Top Ten African Pyramids

Top Ten African Pyramids

  1. The Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 African Sculptures,
  2. Red Pyramid, Dashur, Egypt

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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,
  3. Bent Pyramid, Egypt
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    The Bent Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 km south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2600 BC). A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt, this was the 2nd pyramid built by Sneferu. The lower part of the pyramid rises from the desert at a 54-degree inclination, but the top section is built at the shallower angle of 43 degrees, lending the pyramid its very obvious “bent” appearance. Archaeologists now believe that the Bent Pyramid represents a transitional form between step-sided and smooth-sided pyramids. It has been suggested that due to the steepness of the original angle of inclination the structure may have begun to show signs of instability during construction, forcing the builders to adopt a shallower angle to avert the structure’s collapse. It is also unique amongst the approximately 90 pyramids to be found in Egypt, in that its original polished limestone outer casing remains largely intact.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent_pyramid,
  4. Saqqara and the Pyramid of Unas, Egypt

           Saqqara is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas (Arabic word meaning ‘bench’). Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km (4.3 by 0.93 mi). At Saqqara, the oldest complete stone building complex known in history was built: Djoser’s step pyramid, built during the 3rd dynasty. Another 16 Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation or dilapidation. High officials added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire pharaonic period. It remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times. Contrary to popular belief, the name Saqqara is not derived from the ancient Egyptian funerary god Sokar, but from the Beni Saqqar who are a local Berber tribe. Their name means “Sons of Saqqar.” Since they are not indigenous to the area it would not follow that they would fashion themselves as being born of an ancient Egyptian god whose identity was unknown until the age of archaeology.
    Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Necropolises,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqqara,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Unas,
  5. Abusir, Egypt

           Abusir, “the House or Temple of Osiris,” is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality, specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions, in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. The name is also that of a neighboring village in the Nile Valley, whence the site takes its name. Abusir is located several km north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis. Several other villages in northern and southern Egypt are named Abusir or Busiri. Abusir is one relatively small segment of the extensive “pyramid field” that extends from north of Giza to below Saqqara, the locality of Abusir took its turn as the focus of the prestigious western burial rites operating out of the then-capital of Memphis during the Old Kingdom 5th Dynasty. As an elite cemetery, neighboring Giza had by then “filled up” with the massive pyramids and other monuments of the 4th Dynasty, leading the 5th Dynasty pharaohs to seek sites elsewhere for their own funerary monuments. Abusir was the origin of the largest find of Old Kingdom papyri to date, the Abusir Papyri. In the late 19th century, a number of Western museums acquired collections of fragmentary papyri from the administrative (temple) records of one Abusir funerary cult, that of king Neferirkare Kakai. This discovery was supplemented in the late 20th century when excavations by a Czech expedition to the site revealed papyri from two other cult complexes, that of the pharaoh Neferefre (also read Raneferef) and for the king’s mother Khentkaus II. The Czech Institute of Egyptology of the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague has been conducting excavations at Abusir since 1976. They are presently directed by Miroslav Bárta. There are considerable catacombs near the ancient town of Busiris. To the south of Busiris one great cemetery appears to have stretched over the plain. The Heptanomite Busiris was in fact a hamlet standing at one extremity of the necropolis of Memphis.
    Links: Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten TombsTop Ten Sarcophagi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abusir,
  6. Meroë, Sudan

           Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum. Near the site are a group of villages called Bagrawiyah. This city was the capitol of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries. The Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë gave its name to the Island of Meroë, which was the modern region of Butana, a region bounded by the Nile (from the Atbarah River to Khartoum), the Atbarah, Ethiopia and the Blue Nile. The city of Meroë was on the edge of Butana and there were two other Meroitic cities in Butana, Musawwarat es-Sufra, and Naqa. The site of the city of Meroë is marked by more than 200 pyramids in three groups, of which many are in ruins. They are identified as Nubian pyramids because of their distinctive size and proportions.
    Links: Top Ten Sudanese Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mero%C3%AB,
  7. Jebel Barkal, Sudan

           Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. In 2003, the mountain, together with the historical city of Napata (which sits at its feet), were named World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Around 1450 BC, the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III extended his empire to that region and considered Gebel Barkal its southern limit. There, he campaigned near the city of Napata that, about 300 years later, became the capital of the independent kingdom of Kush. The 25th Dynasty Nubian king Piye later greatly enlarged the New Kingdom Temple of Amun in this city and erected his Year 20 Victory stela within it. The ruins around Gebel Barkal include at least 13 temples and 3 palaces that were first described by European explorers in the 1820’s. In 1862 five inscriptions from the Third Intermediate Period were recovered by an Egyptian officer and transported to the Cairo Museum, but not until 1916 were scientific archeological excavations performed by a joint expedition of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston. From the 1970’s, explorations continued by teams from the University of Rome La Sapienza and Boston Museum. The larger temples, such as that of Amun, are even today considered sacred to the local population. The mountain is 98 m tall, has a flat top, and apparently was used as a landmark by the traders in the important route between central Africa, Arabia and Egypt, as the point where it was easier to cross the great river.
    Links: Top Ten Sudanese Attractions,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebel_Barkal_and_the_Sites_of_the_Napatan_Region,
  8. Pyramid of Meidum, Egypt
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           Located about 100 km south of modern Cairo, Meidum or Maidum is the location of a large pyramid, and several large mud-brick mastabas.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meidum,
  9. Mauritian Pyramids
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    Links: Top Ten Mauritian Attractions,
  10. Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, 

Top Ten South American Pyramids

Top Ten South American Pyramids

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  1.  Huaca del Sol (Pyramid of the Sun), Peru

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    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  2. Sipan Pyramid, Peru
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    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  3. Cahuachi Pyramids, Peru

    Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD-500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines. The Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures. The huge architectural complex covers 0.6 sq. miles (1.5 km2). The American archeologist Helaine Silverman has also conducted long term, multi-stage research and written about the full context of Nazca society at Cahuachi, published in a lengthy study in 1993. Scholars once thought the site was the capital of the Nazca state but have determined that the permanent population was quite small. They believe that it was a pilgrimage center, whose population increased greatly in relation to major ceremonial events. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions. Support for the pilgrimage theory comes from archaeological evidence of sparse population at Cahuachi, the spatial patterning of the site, and ethnographic evidence from the Virgin of Yauca pilgrimage in the nearby Ica Valley.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahuachi,
  4. Túcume Pyramids, Peru
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    Túcume is a pre-Hispanic site in Peru, south of the La Leche River on a plain around La Raya Mountain. It covers an area of over 540 acres (220 ha) and encompassing 26 major pyramids and mounds. The area is referred to as Purgatorio (purgatory) by local people. This site was a major regional center, maybe even the capital of the successive occupations of the area by the Lambayeque/Sican (800-1350 AD), Chimú (1350–1450 AD) and Inca (1450–1532 AD). Local shaman healers (curanderos) invoke power of Tucume and La Raya Mountain in their rituals, and local people fear these sites. Hardly anyone other than healers venture out in this site at night. The plains of Túcume are part of the Lambayeque Valley, the largest valley of the North Coast of Peru. The Lambayeque Valley is the site of scores of natural and man-made waterways and is also a region of about 250 brick pyramids.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%BAcume,
  5. Caral Pyramids, Peru
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    Caral, or Caral-Supe, was a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas, and is a well-studied site of the Caral civilization or Norte Chico civilization.
    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caral,
  6. San Isidro Pyramid, Peru

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    Links: Top Ten Peruvian Attractions,
  7. Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, 

Top Ten North American Pyramids

Top Ten North American Pyramids

  1. Teotihuacán, Mexico

           Teotihuacán is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Apart from the pyramidal structures, Teotihuacan is also known for its large residential complexes, the Avenue of the Dead, and numerous colorful, well-preserved murals. Additionally, Teotihuacan produced a thin orange pottery style that spread through Mesoamerica. The city is thought to have been established around 100 BC and continued to be built until about 250 AD. The city may have lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th centuries AD. At its zenith, perhaps in the first half of the 1st millennium AD, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, with a population of perhaps 125,000 or more, placing it among the largest cities of the world in this period. Teotihuacan was even home to multi-floor apartment compounds built to accommodate this large population. The civilization and cultural complex associated with the site is also referred to as Teotihuacan or Teotihuacano. Although it is a subject of debate whether Teotihuacan was the center of a state empire, its influence throughout Mesoamerica is well documented; evidence of Teotihuacano presence can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region. The Aztecs may have been influenced by this city. The ethnicity of the inhabitants of Teotihuacan is also a subject of debate. Possible candidates are the Nahua, Otomi or Totonac ethnic groups. Scholars have also suggested that Teotihuacan was a multiethnic state. The city and the archaeological site are located in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacán municipality in the State of México, Mexico, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Mexico City. It is the most visited archaeological site in Mexico.
    Links: Pyramids, Museums and Galleries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teotihuacan,
  2. Chichen Itza, Mexico

           Chichen Itza, “at the mouth of the well of the Itza,” was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya civilization. The archaeological site is located in the municipality of Tinum, in the Mexican state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classic (600–900 AD) through the Terminal Classic (800–900) and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period (900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion. Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site. The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, and the site’s stewardship is maintained by Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History, INAH). The land under the monuments had been privately-owned until March 29, 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico; an estimated 1.2 million tourists visit the ruins every year.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chichen_Itza,
  3. The Great Pyramid of Cholula, Mexico
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    The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for “artificial mountain”), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World. The pyramid stands 55 m (180 ft.) above the surrounding plain, and in its final form it measured 400 by 400 m (1,300 by 1,300 ft.). The pyramid is a temple that has traditionally been viewed as having been dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The architectural style of the building was closely linked to that of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, although influence from the Gulf Coast is also evident, especially from El Tajín.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Cholula,
  4. Templo Mayor, Mexico
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    The Templo Mayor was one of the main temples of the Aztecs in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. The temple was called the huei teocalli in the Nahuatl language and dedicated simultaneously to two gods, Huitzilopochtli, god of war and Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture, each of which had a shrine at the top of the pyramid with separate staircases. The temple, measuring approximately 100 by 80 m (328 by 262 ft.) at its base, dominated a Sacred Precinct. Construction of the first temple began sometime after 1325, and it was rebuilt six times after that. The temple was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521. The modern-day archeological site lies just to the northeast of the Zocalo, or main plaza of Mexico City, on the corner of what are now Seminario and Justo Sierra streets.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Templo_Mayor,
  5. Calakmul, Mexico
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    Calakmul is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region. It is 35 km (22 mi) from the Guatemalan border. Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands. Calakmul was a major Maya power within the northern Petén region of the Yucatán of southern Mexico. Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph of the snake head sign, to be read “Kaan.” Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Kingdom of the Snake. This Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period. Calakmul itself is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 people and had governance, at times, over places as far away as 150 km. There are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul the largest of which is the great pyramid at the site. Structure 2 is over 45 m (148 ft.) high, making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids. Four tombs have been located within the pyramid. Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica the pyramid at Calakmul increased in size by building upon the existing temple to reach its current size. The size of the central monumental architecture is approximately 2 square km (0.77 sq mi) and the whole of the site, mostly covered with dense residential structures, is about 20 square km (7.7 sq mi). Throughout the Classic Period, Calakmul maintained an intense rivalry with the major city of Tikal to the south, and the political maneuverings of these two cities have been likened to a struggle between two Maya superpowers.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calakmul,
  6. El Mirador, Guatemala
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    El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian Mayan settlement, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala.
    Links: Top Ten Guatemalan Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Mirador,
  7. Area 51 Pyramid, USA

    Area 51, first brought to the public’s attention by Las Vegas investigative television journalist George Knapp, has long been a hotbed of UFO speculation and investigations into the likelihood of the secretive desert base being used to reverse-engineer captured alien technology. If true, and there’s strong circumstantial evidence that at least some of the allegations made by Bob Lazar and others that the USAF top-secret test base is hip deep in ET artifacts and technology, then some of that technology must require a charge-up to power the unearthly devices. The Chinese scientists may be on to something. For if the pyramid in Qinghai truly was erected to power up extraterrestrial spacecraft, then the USAF may require something similar when their scientists and engineers reach the stage in the decades-long project to back-engineer unworldly technology that’s allegedly stumped some of the world’s best thinkers for more than two generations. If the USAF reached the stage where they need a massive, alien-designed, power base they would more than likely build a pyramidal structure very much like the one in China. And they have.
    Links: Top Ten Asian Pyramids, Top Ten Chinese Pyramids,
  8. El Tajín, Mexico

           El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 AD, at which time numerous temples, palaces, ballcourts and pyramids were built. From the time the city fell in 1230 to near the end of the 18th century, no European seems to have known of its existence, until a government inspector chanced upon the Pyramid of the Niches in 1785. The architecture at El Tajín includes the use of decorative niches and cement in forms unknown in the rest of Mesoamerica. Its best-known monument is the Pyramid of the Niches, but other important monuments include the Arroyo Group, the North and South Ballcourts and the palaces of Tajín Chico. In total there have been 17 ballcourts discovered at this site. Since the 1970’s, El Tajin has been the most important archeological site in Veracruz for tourists, attracting over 650,000 visitors a year. It is also the site of the annual Cumbre Tajin Festival, which occurs each March featuring indigenous and foreign cultural events as well as concerts by popular musicians.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 North American SculpturesTop 100 Busts, Top Ten Relieves, Top Ten South American Relieves,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Tajin,
  9. Uxmal, Mexico

           Uxmal is an ancient Mayan city of the classical period. Today is one of the most important archaeological sites of Mayan culture, along with those of Chichen Itza and Tikal. It is located in the called Puuc region and is the city most representative of this architectural style. It is located 62 km south of Mérida, capital of Yucatán state in Mexico. Its buildings are noted for their size and decoration. Among them, as well as to other cities in the area, there are built few roads called sacbes. Its buildings are typical of the Puuc style, with smooth low walls that open on ornate friezes based on representations of typical Mayan huts, which are represented by columns (representing the reeds with which were built the walls of the huts) and trapezoidal shapes (representing the thatched roofs), entwined snakes and, in many cases two-headed snakes, masks of the rain god, Chaac with its big noses that represent the rays of the storms, and feathered serpents with open fangs leaving from the same human beings. Also seen in some cities influences of Nahua origin and the follow of the cult of Quetzalcoatl and Tlaloc that were integrated with the original bases of the Puuc tradition. The buildings take advantage of the terrain to gain height and acquire important volumes, include the Pyramid of the Magician, with five levels, and the Governor’s Palace which covers an area of more than 1.200m².
    Links: Pyramids, Top 100 Maskshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Hispanic_Town_of_Uxmal,
  10. Temple of the Inscription, Mexico
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    The Temple of the Inscriptions is the largest Mesoamerican stepped pyramid structure at the pre-Columbian Maya civilization site of Palenque, located in the modern-day state of Chiapas, Mexico. The structure was specifically built as the funerary monument for K’inich Janaab’ Pakal, ajaw or ruler of Palenque in the 7th century whose reign over the polity lasted almost 70 years. Construction of this monument commenced in the last decade of his life, and was completed by his son and successor K’inich Kan B’alam II. Within Palenque, the Temple of the Inscriptions is located in an area known as the Temple of the Inscriptions’ Court and stands at a right angle to the Southeast of the Palace. The Temple of the Inscriptions has been significant in the study of the ancient Maya, owing to the extraordinary sample of hieroglyphic text found on the Inscription Tablets, the impressive sculptural panels on the piers of the building, and the finds inside the tomb of Pakal.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Inscriptions,
  11. Luxor Las Vegas, USA

    Luxor Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The 30-story hotel, which is operated by MGM Resorts International, features a 120,000 square ft (11,000 square m) casino floor that includes over 2,000 slot machines and 87 table games. It has a new, highly modernized and contemporary design and contains a total of 4,400 rooms, including 442 suites, lining the interior walls of a pyramid style tower and within twin 22-story ziggurat towers that were built as later additions. The hotel is named after the city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt. Luxor is the 2nd largest hotel in Las Vegas (the largest being the MGM Grand Las Vegas) and the 3rd largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Modern Pyramids, Top Ten Casinos, Top Ten North American Casinos, Top Ten Las Vegas Casinos, Top Ten Vegas Hotels, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxor_Las_Vegas,
  12. Tikal, Guatemala

           Tikal (or Tik’al according to the modern Mayan orthography) is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centers of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala. Situated in the department of El Petén, the site is part of Guatemala’s Tikal National Park and in 1979 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tikal was the capital of a conquest state that became one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient Maya. Though monumental architecture at the site dates back as far as the 4th century BC, Tikal reached its apogee during the Classic Period (200-900 AD). During this time, the city dominated much of the Maya region politically, economically and militarily, while interacting with areas throughout Mesoamerica such as the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the distant Valley of Mexico. There is evidence that Tikal was conquered by Teotihuacan in the 4th century AD. Following the end of the Late Classic Period, no new major monuments were built at Tikal and there is evidence that elite palaces were burned. These events were coupled with a gradual population decline, culminating with the site’s abandonment by the end of the 10th century. Tikal is the best understood of any of the large lowland Maya cities, with a long dynastic ruler list, the discovery of the tombs of many of the rulers on this list and the investigation of their monuments, temples and palaces.
    Links: Top Ten Guatemalan Attractions, Top 100 Busts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikal,
  13. Comalcalco, Mexican
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    Comalcalco is both a modern-day city located in Comalcalco Municipality about 45 miles (60 km) northwest of Villahermosa in the Mexican state of Tabasco and a Pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site. The literal English translation of “Comalcalco” is “In the house of the comals.” A comal is a pan used to prepare food.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comalcalco,
  14. Caracol, Belize

    Caracol or El Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya archaeological site, located in what is now the Cayo District of Belize. It is situated approximately 40 km south of Xunantunich and the town of San Ignacio Cayo, at an elevation of 460 m above sea-level, in the foothills of the Maya Mountains. The site was the most important political center of Lowland Maya during the Classic Period within Belize. In 650 AD, the urban area of Caracol had a radius of approximately 10 km. It covered an area much larger than present-day Belize City (the largest metropolitan area in the country) and supported more than twice the modern city’s population.
    Links: Top Ten Belizean Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracol,
  15. Lamanai, Belize
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    Lamanai (from Lama’anayin, “submerged crocodile” in Yucatec Maya) is a Mesoamerican archaeological site, and was once a considerably sized city of the Maya civilization, located in the north of Belize, in Orange Walk District. The site’s name is pre-Columbian, recorded by early Spanish missionaries, and documented over a millennium earlier in Maya inscriptions as Lam’an’ain.
    Links: Top Ten Belizean Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamanai,
  16. Tula de Allende, Mexico

           Tula, formally, Tula de Allende, is a town and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 305.8 km² (118.07 square mi), and as of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 93,296, with 28,432 in the town. The municipality includes numerous smaller outlying towns, the largest of which are El Llano, San Marcos, and San Miguel Vindho. It comprised one of the 56 defined Zona Metropolitana (ZM), of which Tula has 5 municipios, 184,691 people in 2005 Census, up from 169,901 in 2000 Census covering 592 square km. It is located some 100 km to the north-northwest of Mexico City. It covers part of the southeastern portion of the Pre-Columbian city. Nearby are the remains of the ancient capital city of the Toltecs, also known as “Tula” or as “Tollan.” Usually identified as the Toltec capital around 980 AD, the city was destroyed at some time between 1168 and 1179. Tula became the capital city following Teotihuacan, although it never reached the same size due to competing cities in the area.
    Links: Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tula,_Mexico,
  17. Pyramid off the Island of Cozumel, Mexico

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    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten Underwater Ruins,
  18. Moody Gardens, Galveston, Texas, USA

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    Links: Top Ten Aquariums,
  19. The Muttart Conservatory, Edmonton, Canada

           The Muttart Conservatory is a botanical garden located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from downtown Edmonton. The conservatory consists of four glass, pyramid-shaped structures that showcase plants from arid, tropical, and temperate climates, providing a welcome oasis of warmth during winter. The fourth pyramid hosts a theme that changes throughout the year. A donation from the Gladys and Merrill Muttart Foundation provided momentum for the conservatory’s construction, with the remaining monies supplied by the Province of Alberta and the City of Edmonton. The conservatory is staffed and operated by the Edmonton Parks and Recreation Department. The conservatory’s unusual structure, designed by architect Peter Hemingway is composed of four glassed pyramids built around a central service core. The two larger’ pyramids are 660 square m in area, and the two medium-sized ones are 410 square m in size. Three of the pyramids are devoted to displays of plants from the tropical, temperate, and arid regions respectively, the 4th being used for shows that change with the seasons and which feature massed displays of ornamental flowering plants. The Temperate Pavilion houses plants typical of temperate climes, from such zones as the southern Great Lakes, Australia, and even the mountainous areas of Asia. Near the entrance and fed by a stream is a bog area, with white water lilies and parrot’s feather. The bog merges into a woodland with mostly eastern deciduous trees and low shrubs but including redwoods, cedars and pampas grass. Eucalyptus trees and flowering shrubs complement the Australian section. In the woodland floor and alpine section are many tiny flowering plants, some native to Alberta and others from all over the world. The barren, rocky slopes of the Arid Pavilion offer contrast to the other houses. The Tropical Pavilion provides an enormous diversity of species; under a canopy of tall palms, banana and weeping fig are orchids, various hibiscus and the bird of paradise, to mention a few. In a smaller pyramid, the Feature Pavilion offers seasonal displays. Arriving with summer are geraniums, begonias, roses and others. The Muttart Conservatory offers a Horticultural Extension Service, allowing the general public to receive expert help in the diagnoses of the ills of their plants, both indoors and out. The conservatory also teaches courses on the care of plants.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, Top Ten Birds, Top Ten Greenhouseshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muttart_Conservatory,
  20. Edmonton City Hall, Canada

           Edmonton’s City Hall was designed by Dub Architects, and completed in 1992. It features two steel and glass pyramids, one 43 m high (ground to peak), on top of a three-story concrete structure. One pyramid provides natural light for the main atrium, the other for the council chambers. The building also features a 200-foot clock tower topped with a 25-bell carillon. Edmonton’s City Hall met with some controversy when it was first announced. The original designs called for the building to be topped with five cones. The cones were meant to pay tribute to the tipis that the First Nations once lived in on the site. The design met with much negative feedback from the public, and was dubbed “the Cone Dome” by the press. Dub Architects then revised their design to replace the cones with the pyramids, with the pyramids designed to be evocative of the Rocky Mountains. The design was received much more warmly by the public, and was dubbed “Pyramid Power” by the press. Located on the eastern edge of the financial district in Edmonton’s downtown, the building is the main feature on Sir Winston Churchill Square. In the winter, the fountain is converted to a skating rink.
    Links: Top Ten Canadian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmonton_City_Hall,
  21. Munks Mount, Illinois, USA

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten US Attractions,
  22. Links: Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten Modern Pyramids,

Top Ten European Pyramids

Top Ten European Pyramids

  1. The Louvre
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    The Musée du Louvre is one of the world’s largest museums, the most visited art museum in the world and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (district). Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet). The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace which began as a fortress, whose remnants are still visible, built in the late 12th century under Philip II. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of antique sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum, to display the nation’s masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The size of the collection increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed the Musée Napoléon. After the defeat of Napoléon at Waterloo, many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and gifts since the Third Republic, except during the two World Wars. As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings; Prints and Drawings.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Louvre Works of Art, Top Ten Museums, Top 100 Artifacts, Top 100 Paintings, Top 100 Statues, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louvre,
  2. Pyramid of Cestius, Italy

           The Pyramid of Cestius is an ancient pyramid in Rome, Italy, near the Porta San Paolo and the Protestant Cemetery. It stands at a fork between two ancient roads, the Via Ostiensis and another road that ran west to the Tiber along the approximate line of the modern Via della Marmorata. Due to its incorporation into the city’s fortifications, it is today one of the best-preserved ancient buildings in Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Cestius,
  3. Palace (Pyramid) of Peace and Reconciliation, Kazakhstan

           The Palace of Peace and Reconciliation is a building in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. It was designed by the British architects Foster and Partners (lead design). Turkish architects, Tabanlıoğlu Architecture undertook construction information packages for the Foster design and engineers Buro Happold undertook lead structural and services design. The Foster team was led by architects Nigel Dancey, Lee Hallman and Peter Ridley. Sembol Construction undertook a Design and Build contract, and were ultimately responsible for the final details and finishes, some of which varied considerably from the Foster and Tabanlıoğlu (Tabanlioglu) intent. The Pyramid was specially constructed to host the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. A 1,500-seat opera house is built into the lower levels, with auditorium and performance equipment design by Anne Minors Performance Consultants and acoustics by Sound Space Design.
    Links: Top Ten Kazakhstani Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Peace_and_Reconciliation,
  4. Russian Pyramids
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           These pyramids represent Russian experiments dealing with the pyramidal shape and its relationship to energy, and its impact/relationship with consciousness.
    Links:
  5. Greek Pyramids
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    Greek pyramids, also known as the Pyramids of Argolis, refers to several structures located in the plain of Argolid, Greece. The best known of these is known as the Pyramid of Hellinikon. In the time of the geographer Pausanias it was considered to be a tomb. Twentieth century researchers have suggested other possible uses.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_pyramids,
  6. Center of Europe, Lithuania

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Lithuanian Attractions, 
  7. Pyramid Concert Hall, Kazan, Russia

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Concert Halls,
  8. The Pyramid at Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, Germany
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           Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is a unique landscape park in Kassel, Germany. Art historian Georg Dehio (1850–1932), inspirator of the modern discipline of historic preservation, described the park as “possibly the most grandiose combination of landscape and architecture that the Baroque dared anywhere.” The area of the park is 2.4 square km (590 acres), making it the largest European hillside park, and 2nd largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Construction of the Bergpark, or “mountain park,” began in 1696 at the behest of the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and took about 150 years.
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top Ten Parks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergpark_Wilhelmsh%C3%B6he,
  9. Bosnian Pyramids (Hoax)

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    Links:
  10. Links: Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten European Attractions, 

Top Ten Asian Pyramids

Top Ten Asian Pyramids

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  1. Xianyang Pyramid, China

           A team of daring Chinese researchers, digging into the ancient mysteries of the origin of their country, have come to the inescapable conclusion that 12,000 years ago an interstellar, supreme alien race used much of the northern and central Chinese regions as massive Earth bases.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions,
  2. Borobudur Temple Compounds (Borobudur Temple, Mendut Temple and Pawon Temple), Indonesia

           Borobudur is a 9th century Mahayana Buddhist monument in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument comprises six square platforms topped by three circular platforms and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path circumambulating the monument while ascending to the top through the three levels of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kāmadhātu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). During the journey the monument guides the pilgrims through a system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades. Evidence suggests Borobudur was abandoned following the 14th century decline of Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, the then British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians. Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage; once a year Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument and Borobudur is Indonesia’s single most visited tourist attraction.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, Top Ten Indonesian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur,
  3. Pyramid Valley, Bangolre, India
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           Pyramid valley is the biggest pyramid shaped meditation hall in the world, along with being the largest pyramid in Asia. It stands at above 101 feet (31 m). Its base measures 160 ft. (49 m) by 160 ft. (49 m) with the main meditation area spanning 25,600 sq ft. (2,380 m2). It is located 30 km from Banashankari Temple.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Top Ten Modern Pyramids, Temples, Top Ten TemplesTop Ten Asian TemplesTop Ten Indian Temples,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tourist_attractions_in_Bangalore,
  4. Western Xia Tombs, China

           Occupying an area of some 50 square km (19 sq mi), the Western Xia tombs at the foot of the Helan Mountains in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of northwestern China includes nine imperial mausoleums and 250 tombs of imperial relatives and officials. This burial complex lies some 40 km (25 mi) westward from capital city of the Western Xia, the Xingqing fu or Xingqing, what is modern-day Yinchuan, capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Some 17,000 square m (180,000 sq ft) have so far been excavated, and efforts are underway to secure and preserve the remains of this poorly understood era. The Western Xia dynasty (also known as Tangut Empire), existed between 1038 and 1227, when it was finally conquered by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The empire was founded by the Tangut ethnic group, about which little is currently known. Of current excavations, only the #3 mausoleum has been adequately excavated and researched. This mausoleum is attributed to Western Xia’s first emperor Jingzong, born Li Yuanhao, (1003-1048), has been determined as a pavilion-tower construction fusing both traditional mausoleum and temple styles with Buddhist characteristics. The Western Xia capital city and the burial complex eluded early 20th century explorers of Central Asia, including Nikolay Kozlov, Aurel Stein and Sven Hedin. During modern times, it was first reported by Wulf-Dieter Graf zu Castell, who recorded the site in an aerial photograph, published in 1938 in book Chinaflug.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Top Ten Necropolises, Top Ten Tombshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Xia_tombs,
  5. Thanjavur Temple Pyramid, India
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    Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, is a city which is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Scholars believe the name Thanjavur is derived from Tanjan, a legendary demon in Hindu mythology. While the early history of Thanjavur remains unclear, the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire. After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British Empire. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the center of the city.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Top Ten Indian Temples, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanjavur#Economy,
  6. White Pyramid, China

    Description:
    Links: www.world-pyramids.com,
  7. Gurut Pyramid, Indonesia

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    Links: Top Ten Indonesian Attractions,
  8. Bak Sei Cham Krong, Cambodia
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Cambodian Attractions,
  9. Koh Ker Pyramid, Cambodia
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    Koh Ker is a remote archaeological site in northern Cambodia about 120 km (75 mi) away from Siem Reap and the ancient site of Angkor. It is a very jungle filled region that is sparsely populated. More than 180 sanctuaries were found in a protected area of 81 square km (31 sq mi). Only about two dozen monuments can be visited by tourists because most of the sanctuaries are hidden in the forest and the whole area is not fully excavated. Inscriptions mention the location as Lingapua (city of lingams) or Chok Gargyar (“city of glance,” or “iron tree forest”). Under the reign of the kings Jayavarman IV and Harshavarman II Koh Ker was briefly the capital of the whole empire (928–944 AD) boasting an ambitious building program. An enormous water-tank and about 40 temples were constructed under his rule. The most significant temple‑complex, was a double sanctuary (Prasat Thom/Prang), which follows a linear plan and not a concentric one like most of the temples of the Khmer kings. Unparalleled is the seven‑tiered and 36 m (118 ft) high pyramid, which most probably served as state temple of Jayavarman IV, as well as shrines with 2m high lingas. Under Jayavarman IV the style of Koh Ker was developed and the art of sculpture reached a pinnacle. A great variety of wonderful statues were chiseled. Because of its remoteness the site of Koh Ker was plundered many times by looters. Sculptures of Koh Ker can be found not only in different museums but also in private collections, and masterpieces are occasionally found at auctions.
    Links: Top Ten Cambodian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koh_Ker,
  10. Java Pyramid

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    Links:
  11. Ancient Korean tomb in Ji’an, Northeastern China

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    Links:
  12. Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Asian Attractions,

Top Ten Mexican Pyramids

Top Ten Mexican Pyramids

       Mexico is home to some of the most impressive pyramids in the world. Here is a glimpse at some of the best.

  1. The Great Pyramid of Cholula

    The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for “artificial mountain”), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World. The pyramid stands 55 m (180 ft) above the surrounding plain, and in its final form it measured 400 by 400 m (1,300 by 1,300 ft). The pyramid is a temple that has traditionally been viewed as having been dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The architectural style of the building was closely linked to that of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, although influence from the Gulf Coast is also evident, especially from El Tajín.
    Links: Top Ten South American Pyramids, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Cholula,
  2. Piramide del Sol

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  3. Piramide de la Luna

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    Links:
  4. El Castillo, Kukulcan Pyramid, Chichen Itza, Mexico

    Dominating the North Platform of Chichen Itza is the Temple of Kukulkan (a Maya feathered serpent deity similar to the Aztec Quetzalcoatl), usually referred to as El Castillo (“the castle”). This step pyramid stands about 30 m (98 ft.) high and consists of a series of nine square terraces, each approximately 2.57 m (8.4 ft.) high, with a 6 m (20 ft.) high temple upon the summit. The sides of the pyramid are approximately 55.3 m (181 ft.) at the base and rise at an angle of 53°, although that varies slightly for each side. The four faces of the pyramid have protruding stairways that rise at an angle of 45°. The talud walls of each terrace slant at an angle of between 72° and 74°. At the base of the balustrades of the northeastern staircase are carved heads of a serpent. Mesoamerican cultures periodically superimposed larger structures over older ones, and El Castillo is one such example. In the mid 1930’s, the Mexican government sponsored an excavation of El Castillo. After several false starts, they discovered a staircase under the north side of the pyramid. By digging from the top, they found another temple buried below the current one. Inside the temple chamber was a Chac Mool statue and a throne in the shape of Jaguar, painted red and with spots made of inlaid jade. The Mexican government excavated a tunnel from the base of the north staircase, up the earlier pyramid’s stairway to the hidden temple, and opened it to tourists. In 2006, INAH closed the throne room to the public. On the Spring and Autumn equinoxes, in the late afternoon, the northwest corner of the pyramid casts a series of triangular shadows against the western balustrade on the north side that evokes the appearance of a serpent wriggling down the staircase. Some have suggested the effect was an intentional design by the Maya builders to represent the feathered-serpent god Kukulcan.
    Links: Castles, Top Ten North American Castles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chichen_Itza,
  5. Uxmal Pyramid of the Magician

    The Pyramid of the Magician is a Mesoamerican step pyramid located in the ancient, Pre-Columbian city of Uxmal, Mexico. The structure is also referred to as the Pyramid of the Dwarf, Casa el Adivino, and the Pyramid of the Soothsayer. The pyramid is the tallest and most recognizable structure in Uxmal.
    Links:
  6. La Gran Pyramide

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  7. Palenque Structures

           Palenque (Bàak’ in Modern Maya) was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 100 BC to its fall around 800 AD. After its decline it was absorbed into the jungle, which is made up of cedar, mahogany, and sapodilla trees, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km (81 mi) south of Ciudad del Carmen about 150 m above sea-level. Palenque is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings that the Mayas produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the many monuments; historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the 7th century and extensive knowledge of the city-state’s rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque was Pacal the Great whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions. By 2005, the discovered area covered up to 2.5 square km (1 square mi), but it is estimated that less than 10% of the total area of the city is explored, leaving more than a thousand structures still covered by jungle.
    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts, Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten North American Relieveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Hispanic_City_and_National_Park_of_Palenque,
  8. El Tajín

           El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 AD, at which time numerous temples, palaces, ballcourts and pyramids were built. From the time the city fell in 1230 to near the end of the 18th century, no European seems to have known of its existence, until a government inspector chanced upon the Pyramid of the Niches in 1785. The architecture at El Tajín includes the use of decorative niches and cement in forms unknown in the rest of Mesoamerica. Its best-known monument is the Pyramid of the Niches, but other important monuments include the Arroyo Group, the North and South Ballcourts and the palaces of Tajín Chico. In total there have been 17 ballcourts discovered at this site. Since the 1970’s, El Tajin has been the most important archeological site in Veracruz for tourists, attracting over 650,000 visitors a year. It is also the site of the annual Cumbre Tajin Festival, which occurs each March featuring indigenous and foreign cultural events as well as concerts by popular musicians.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 North American SculpturesTop 100 Busts, Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten South American Relieveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Tajin,
  9. Calakmul

           Calakmul is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region. It is 35 km (22 mi) from the Guatemalan border. Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands. Calakmul is a modern name, in ancient times the city core was known as Ox Te’ Tuun. Calakmul was a major Maya power within the northern Peten region of the Yucatan of southern Mexico. Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph of the snake head sign, to be read “Kaan.” Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Kingdom of the Snake or Snake Kingdom. This Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period. Calakmul itself is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 people and had governance, at times, over places as far away as 150 km. There are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul the largest of which is the great pyramid at the site. Structure 2 is over 45 m (148 ft,) high, making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids. Four tombs have been located within the pyramid. Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica the pyramid at Calakmul increased in size by building upon the existing temple to reach its current size. The size of the central monumental architecture is approximately 2 square km (0.77 square mi) and the whole of the site, mostly covered with dense residential structures, is about 20 square km (7.7 square mi). Throughout the Classic Period, Calakmul maintained an intense rivalry with the major city of Tikal to the south, and the political maneuverings of these two cities have been likened to a struggle between two Maya superpowers. Rediscovered from the air by biologist Cyrus L. Lundell of the Mexican Exploitation Chicle Company on December 29, 1931, the find was reported to Sylvanus G. Morley of the Carnegie Institute at Chichen Itza in March 1932. According to Lundell, who named the site, “In Maya, ‘ca’ means ‘two,’ ‘lak’ means ‘adjacent,’ and ‘mul’ signifies any artificial mound or pyramid, so ‘Calakmul’ is the ‘City of the Two Adjacent Pyramids’.”
    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Maya_City_of_Calakmul,_Campeche,
  10. Izapa

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    Links:
  11. Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions,

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Top Ten Pyramids

Top Ten Pyramids

       A pyramid is a structure whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in the geometric sense; that is, its outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version. A pyramid’s design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight creates stable monumental structures. Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids. Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone, and is considered an architectural masterpiece. It contains around 1,300,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the Pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high, the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality limestone covering, or casing stones. It is still the tallest pyramid. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla.

  1. The Pyramids of Giza


    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 African Sculptures,
  2. Pyramids of Atlantis
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           Two scientists, Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki, working off the coast of Cuba and using a robot submersible, have confirmed that a gigantic city exists at the bottom of the ocean. The site of the ancient city — that includes several sphinxes and at least four giant pyramids plus other structures — amazingly sits within the boundries of the fabled Bermuda Triangle. According to a report by Arclein of Terra Forming Terra, Cuban Subsea Pyramid Complex, the evidence points to the city being simultaneously inundated with rising waters and the land sinking into the sea. This correlates exactly with the Atlantis legend. The disaster may have occurred at the end of the last Ice Age. As the Arctic icecap catastrophically melted it caused sea levels to rise quickly around the world, especially affecting the Northern Hemisphere. Coast lines changed; land was lost; islands (even island continents) disappeared.
    Links: Top Ten Underwater Ruins, Top Ten Caribbean HotelsTop Ten Bahamas Hotelshttp://www.themindunleashed.org/2013/06/atlantis-found-giant-sphinxes-pyramids.html,
  3. Mount Li Mausoleum

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Top Ten Chinese Pyramids,
  4. Pyramid of the Sun, Mexico

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten Mexican Pyramids,
  5. The Great Pyramid

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    Links:
  6. El Castillo, Kukulcan Pyramid, Chichen Itza, Mexico

           Dominating the North Platform of Chichen Itza is the Temple of Kukulkan (a Maya feathered serpent deity similar to the Aztec Quetzalcoatl), usually referred to as El Castillo (“the castle”). This step pyramid stands about 30 m (98 ft.) high and consists of a series of nine square terraces, each approximately 2.57 m (8.4 ft.) high, with a 6 m (20 ft.) high temple upon the summit. The sides of the pyramid are approximately 55.3 m (181 ft.) at the base and rise at an angle of 53°, although that varies slightly for each side. The four faces of the pyramid have protruding stairways that rise at an angle of 45°. The talud walls of each terrace slant at an angle of between 72° and 74°. At the base of the balustrades of the northeastern staircase are carved heads of a serpent. Mesoamerican cultures periodically superimposed larger structures over older ones, and El Castillo is one such example. In the mid 1930’s, the Mexican government sponsored an excavation of El Castillo. After several false starts, they discovered a staircase under the north side of the pyramid. By digging from the top, they found another temple buried below the current one. Inside the temple chamber was a Chac Mool statue and a throne in the shape of Jaguar, painted red and with spots made of inlaid jade. The Mexican government excavated a tunnel from the base of the north staircase, up the earlier pyramid’s stairway to the hidden temple, and opened it to tourists. In 2006, INAH closed the throne room to the public. On the Spring and Autumn equinoxes, in the late afternoon, the northwest corner of the pyramid casts a series of triangular shadows against the western balustrade on the north side that evokes the appearance of a serpent wriggling down the staircase. Some have suggested the effect was an intentional design by the Maya builders to represent the feathered-serpent god Kukulcan.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Castles, Top Ten North American Castles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chichen_Itza,
  7. The Great Pyramid of Cholula, Mexico

           The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for “artificial mountain”), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World. The pyramid stands 55 meters (180 ft) above the surrounding plain, and in its final form it measured 400 by 400 meters (1,300 by 1,300 ft). The pyramid is a temple that has traditionally been viewed as having been dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The architectural style of the building was closely linked to that of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, although influence from the Gulf Coast is also evident, especially from El Tajín.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten North American Pyramids, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Cholula,
  8. Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, North-East of Xi’an, China

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    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Top Ten Asian Pyramids,
  9. Bonus: Antartica Pyramid?

           Three ancient pyramids have been discovered in the Antarctic by a team of American and European scientists. Two of the pyramids were discovered about 16 km inland, while the third one was very close to the coastline, media reported. An expedition to the bizarre structures should answer the intriguing question whether they are artificial or natural. The first reports about the pyramids appeared in western mass media last year. Few pictures were posted on some web-sites with a commentary that the strange structures could serve evidence that the ice-covered continent used to be warm enough to have had an ancient civilization living there. By the current moment little is still known about the pyramids, the team continues to keep silent about the discovery. The only reliable information provided by the scientists was that they were planning an expedition to the pyramids to research them more thoroughly and determine for sure whether the structures were artificial or natural. No details about the time frame of the expedition were offered. In case the researchers prove the pyramids are man-made structures, the discovery may bring about the biggest revision of human history ever made.
    Links: http://inserbia.info/news/2013/06/ancient-pyramids-discovered-in-antarctica/,
  10. Bonus: Pyramids of Mars

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Mars Destinations,
  11. Red Pyramid, Dashur, Egypt

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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,
  12. Bosnian Pyramids (Hoax)

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Bosnian Herzegovinian Attractions, Top Ten European Pyramids,
  13. Links: Pyramids, 

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