Top Ten Cathedrals

Top Ten Cathedrals

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  1. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey
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    Hagia Sophia, “Holy Wisdom,” is a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the cathedral of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was the cathedral of the Latin empire. The building was a mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1934, when it was secularized. It was opened as a museum on February 1, 1935. Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture.” It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the previous two having both been destroyed by rioters. It was designed by Isidore of Miletus, a physicist, and Anthemius of Tralles, a mathematician.
    Links: Top Ten Turkish Attractions, Top Ten Domes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia,
  2. St Mark’s Basilica (Venice Cathedral), Italy

    The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice. It is the most famous of the city’s churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. It lies on Piazza San Marco, in the San Marco district, adjacent and connected to the Doge’s Palace. Originally it was the “chapel” of the Venetian rulers, and not the city’s cathedral. Since 1807 it has been the seat of the Patriarch of Venice, archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice. For its opulent design, gilded Byzantine mosaics, and its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building was known by the nickname Chiesa d’Oro (Church of gold).
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mark%27s_Basilica,
  3. Florence Cathedral aka The Duomo, Italy

    The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi. The exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink bordered by white and has an elaborate 19th century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris. The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto’s Campanile. The basilica is one of Italy’s largest churches, and until development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed. The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Domes, Top Ten Dome Interiors, Top Ten Doors, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_del_Fiore,
  4. Saint Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow, Russia
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    The Cathedral of the Protection of Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, popularly known in English as Saint Basil’s Cathedral, is a Russian Orthodox church erected on the Red Square in Moscow in 1555–61. Built on the order of Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan, it marks the geometric center of the city and the hub of its growth since the 14th century. It was the tallest building in Moscow until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600. The original building, known as “Trinity Church” and later “Trinity Cathedral,” contained eight side churches arranged around the 9th, central church of Intercession; the 10th church was erected in 1588 over the grave of venerated local saint Vasily (Basil). In the 16th and 17th centuries the church, perceived as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City, as happens to all churches in Byzantine Christianity, was popularly known as the “Jerusalem” and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the tsar. The building’s design, shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, has no analogues in Russian architecture: “It is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the entire millennium of Byzantine tradition from the 5th to 15th century…a strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness, complexity and dazzling interleaving of the manifold details of its design.” The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century. A victim of state atheism, the church was confiscated from the Russian Orthodox community as part of the Soviet Union’s anti-theist campaigns and has operated as a division of the State Historical Museum since 1928. It was completely and forcefully secularized in 1929 and, as of 2011, remains a federal property of the Russian Federation. It is often mislabeled as the Kremlin owing to its location on Red Square in immediate proximity of the Kremlin.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, Top Ten Squares, Top Ten Firework Shows, Top Ten Photos of Fireworks, Top Ten Fireworks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Basil%27s_Cathedral,
  5. Milan Cathedral, Italy

    The Milan Cathedral, Duomo di Milano or Domm de Milan, is the cathedral church of Milan in Lombardy, northern Italy. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, currently Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi. The Gothic cathedral took 5 centuries to complete and is the 4th largest church in the world
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractionshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan_Cathedral,
  6. Santa Maria Assunta, Pisa, Italy

            The heart of the Piazza del Duomo is the Duomo, the medieval cathedral, entitled to Santa Maria Assunta (St. Mary of the Assumption). Construction was begun in 1064 by the architect Busketo, and set the model for the distinctive Pisan Romanesque style of architecture. The mosaics of the interior, as well as the pointed arches, show a strong Byzantine influence. The façade, of grey marble and white stone set with discs of colored marble, was built by a master named Rainaldo, as indicated by an inscription above the middle door: Rainaldus prudens operator. The massive bronze main doors were made in the workshops of Giambologna, replacing the original doors destroyed in a fire in 1595. Above the doors there are four rows of open galleries with, on top, statues of Madonna with Child and, on the corners, the Four evangelists. At the east end of the exterior, high on a column rising from the gable is a modern replica of the Pisa Griffin, the largest Islamic metal sculpture known, the original of which was placed there probably in the 11th or 12th century, and is now in the Cathedral Museum. Fortunately, the impressive mosaic, in the apse, of Christ in Majesty, flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist, survived the fire. Galileo is believed to have formulated his theory about the movement of a pendulum by watching the swinging of the incense lamp (not the present one) hanging from the ceiling of the nave. That lamp, smaller and simpler than the present one, it is now kept in the Camposanto, in the Aulla chapel. The impressive granite Corinthian columns between the nave and the aisle came originally from the mosque of Palermo, captured by the Pisans in 1063. The elaborately carved pulpit (1302–1310), which also survived the fire, was made by Giovanni Pisano and is one the masterworks of medieval sculpture. It was packed away during the redecoration and was not rediscovered and re-erected until 1926. The church also contains the bones of St Ranieri, Pisa’s patron saint, and the tomb of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, carved by Tino da Camaino in 1315. Pope Gregory VIII was also buried in the cathedral, though a fire in 1595 destroyed his tomb. The Cathedral has a prominent role in determining the beginning of the Pisan New Year. Between the 10th century and 1749, when the Tuscan calendar was reformed, Pisa used its own calendar, in which the first day of the year on March 25, which is the day of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary. The Pisan New Year begins 9 months before the ordinary one. The exact moment is determined by a ray of sun that, through a window on the left side, hit a shelf egg-shaped on the right side, just above the pulpit by Giovanni Pisano. This occurs at noon.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Squares, Top Ten Towers, Top Ten Bell Towers, Top Ten Bells, Top Ten Tombs, Top Ten Mosaics, Top Ten Islamic Artifacts, Top Ten Popes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duomo_di_Pisa#Duomo,
  7. Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France

           Notre Dame Cathedral, is a Gothic, Roman Catholic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France. It is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris, which contains the cathedra (official chair), of the Archbishop of Paris. Notre Dame de Paris is widely considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in France and in Europe. It was restored and saved from destruction by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, one of France’s most famous architects. The name Notre Dame means “Our Lady” in French, and is frequently used in the names of Catholic Church buildings in Francophone countries. Notre Dame de Paris was one of the first Gothic cathedrals, and its construction spanned the Gothic period. Its sculptures and stained glass show the heavy influence of naturalism, unlike that of earlier Romanesque architecture. Notre Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress (arched exterior supports). The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave. After the construction began and the thinner walls (popularized in the Gothic style) grew ever higher, stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral’s architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued the pattern.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris,
  8. Cologne Cathedral, Germany

    Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and is under the administration of the archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of German Catholicism in particular, and of Gothic architecture. It is dedicated to Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The cathedral is a World Heritage Site, one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany, and Cologne’s most famous landmark, described by UNESCO as an “exceptional work of human creative genius.” It is visited by 20,000 people every day. Construction of Cologne Cathedral began in 1248 and took, with interruptions, until 1880 to complete. The cathedral is one of the world’s largest churches and the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe. For the years, 1880-84, it was the tallest structure in the world, until the completion of the Washington Monument. It has the second-tallest church spires, only surpassed by the single spire of Ulm Minster, completed 10 years later in 1890. Because of its enormous twin spires, it also presents the largest façade of any church in the world. The choir of the cathedral, measured between the piers, also holds the distinction of having the largest height to width ratio of any Medieval church, 3.6:1, exceeding even Beauvais Cathedral which has a slightly higher vault. Cologne’s medieval builders had planned a grand structure to house the reliquary of the Three Kings and fit its role as a place of worship of the Holy Roman Emperor.
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cologne_Cathedral,
  9. Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia
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           The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood Khram Spasa na Krovi is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg, Russia. It is also variously called the Church on Spilt Blood and the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, its official name. “The preferred Russian name for this great church is Khram Spasa na Krovi, but each English-language tourist publication seems to list it under a different name. The moniker of “Spilled Blood” is most popular in preference to the likes of the Church of the Resurrection, Church of our Savior on the Blood, Cathedral of the Ascension, Resurrection of the Christ, or Assumption, Church of the Redeemer, or any permutation of the above.” This Church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. It should not to be confused with the Church on Blood in Honour of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land, located in the city of Yekaterinburg where the former Emperor Nicholas II (1868-1918) and several members of his family and household were executed following the Bolshevik Revolution.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_the_Savior_on_Blood,
  10. Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Russia

           Kazan Cathedral or Kazanskiy Kafedralniy Sobor, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, is a cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg. It is dedicated to Our Lady of Kazan, probably the most venerated icon in Russia.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazan_Cathedral,_St._Petersburg,
  11. Segovia Cathedral, Spain

           Segovia Cathedral is a Roman Catholic religious building in Segovia, Spain. It is located in the main square of the city, the Plaza Mayor, and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The Cathedral is in late Gothic style and replaced a building damaged in the Revolt of the Comuneros. It was built between 1525 and 1577 by Trasmeran mason Juan Gil de Hontañón, and the work was continued by his son Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The building has a structure in three tall vaults and ambulatory, with fine tracery windows set, and numerous stained glass. The interior is characterized by unity of style (late Gothic), except for the dome, built around 1630 by Pedro de Brizuela. Gothic vaults rise to 33 m high and measures 50 m wide and 105 long. The bell tower reaches almost 90 m. The current stone spire crowning the tower, dating from 1614, was erected after a major fire caused by a thunderstorm. The original Gothic pyramidal spire was built of American mahogany and was the tallest tower in Spain.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Towers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segovia_Cathedral,
  12. St. Vitus, St. Wenceslas and St. Adalbert Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic

           Saint Vitus’ Cathedral is as a Roman Catholic cathedral in Prague, and the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. The full name of the cathedral is St. Vitus, St. Wenceslas and St. Adalbert Cathedral. Located within Prague Castle and containing the tombs of many Bohemian kings and Holy Roman Emperors, this cathedral is an excellent example of Gothic architecture and is the biggest and most important church in the country. The cathedral is under the ownership of the Czech government as part of the Prague Castle complex.
    Links: Top Ten Czech Republic Attractions, Top Ten Clock Towers, Top Ten Tombs, Top Ten Stained Glass Windows, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Vitus_Cathedral,
  13. Toledo Cathedral, Spain
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           The Primate Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Toledo, Spain. The cathedral of Toledo is one of the three 13th century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain and is considered, in the opinion of some authorities, to be the magnum opus of the Gothic style in Spain. It was begun in 1226 under the rule of Ferdinand III and the last Gothic contributions were made in the 15th century when, in 1493, the vaults of the central nave were finished during the time of the Catholic Monarchs. It was modeled after the Bourges Cathedral, although its five naves plan is a consequence of the constructors’ intention to cover all of the sacred space of the former city mosque with the cathedral, and of the former sahn with the cloister. It also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style, mainly in the cloister, and with the presence of multifoiled arches in the triforium. The spectacular incorporation of light and the structural achievements of the ambulatory vaults are some of its more remarkable aspects. It is built with white limestone from the quarries of Olihuelas, near Toledo. It is popularly known as Dives Toletana (meaning The Rich Toledan in Latin) and is rumored to at one time have held a large treasury.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions,
  14. Santa María la Real de La Almudena, Spain

           Santa María la Real de La Almudena is a Catholic cathedral in Madrid. When the capital of Spain was transferred from Toledo to Madrid in 1561, the seat of the Church in Spain remained in Toledo; so the new capital, unusually for a Catholic country, had no cathedral. Plans were discussed as early as the 16th century to build a cathedral in Madrid dedicated to the Virgin of Almudena, but construction did not begin until 1879. The cathedral seems to have been built on the site of a medieval mosque that was destroyed in 1083 when Alfonso VI reconquered Madrid. Francisco de Cubas, the Marquis of Cubas, designed and directed the construction in a Gothic revival style. Construction ceased completely during the Spanish Civil War, and the project was abandoned until 1950, when Fernando Chueca Goitia adapted the plans of de Cubas to a baroque exterior to match the grey and white façade of the Palacio Real, which stands directly opposite. The cathedral was not completed until 1993, when it was consecrated by Pope John Paul II. On May 22, 2004, the marriage of Felipe, Prince of Asturias to Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano (known thereafter as Letizia, Princess of Asturias) took place at the cathedral. The Neo-Gothic interior is uniquely modern, with chapels and statues of contemporary artists, in heterogeneous styles, from historical revivals to “pop-art” decor. The Neo-Romanesque crypt houses a 16th century image of the Virgen de la Almudena. Nearby along the Calle Mayor excavations have unearthed remains of Moorish and medieval city walls. On the April 28, 2004, Cardinal Antonio María Rouco Varela, Archbishop of Madrid blessed the new paintings in the apse, painted by Kiko Arguello, founder of the Neocatechumenal Way. The cathedral is the seat of the Patriarch of the Indies and the Ocean Sea, an honorific patriarchate created in the 16th century and subsequently an honorific title for the Spanish court’s chaplain.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almudena_Cathedral,
  15. Burgos Cathedral, Spain

           The Burgos Cathedral is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral in Burgos, Spain. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and is famous for its vast size and unique architecture. Its construction began in 1221 and it was in use as a church nine years later but work continued off and on until 1567. It was primarily built in the French Gothic style although Renaissance style works were added in the 15th and 16th centuries.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgos_Cathedral,
  16. Cathedral of Palermo, Italy

           The Cathedral of Palermo is an architectural complex in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. It is characterized by the presence of different styles, due to a long history of additions, alterations and restorations, the last of which occurred in the 18th century.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Sculptures, Top 100 European Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_Cathedral,
  17. Morelia Cathedral, Mexico

            Morelia Cathedral is a baroque cathedral and its two 70 m towers dominate the skyline of the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Morelia. Work began on the cathedral on August 6, 1660, and it was completed 84 years later, in 1744. On Saturday nights at 8 pm, a spectacle including fireworks and music takes places. It is a wonderful view especially on the night of September 15th when the governor of Michoacan gives his annual Grito de Independencia.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Morelia,
  18. Syracuse Cathedral, Italy

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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions,
  19. St. John’s Cathedral, Malta

    St. Johns Co-Cathedral, located in Valletta, Malta, was built by the Knights of Malta between 1573 and 1578, having been commissioned in 1572 by Grand Master Jean de la Cassière as the conventual church of the Order of the Knights Hospitaller of St John, known as the Knights of Malta. The Church was designed by the Maltese military architect Glormu Cassar who designed several of the more prominent buildings in Valletta.
    Links: Top Ten Maltese Attractions, Top Ten Knights Hospitallers, Top Ten Knights Hospitaller Architectural Works, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_John%27s_Co-Cathedral,
  20. Barcelona Cathedral, Spain

           The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia, also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain. The cathedral was constructed throughout the 13th to 15th centuries, with the principal work done in the 14th century. The cloister, which encloses the Well of the Geese was completed about 1450. The neo-Gothic façade was constructed over the nondescript exterior that was common to Catalan churches in the 19th century. The roof is notable for its gargoyles, featuring a wide range of animals, both domestic and mythical. The cathedral was constructed over the crypt of a former Visigothic chapel, dedicated to Saint James, which was the proprietary church of the Viscounts of Barcelona, one of whom, Mir Geribert, sold the site to Bishop Guislebert in 1058. The cathedral is dedicated to Eulalia of Barcelona, co-patron saint of Barcelona, a young virgin who, according to Catholic tradition, suffered martyrdom during Roman times in the city. One story says that she was exposed naked in the public square and a miraculous snowfall in mid-spring covered her nudity. The enraged Romans put her into a barrel with knives stuck into it and rolled it down a street (according to tradition, the one now called Baixada de Santa Eulàlia). The body of Saint Eulalia is entombed in the cathedral’s crypt. The choir stalls retain the coats-of-arms of the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In his first trip into Spain, Charles, the future Holy Roman Emperor, selected Barcelona as the site of a chapter of his Order. The king had arrived for his investiture as Count of Barcelona, and the city, as a Mediterranean port, offered the closest communication with other far-flung Habsburg dominions, while the large proportions of the cathedral would accommodate required grand ceremonies. In 1518 the Order’s herald, Thomas Isaac, and its treasurer, Jean Micault, were commissioned to prepare the sanctuary for the first sitting of the chapter in 1519. Juan de Borgonya executed the painted decoration of the sanctuary. One side chapel is dedicated to “Christ of Lepanto,” and contains a cross from a ship that fought at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). Catalan legend states that during the battle, the corpus suddenly and miraculously shifted to the right to avoid being hit by a cannonball, a miraculous sign from God that the Ottomans would be defeated. The cathedral has a secluded Gothic cloister where 13 white geese are kept, the number explained by the assertion that Eulalia was 13 when she was martyred.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Barcelona Attractions, Top Ten Saints, Top Ten Tombs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Santa_Eulalia,
  21. Saint Isaac’s Cathedral, Russia
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    Saint Isaac’s Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor in Saint Petersburg, Russia is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city. It is dedicated to Saint Isaac of Dalmatia, a patron saint of Peter the Great, who had been born on the feast day of that saint.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Isaac%27s_Cathedral,
  22. St. Michael’s Cathedral, Russia

           Saint Michael’s Cathedral in Izhevsk rivals the older Alexander Nevsky Cathedral as the main Orthodox church of Udmurtia in Russia. Its Russian Revival design belongs to Ivan Charushin, a little-known 19th century architect from Vyatka. The red-brick church is capped with a tent-like roof that rises to a height of 67 m. It is encircled by several massive chapels with gilded bulbous domes and slender tent-like belfries. The porches have sharply pitched roofs in the manner of the Muscovite churches of the 17th century. The Izhevsk arms factory owed its rise partly to the involvement of Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, whose patron saint was Michael the Archangel. The factory’s employees contributed 1% of their wages to a fund set up to finance the construction of a large church to this military saint. The cathedral was erected between 1897 and 1915, only to be demolished by the Soviets in 1937. It was rebuilt to Charushin’s original designs in 2004-2007. The interior features an irregular gilded icon screen and is devoid of frescoes.
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Michael%27s_Cathedral_(Izhevsk),
  23. São Paulo See Metropolitan Cathedral, Brazil

    The São Paulo See Metropolitan Cathedral, “See” and “cathedra” mean “seat” and therefore the ecclesiastical authority of a bishop or archbishop is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of São Paulo, Brazil. The current Metropolitan Archbishop of the archdiocese is His Eminence, Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer. Its construction, in Neo-Gothic style, began in 1913 and ended four decades later. It was ready for its dedication on the 400th anniversary of the foundation of the then humble villa of São Paulo by Chief or Cacique Tibirica’ and the Jesuit priests Manuel da Nobrega and Jose’ de Anchieta. Despite having a Renaissance-styled dome, the São Paulo Metropolitan Cathedral is considered by some to be the 4th largest neo-gothic cathedral in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Brazilian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A3o_Paulo_Cathedral,
  24. Old and New Cathedral of Salamanca, Spain

           The New Cathedral is, together with the Old Cathedral, one of the two cathedrals of Salamanca, Spain. It was constructed between the 16th and 18th centuries in two styles: late Gothic and Baroque. Building began in 1513 and the cathedral was consecrated in 1733. It was commissioned by Ferdinand V of Castile of Spain.
    Links: Top Ten Spanish Attractions, Top Ten Dome Interiors, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Cathedral,_Salamanca,
  25. Aachen Cathedral, Germany
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           Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the “Imperial Cathedral,” is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany. The church is the oldest cathedral in northern Europe and was known as the “Royal Church of St. Mary at Aachen” during the Middle Ages. For 600 years, from 936 to 1531, the Aachen chapel was the church of coronation for 30 German kings and 12 queens. The church is the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Aachen.
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top 100 Busts, Top Ten Thrones, Top Ten Mosaics, Top Ten Dome Interiors, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aachen_Cathedral,
  26. Cathedral of Brasília, Brazil

           The Cathedral of Brasília is the Roman Catholic cathedral serving Brasília, Brazil, and serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Brasília. It was designed by Oscar Niemeyer, and was completed and dedicated on May 31, 1970. The cathedral is a hyperboloid structure constructed from 16 concrete columns, weighing 90 tons each. The exterior of the cathedral resembles the circular plan and ribbed structure of Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, but the latter is clad in solid material, while the Cathedral of Brasília allows light in and out for almost the full height of the ribs.
    Links: Top Ten Brazilian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Bras%C3%ADlia,
  27. Puebla Cathedral, Mexico

           Puebla Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the city of Puebla, in Puebla, Mexico. It is a colonial cathedral, and is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Puebla de los Angeles. The cathedral’s bishop is Víctor Sánchez Espinosa. The cathedral is dedicated to the Immaculate Conception.
    Links: Top Ten North American Churches, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puebla_Cathedral,
  28. Links: Architecture, Attractions, Top Ten Basilicas,

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