a charge-up to power the unearthly devices. The Chinese scientists may be on to something. For if the pyramid in Qinghai truly was erected to power up extraterrestrial spacecraft, then the USAF may require something similar when their scientists and engineers reach the stage in the decades-long project to back-engineer unworldly technology that’s allegedly stumped some of the world’s best thinkers for more than two generations. If the USAF reached the stage where they need a massive, alien-designed, power base they would more than likely build a pyramidal structure very much like the one in China. And they have.
    Links: Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Top Ten US Pyramids, Top Ten Asian PyramidsTop Ten Chinese Pyramids,
  2. Pyramid Valley, Bangolre, India
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    Pyramid valley is the biggest pyramid shaped meditation hall in the world, along with being the largest pyramid in Asia. It stands at above 101 feet (31 m). Its base measures 160 ft. (49 m) by 160 ft. (49 m) with the main meditation area spanning 25,600 sq ft. (2,380 m2). It is located 30 km from Banashankari Temple.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Temples, Top Ten Asian Temples, Top Ten Indian Temples, Top Ten Asia Pyramids, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tourist_attractions_in_Bangalore,
  3. Luxor, Las Vegas, USA

           Luxor Las Vegas is a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The 30-story hotel, owned and operated by MGM Resorts International, has a 120,000-square-foot (11,000 m2) casino with over 2,000 slot machines and 87 table games. In the 2008 to 2009 renovation, it has a new, highly modernized, and contemporary design and contains a total of 4,400 rooms, including 442 suites, lining the interior walls of a pyramid style tower and within twin 22-story ziggurat towers that were built as later additions. The hotel is named after the city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt. Luxor is the 2nd largest hotel in Las Vegas (the largest being the MGM Grand) and the 8th largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten US Attractions, Top Ten Casinos, Top Ten North American Casinos, Top Ten Las Vegas Casinos,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxor_Las_Vegas,
  4. The Louvre, France
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           The Musée du Louvre is one of the world’s largest museums, the most visited art museum in the world and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square m (652,300 square ft.). The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace which began as a fortress, whose remnants are still visible, built in the late 12th century under Philip II. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of antique sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum, to display the nation’s masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The size of the collection increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed the Musée Napoléon. After the defeat of Napoléon at Waterloo, many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and gifts since the Third Republic, except during the two World Wars. As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Museums and Galleries, Top Ten Louvre Works of Art, Top Ten Museums, Top 100 Artifacts, Top 100 Paintings, Top 100 Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louvre,
  5. Palace (Pyramid) of Peace and Reconciliation, Kazakhstan

    The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation is a building in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. It was designed by the British architects Foster and Partners (lead design). Turkish architects, Tabanlıoğlu Architecture undertook construction information packages for the Foster design and engineers Buro Happold undertook lead structural and services design. The Foster team was led by architects Nigel Dancey, Lee Hallman and Peter Ridley. Sembol Construction undertook a Design and Build contract, and were ultimately responsible for the final details and finishes, some of which varied considerably from the Foster and Tabanlıoğlu (Tabanlioglu) intent. The Pyramid was specially constructed to host the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. A 1,500-seat opera house is built into the lower levels, with auditorium and performance equipment design by Anne Minors Performance Consultants and acoustics by Sound Space Design.
    Links: Top Ten Kazakhstani Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Peace_and_Reconciliation,
  6. Transamerica Pyramid, San Francico, California, USA
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    The Transamerica Pyramid is the tallest skyscraper in the San Francisco skyline and one of its most iconic. Although the building no longer houses the headquarters of the Transamerica Corporation, who moved their US headquarters to Baltimore, MD, it is still strongly associated with the company and is depicted in the company’s logo. Designed by architect William Pereira and built by Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction Company, at 260 m (850 ft.), upon completion in 1972 it was among the five tallest buildings in the world. The tower has no public access except for the first floor lobby, thus visitors cannot ascend to the top for a panoramic view.
    Links: Top Ten US Attractions, Top Ten Californian Attractions, Top Ten San Franscisco Attractions,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transamerica_Pyramid,
  7. Russian Pyramids
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    These pyramids represent Russian experiments dealing with the pyramidal shape and its relationship to energy, and its impact/relationship with consciousness.
    Links:
  8. Pyramid Arena, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
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    The Pyramid Arena, initially known as the Great American Pyramid, was originally built as a 20,142-seat arena located in downtown Memphis at the banks of the Mississippi River. The facility was built in 1991 and was originally owned and operated jointly by the city of Memphis and Shelby County. Its unique structure plays on the city’s namesake in Egypt, known for its ancient pyramids. It is 321 feet (98 m, about 32 stories) tall and has base sides of 591 ft.; it is by some measures the 6th largest pyramid in the world behind the Great Pyramid of Giza (456 ft.), Khafre’s Pyramid (448 ft.), Luxor Hotel (348 ft.), the Red Pyramid (341 ft.), and the Bent Pyramid (332 ft.). It is also slightly (about 16 feet) taller than the Statue of Liberty. A statue of Ramesses the Great stood in front of the pyramid, which was created from a mold of the actual statue in Egypt. In 2011, this statue was leased to the University of Memphis for the cost of $1 and was moved to the campus in April 2012. The Pyramid Arena has not been regularly used as a sports venue since 2004. The facility is currently being converted into a Bass Pro Shops “megastore.”
    Links: Top Ten Arenas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_Arena,
  9. Moody Gardens, Texas, USA
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    Moody Gardens is an educational tourist destination, with a golf course and hotel in Galveston, Texas. The non-profit destination uses nature to educate and excite visitors about conservation and wildlife. Moody Gardens features three main pyramid attractions: the Aquarium Pyramid, which is one of the largest in the region and holds many species of fish and other marine animals; the Rainforest Pyramid, which contains tropical plants, animals, birds, butterflies, reptiles, and a variety of other rainforest animals including free-roaming monkeys and two-toed sloths; and the Discovery Pyramid, which focuses on science-oriented exhibits and activities. Another major attraction is Palm Beach, a landscaped white sand beach with freshwater lagoons, a lazy river, tower slides, and splash pad play area for children. Moody Gardens also has a RideFilm Theater with motion-based pod seating, the MG 3D Theater features the largest screen in the state of Texas, 4D Special FX Theater, paddlewheel cruise boat, a hotel, golf course and a convention center. The complex attracts many local tourists from the city of Houston and its outlying suburbs. The owners commissioned a landscape design from Geoffrey Jellicoe.
    Links: Top Ten Gardens, Top Ten Aquariums, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moody_Gardens,
  10. Walter Pyramid, California, USA
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    Walter Pyramid, formerly known as Long Beach Pyramid, is a 5,000-seat, indoor multi-purpose stadium on the campus of California State University, Long Beach in Long Beach, California.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Pyramid,
  11. Supreme Court Pyramid, Israel
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    The Supreme Court of Israel, located in Jerusalem, has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other courts and, in some cases, original jurisdiction. The Supreme Court consists of 15 justices who are appointed by the Judicial Selection Committee. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire at the age of 70, or are removed from office. The current President of the Supreme Court is Asher Dan Grunis, and its Deputy President is Miriam Naor. Over the years, the Supreme Court has ruled on numerous sensitive issues, some of which relate to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the rights of Arab citizens and discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel. The Supreme Court is unique in that its rulings can intervene in Israel Defense Forces military operations.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_Israel,
  12. Broad Company Campus, China

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    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions,
  13. The Muttart Conservatory, Edmonton, Canada

           The Muttart Conservatory is a botanical garden located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from downtown Edmonton. The conservatory consists of four glass, pyramid-shaped structures that showcase plants from arid, tropical, and temperate climates, providing a welcome oasis of warmth during winter. The fourth pyramid hosts a theme that changes throughout the year. A donation from the Gladys and Merrill Muttart Foundation provided momentum for the conservatory’s construction, with the remaining monies supplied by the Province of Alberta and the City of Edmonton. The conservatory is staffed and operated by the Edmonton Parks and Recreation Department. The conservatory’s unusual structure, designed by architect Peter Hemingway is composed of four glassed pyramids built around a central service core. The two larger’ pyramids are 660 square m in area, and the two medium-sized ones are 410 square m in size. Three of the pyramids are devoted to displays of plants from the tropical, temperate, and arid regions respectively, the 4th being used for shows that change with the seasons and which feature massed displays of ornamental flowering plants. The Temperate Pavilion houses plants typical of temperate climes, from such zones as the southern Great Lakes, Australia, and even the mountainous areas of Asia. Near the entrance and fed by a stream is a bog area, with white water lilies and parrot’s feather. The bog merges into a woodland with mostly eastern deciduous trees and low shrubs but including redwoods, cedars and pampas grass. Eucalyptus trees and flowering shrubs complement the Australian section. In the woodland floor and alpine section are many tiny flowering plants, some native to Alberta and others from all over the world. The barren, rocky slopes of the Arid Pavilion offer contrast to the other houses. The Tropical Pavilion provides an enormous diversity of species; under a canopy of tall palms, banana and weeping fig are orchids, various hibiscus and the bird of paradise, to mention a few. In a smaller pyramid, the Feature Pavilion offers seasonal displays. Arriving with summer are geraniums, begonias, roses and others. The Muttart Conservatory offers a Horticultural Extension Service, allowing the general public to receive expert help in the diagnoses of the ills of their plants, both indoors and out. The conservatory also teaches courses on the care of plants.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, Top 100 BirdsTop Ten Greenhouseshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muttart_Conservatory,
  14. Edmonton City Hall, Canada

           Edmonton’s City Hall was designed by Dub Architects, and completed in 1992. It features two steel and glass pyramids, one 43 m high (ground to peak), on top of a three-story concrete structure. One pyramid provides natural light for the main atrium, the other for the council chambers. The building also features a 200-foot clock tower topped with a 25-bell carillon. Edmonton’s City Hall met with some controversy when it was first announced. The original designs called for the building to be topped with five cones. The cones were meant to pay tribute to the tipis that the First Nations once lived in on the site. The design met with much negative feedback from the public, and was dubbed “the Cone Dome” by the press. Dub Architects then revised their design to replace the cones with the pyramids, with the pyramids designed to be evocative of the Rocky Mountains. The design was received much more warmly by the public, and was dubbed “Pyramid Power” by the press. Located on the eastern edge of the financial district in Edmonton’s downtown, the building is the main feature on Sir Winston Churchill Square. In the winter, the fountain is converted to a skating rink.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmonton_City_Hall,
  15. Pyramid Concert Hall, Kazan, Russia

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    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Concert Halls,
  16. Links: Architecture, Ancient Architecture, Pyramids,