Top Ten Pyramids

Top Ten Pyramids

       A pyramid is a structure whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in the geometric sense; that is, its outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version. A pyramid’s design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight creates stable monumental structures. Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids. Khufu’s Pyramid is built entirely of limestone, and is considered an architectural masterpiece. It contains around 1,300,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the Pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high, the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality limestone covering, or casing stones. It is still the tallest pyramid. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state of Puebla.

  1. The Pyramids of Giza


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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 African Sculptures,
  2. Pyramids of Atlantis
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           Two scientists, Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki, working off the coast of Cuba and using a robot submersible, have confirmed that a gigantic city exists at the bottom of the ocean. The site of the ancient city — that includes several sphinxes and at least four giant pyramids plus other structures — amazingly sits within the boundries of the fabled Bermuda Triangle. According to a report by Arclein of Terra Forming Terra, Cuban Subsea Pyramid Complex, the evidence points to the city being simultaneously inundated with rising waters and the land sinking into the sea. This correlates exactly with the Atlantis legend. The disaster may have occurred at the end of the last Ice Age. As the Arctic icecap catastrophically melted it caused sea levels to rise quickly around the world, especially affecting the Northern Hemisphere. Coast lines changed; land was lost; islands (even island continents) disappeared.
    Links: Top Ten Underwater Ruins, Top Ten Caribbean HotelsTop Ten Bahamas Hotelshttp://www.themindunleashed.org/2013/06/atlantis-found-giant-sphinxes-pyramids.html,
  3. Mount Li Mausoleum

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    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Top Ten Chinese Pyramids,
  4. Pyramid of the Sun, Mexico

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    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten Mexican Pyramids,
  5. The Great Pyramid

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  6. El Castillo, Kukulcan Pyramid, Chichen Itza, Mexico

           Dominating the North Platform of Chichen Itza is the Temple of Kukulkan (a Maya feathered serpent deity similar to the Aztec Quetzalcoatl), usually referred to as El Castillo (“the castle”). This step pyramid stands about 30 m (98 ft.) high and consists of a series of nine square terraces, each approximately 2.57 m (8.4 ft.) high, with a 6 m (20 ft.) high temple upon the summit. The sides of the pyramid are approximately 55.3 m (181 ft.) at the base and rise at an angle of 53°, although that varies slightly for each side. The four faces of the pyramid have protruding stairways that rise at an angle of 45°. The talud walls of each terrace slant at an angle of between 72° and 74°. At the base of the balustrades of the northeastern staircase are carved heads of a serpent. Mesoamerican cultures periodically superimposed larger structures over older ones, and El Castillo is one such example. In the mid 1930’s, the Mexican government sponsored an excavation of El Castillo. After several false starts, they discovered a staircase under the north side of the pyramid. By digging from the top, they found another temple buried below the current one. Inside the temple chamber was a Chac Mool statue and a throne in the shape of Jaguar, painted red and with spots made of inlaid jade. The Mexican government excavated a tunnel from the base of the north staircase, up the earlier pyramid’s stairway to the hidden temple, and opened it to tourists. In 2006, INAH closed the throne room to the public. On the Spring and Autumn equinoxes, in the late afternoon, the northwest corner of the pyramid casts a series of triangular shadows against the western balustrade on the north side that evokes the appearance of a serpent wriggling down the staircase. Some have suggested the effect was an intentional design by the Maya builders to represent the feathered-serpent god Kukulcan.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Castles, Top Ten North American Castles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chichen_Itza,
  7. The Great Pyramid of Cholula, Mexico

           The Great Pyramid of Cholula, also known as Tlachihualtepetl (Nahuatl for “artificial mountain”), is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. It is the largest archaeological site of a pyramid (temple) in the New World. The pyramid stands 55 meters (180 ft) above the surrounding plain, and in its final form it measured 400 by 400 meters (1,300 by 1,300 ft). The pyramid is a temple that has traditionally been viewed as having been dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The architectural style of the building was closely linked to that of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico, although influence from the Gulf Coast is also evident, especially from El Tajín.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, Top Ten North American Pyramids, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Cholula,
  8. Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, North-East of Xi’an, China

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    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, Top Ten Asian Pyramids,
  9. Bonus: Antartica Pyramid?

           Three ancient pyramids have been discovered in the Antarctic by a team of American and European scientists. Two of the pyramids were discovered about 16 km inland, while the third one was very close to the coastline, media reported. An expedition to the bizarre structures should answer the intriguing question whether they are artificial or natural. The first reports about the pyramids appeared in western mass media last year. Few pictures were posted on some web-sites with a commentary that the strange structures could serve evidence that the ice-covered continent used to be warm enough to have had an ancient civilization living there. By the current moment little is still known about the pyramids, the team continues to keep silent about the discovery. The only reliable information provided by the scientists was that they were planning an expedition to the pyramids to research them more thoroughly and determine for sure whether the structures were artificial or natural. No details about the time frame of the expedition were offered. In case the researchers prove the pyramids are man-made structures, the discovery may bring about the biggest revision of human history ever made.
    Links: http://inserbia.info/news/2013/06/ancient-pyramids-discovered-in-antarctica/,
  10. Bonus: Pyramids of Mars

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    Links: Top Ten Mars Destinations,
  11. Red Pyramid, Dashur, Egypt

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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,
  12. Bosnian Pyramids (Hoax)

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    Links: Top Ten Bosnian Herzegovinian Attractions, Top Ten European Pyramids,
  13. Links: Pyramids, 

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