Top Ten North American Relieves

Top Ten North American Relieves

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  1. Aztec Sun Stone
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    The Aztec calendar stone, Mexica sun stone, Stone of the Sun, or Stone of the Five Eras, is a large monolithic sculpture that was excavated in the Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City, on December 17, 1790. It was discovered while Mexico City Cathedral was being repaired. The stone is approximately 12 feet (3.7 m) across and weighs approximately 24 tons.
    Links: Top Ten Aztec Artifacts, Top Ten Rocks/Stones, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec_calendar_stone,
  2. Yaxchilán Relieves
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           Yaxchilan (also sometimes historically referred to by the names Menché and City Lorillard) is an ancient Maya city located on the bank of the Usumacinta River in what is now the state of Chiapas, Mexico. In the Late Classic Period Yaxchilan was one of the most powerful Maya states along the course of the Usumacinta, with Piedras Negras as its major rival. Architectural styles in subordinate sites in the Usumacinta region demonstrate clear differences that mark a clear boundary between the two kingdoms. Yaxchilan was a large center, important throughout the Classic era and the dominant power of the Usumacinta River area. It dominated such smaller sites as Bonampak, and had a long rivalry with Piedras Negras and at least for a time with Tikal; it was a rival of Palenque, with which Yaxchilan warred in 654. The site is particularly known for its well-preserved sculptured stone lintels set above the doorways of the main structures. These lintels, together with the stele erected before the major buildings, contain hieroglyphic texts describing the dynastic history of the city. The ancient name for the city was probably Pa’ Chan. Yaxchilan means “green stones” in Maya.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaxchil%C3%A1n,
  3. Mayan Volcanic Explosion Relief

    This Mayan relief depicts the explosion of a volcano and a man and women fleeing from the situation. Some speculate that this scene could be reminiscent of the Atlantean disaster.
    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts,
  4. Mayan Tablet of the Sun

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    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts,
  5. Palenque Relieves, Mexico
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           Palenque (Bàak’ in Modern Maya) was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 100 BC to its fall around 800 AD. After its decline it was absorbed into the jungle, which is made up of cedar, mahogany, and sapodilla trees, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km (81 mi) south of Ciudad del Carmen about 150 m above sea-level. Palenque is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings that the Mayas produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the many monuments; historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the 7th century and extensive knowledge of the city-state’s rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque was Pacal the Great whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions. By 2005, the discovered area covered up to 2.5 km² (1 square mi), but it is estimated that less than 10% of the total area of the city is explored, leaving more than a thousand structures still covered by jungle.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions,
  6. El Tajín
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    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions,
  7. Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, Boston, USA (1897)

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  8. Wood Lintel Celebrating Military Victry of Yik’in Chan K’awiil

           The elaborately carved wooden Lintel 3 from Temple IV. It celebrates a military victory by Yik’in Chan K’awiil in 743.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten North American Parkshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikal_National_Park,
  9. Olmec Relief at La Venta Park, Villahermosa, Mexico

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  10. Mayan Relieves
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  11. Mayan Relieves
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  12. Mayan Relieves
    maya_relief_by_renemarcel27-d46elkzMayan relief sculpture with Lady Balam-Ix and Bird Jaguar IVMayan-Relief-of-Shield-Jaguar-and-Lady-Xoc
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  13. Mayan Relief
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  14. Mayan Relieves
    yaxchilanPre-Columbian_collection,_Dumbarton_Oaks,_Mayan_reliefStele51CalakmulMuseum
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  15. Aztec Plumed Serpent Relief

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  16. Relief of Pacal the Great

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, 
  17. Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs,

Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

  1. Sumerian Relief from Nimrod

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief from Nimrod and currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  2. Relief of Ashurnasirpal with the Tree of Life (883-859 BC)

    This is a relief from the N.W. palace of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) showing anointing of the Tree of Life. A winged god holds what appears to be a pinecone and a pot with the anointing oil. Above the Tree of Life is the royal signet of the god Ashur. The god Ashur is depicted as a man with a bow inside a winged solar disk or as a winged solar disk.
    Links: Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts,  http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  3. Shamash Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief which can be currently seen at the Louvre. The relief depicts an offering to the god, by Saint-Elme Gautier. The god appears to be Shamash, whose helmet has three sets of horns. The attendant with the sheep appears to be holding the solar disk emblem. The tassle held by the other attendant looks like a poppy. The relief on the right depicts the god Oannes in a fish suit.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  4. Sumerian Gods in Flying Craft Relief

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    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Relieves,
  5. Tablet of Shamash

    This is the Tablet of Shamash. It appears that a solar disk is held by two tassels. At the base of the pillar of the throne is the “lily” seen in the thrones of the kings and Phrygian text XW. The Sun disk is emerging from the “lily” symbol. Note that it is similar to the Egyption akhet, meaning “dawn.” The image represented the daily rebirth of the sun. It is curiously similar to the idols seen at Midas City. The Midas City idols appear to be abstract torsos, rectangles with disks atop.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  6. Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System

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  7. Cylinder Seal of Ashur

    This is a cylinder seal with the solar disk of Ashur, anointing with two eagle-headed gods before the Tree of Life. The blossoms on the tree appear to be pomegranates.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  8. Naram-Suen’s Victory Over the Lullubi
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  9. Sumerian Relief

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  10. Behistun Inscription and Ahura Mazda Relieves
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           The Behistun Inscription, meaning “the place of god,” is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought 19 battles in a period of one year (ending in December of 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. The inscription states in detail that the rebellions, which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great and his son Cambyses II, were orchestrated by several impostors and their co-conspirators in various cities throughout the empire, each of whom falsely proclaimed kinghood during the upheaval following Cyrus’s death. Darius the Great proclaimed himself victorious in all battles during the period of upheaval, attributing his success to the “grace of Ahura Mazda.” The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian (a later form of Akkadian). In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script. The inscription is approximately 15 m high by 25 m wide and 100 m up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana, respectively). The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and nine one-meter figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was Darius’s beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.
    Links: Top Ten Gods, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda,
  11. Ninurta Relief

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  12. Nimrod Temple Relief depicting Nimrod

    This Assyrian relief of Nimrod located in the Nimrod Temple is a 100 cm in height and 40 cm wide. It was carved on a special type of rock that stores light during the day, which causes it to glow during the night. (Stela of King Ashurnasirpal II, 883 – 859 BC.)
    Links: http://www.assyrian4all.net/akhne/index.php?topic=10496.0,
  13. Adad-Nirari III Relief (811 – 783 BC)

    Adad-nirari III was King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. He was the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad V and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his reign his mother Shammuramat acted as regent, which may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis. Adad-nirari’s youth and the struggles his father had faced early in his reign, caused a serious weakening for the Assyrian rulership over Mesopotamia and gave way to the ambitions of the most high officers, the governors and the local rulers.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adad-nirari_III,
  14. Shalmaneser III

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  15. Prosknesis Relief

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  16. Relief of Marduk-apla-iddina II

    Marduk-apla-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan. lit. Marduk has given me an Heir.) (reigned 722 BC – 710 BC, 703 BC – 702 BC) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC. Marduk-apla iddina II was also known as one of the brave kings who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade. Sargon of Assyria repressed the allies of Marduk-apla-iddina II in Aram and Israel and eventually drove (710 BC) him from Babylon. After the death of Sargon, Marduk-apla-iddina II recaptured the throne. In the time of his reign over Babylonia, he strengthened the Chaldean Empire. He reigned 9 months (703 BC – 702 BC). He returned from Elam and ignited all the Arameans in Babylonia into rebellion. He was able to enter Babylon and be declared king again. Nine months later he was defeated near Kish, but escaped to Elam with the gods of the south. He died in exile a couple of years later.
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  17. Ishtar

    Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, war, love and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate north-west Semitic goddess Astarte.
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  18. Enki Relief

    Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts, mischief; water, seawater, lakewater, intelligence and creation. Beginning around the second millennium BC, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for “40,” occasionally referred to as his “sacred number.” The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to “lord”; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning “mound.” In Sumerian E-A means “the house of water,” and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki,
  19. Sumerian Relief

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  20. Winged Sumerian Relieves

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  21. Gilgamesh Relieves

    This relieves may depict Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Huwawa and the bull of Heaven respectively.
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  22. Stele of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2,044 – 2,007 BC)

    Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens.” Further evidence relates a story of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2044 to 2007 BC) on a 5 x10′ stele. He received orders from his god and goddess to build the ziggurat The stele is nearly five feet across and ten feet high. At the top, the king stands in an attitude of prayer. Above his head is the symbol of the moon god Nannar, and to the right are figures of angels with vases from which flow the streams of life (this is the earliest known artistic figures of angels). The panels show the king setting out with compass, pick and trowel, and mortar baskets to begin construction. One panel contains just a single ladder used as the structure was rising. The reverse side depicts a commemorative feast.
    Links: http://kata-aletheia.blogspot.com/2007/12/tower-of-babel-gen-11-and-ancient-near.html,
  23. Relief

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  24. Relieves
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  25. Tammuz

    Tammuz was the Sumerian god of food and vegetation, also worshiped in the later Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar. The Levantine Adonis (“lord”), who was drawn into the Greek pantheon, was considered by Joseph Campbell among others to be another counterpart of Tammuz, son and consort. The Aramaic name “Tammuz” seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian. Tamuzi also is Dumuzid or Dumuzi.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_(deity),
  26. Relief

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  27. Links: Top Ten Relieves,

Top 100 Gold Artifacts

Top 100 Gold Artifacts

  1. King Tutankhamen’s Tomb, Coffin and Burial Mask

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    Links: Top 100 Egyptian Artifacts, Top 100 African Artifacts, Top Ten KingsTop Ten Archeologists,
  2. Gold Buddha

    This beautiful gold statue of Buddha is located in Thailand.
    Links: Top Ten Statues of Buddha, Top Ten Thai Attractions, 
  3. Moche Effigy Figurine

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    Links: Top Moche Artifacts, 
  4. The Golden Larnax

           The Golden Larnax, housed at the Museum of Vergina, quite possibly contains the remains of King Philip II.
    Links: Top Ten KingsTop Ten Tombs,
  5. Pectoral

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    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, Top Ten PectoralsTop Ten Ancient Necklaces,
  6. Gold Crown and Necklace (1300 AD)

           This gold apparel can be seen at the Larco Museum in Lima, Perú.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts, Top Ten Crowns, 
  7. King Tut’s Throne

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    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop 100 African Artifacts, Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Thrones, 
  8. Panagyuriste Treasure of Bulgaria
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           On the 8th of December 1949 three brothers, Pavel, Petko and Michail Deikovi worked together at the region of “Merul” tile factory near Panagyurishte. When processing a new layer of clay they came across unusual glossy objects. What they uncovered was the Panagyuriste treasure, a spectacular perfectly made Thracian treasure, one of the most famous treasures in the world. It consists of a phial, an amphora and seven rhytons with total weight of 6,164 kg of pure gold. All of the objects are richly decorated with scenes of the Thracian myths, customs and life. It is dated from the 4th-3rd centuries BC.
    Links: Top Ten Vases, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panagyurishte_treasure,
  9. Moche Sea Goddess Headress (700 AD)

    This Moche sea god headdress dates to 700 AD.
    Links: Top Ten Moche Artifacts, Top 100 Masks,
  10. Vajrabhairava Mandala (1403-1424 AD)

           Chinese emperors lavished costly gifts on Tibetan high lamas. This one, made during the Ming dynasty, is fantastic both in its amazing detail, and also in its Buddhist subject. The upper part of the object unfolds, like a lotus blooming, to reveal the wrathful deity Vajrabhairava and his entourage. The figures are arranged to form a mandala, or mystic diagram of the universe, as envisioned by Buddhists. Chinese emperors exchanged gifts with Tibetan lamas to maintain cordial political relations and also to celebrate a shared religion, as many emperors practiced the Tibetan style of Buddhism.
    Links: Top 100 Mandalas,
  11. Skullcup (Kapala) (19th Century AD)

           A human skull rests on a mount of pure gold, embellished with turquoise. During a sacred ceremony, the elaborately decorated lid was removed and the skull – perhaps lined in gold – became a crucible. Inside, symbols of ordinary life were placed, heated, and transformed as part of an elaborate ritual enacted to help the initiates visualize the conversion of ordinary life and death into the path of enlightenment. This skull, given the elaborate mount of costly materials, undoubtedly belonged to a high-ranking lama, whose spiritual status lent special importance to this ritual object.
    Links: Top Ten Tibetan/Nepali Artifacts, Top Ten Chalices/Cups, Top Ten SkullsTop Ten Human Skulls,
  12. Golden Sumerian Helmet

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    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, Top Ten Helmets,
  13. King Tutankhamen’s Golden Burial Dagger

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    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop Ten Daggers/Knives, 
  14. Lambayeque Gold Cups (9th-11th Century)
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           These gold Lambayeque cups currently reside at the Metropolitan Museum of art in New York.
    Links: Top Ten Lambayeque Artifacts, 
  15. Kalardasht Gold Cup

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    Links: Top Ten Achaemenid Empire/Medo-Persian Empire Artifacts, Top Ten Big Cats,
  16. Two Dragons Presenting a Heart-Shaped Amber (1647-1658)

           Two dragons presenting a heart-shaped amber, buried 1647-1658.
    Links: Top Ten Ming Dynasty Artifacts,
  17. Muisca Gold Raft

    The Muisca Gold Raft is part of the El Dorado legend and tales of immense offerings of gold.
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  18. King Psusennes I

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    Links: The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and OM, Sculptures, Top 100 Egyptian SculpturesTop Ten Pharaohs, Top 100 Symbols,
  19. Kings with Dragons Earrings

    These earrings known as the “Kings with dragons” were found at Tillia tepe.
    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts,
  20. Gold Statuette of Amun

    The god Amun (“the hidden one”) first came into prominence at the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. From the New Kingdom onward, Amun was arguably the most important god in the Egyptian pantheon. As a creator god, Amun is most often identified as Amun-Re (in the typical Egyptian blending of deities, Amun is combined with Re, the principal solar god). His main sanctuary was the immense temple complex at Karnak on the east bank of the Nile at the southern edge of modern Luxor. In this small representation, Amun stands in the traditional pose with the left leg forward. He is identified by his characteristic flat-topped crown, which originally supported two tall gold feathers, now missing. He wears the gods’ braided beard with a curled tip and carries an ankh (“life”) emblem in his left hand and a scimitar across his chest. On pylons and temple walls of the New Kingdom, Amun-Re is often depicted presenting a scimitar to the king, thus conferring on him military victory. This statuette, cast in solid gold, is an extremely rare example of the sculpture made of precious materials that, according to ancient descriptions, filled the sanctuaries of temples. The figure could have been mounted on top of a ceremonial scepter or standard. If traces on the back are rightly interpreted, it was fitted with a loop that could have been employed for attachment, even possibly to an elaborate necklace. For the Egyptians, the color of gold and the sheen of its surface were associated with the sun, and the skin of gods was supposed to be made of gold. The soft modeling of the torso, the narrow waist, and the facial features are typical of the art of the Third Intermediate Period. This era marks the decline of centralized power in Egypt, but it is also a time of great artistic achievement. Works in metal (gold, silver, and, above all, bronze) reached especially high levels, as attested by the Museum’s statuette.
    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop Ten Egyptian Artifacts (Third Intermediate Period),
  21. The Golden Comb

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    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, 
  22. Ecuadoran Gold Pyramid with Sun at the Top and Writing Example

    Father Carlos Crespi was a Silesian-monk who lived in Ecuador. He did missionary work among the Indian population in remote valleys during his lifetime and received or bought many artifacts from the indigenous people in Ecuador. These are supposedly two of them.
    Links: Top Ten Ecuadoran Artifacts,
  23. Scythian Gold Bongs
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    Discovered in a mass grave in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia these two gold bongs were traced back to the Scythians who ruled the surrounding area between the 9th century BC and 4th century AD.
    Links: Top Ten Drug Related Artifacts, Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, 
  24. Tairona Pendant, Northern Andes (1000-1400 AD)

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  25. Ancient Classical Greek Headpiece

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    Links: Top 100 Greek Artifacts, Top Ten Classical Greek Artifacts,
  26. Mayan Sun Ray Crown

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    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts, Top Ten Crowns,
  27. Gold Helmet (Museo del Oro) (500-700 BC)

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    Links: Top Ten Helmets,
  28. Golden Rhyton

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    Links: Top Ten Achaemenid Empire Artifacts, 
  29. Gold Statue of Avalokiteçvara

    The graceful gold coated bronze statue of four handed Avalokiteçvara in Malayu-Srivijayan style, discovered at Rataukapastuo, Muarabulia.
    Links: Top Srivijaya Artifacts, Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures,
  30. Golden Winged Isis Pectoral (538-519 BC)

    Napatan Period, reign of Amaninatakelebte, about 538-519 B.C., Sudan, Nubia, (Nuri), Gold, Width: 16.8 cm (6 5/8 in.) Chased gold pectoral representing the winged goddess Isis, shown kneeling with wings outstretched. In her right hand, she holds an ankh, the symbol for “life”; in her left hand she holds what may be the hieroglyph for a sail, the symbol for the breath of life. On her head is a throne, the hieroglyph for her name. From Nuri, Pyramid 10. 1916: excavated by the Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; 1920: assigned to the MFA by the division of finds with the Sudanese government.
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  31. Scythian Necklaces (1st Century)

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    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, Top Ten Ancient NecklacesTop 100 Necklaces,
  32. Golden Ram Ornament

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    Links: Top Ten Ancient Afghani Artifacts, 
  33. “Eternal Territorial Integrity” Gold Cup with Jewel Inlay, Ming Dynasty (18th Century)

    This gold cup is one of the best both in design and in craftsmanship and was made especially for use by the emperor. The cup, in the shape of a round tripod, has a straight mouth rim with a band of rectangular spiral patterns around it. The four characters for “Eternal Territorial Integrity” are carved on one side of the cup, and the four characters for “Made in the Qianlong reign” on the other side. Rosette designs cover the entire outside surface of the cup with the pistils inlaid with pearls, ruby, sapphire and other jewels. The two handles are shaped as stylized dragons with pearls inlaid on the dragon heads. The three legs are in the shape of elephant heads with small ears, long tusks and curled trunks. The foreheads and eyes of the elephants are inlaid with jewels
    Links: Top Ten Ming Dynasty Artifacts,
  34. Gold Statue of Indic Goddess, Majapahit Empire

    Found in 1917 in a Mindanao riverbank, the Image is a 4.5 pound, 21-karat gold statue of an Indic goddess. It was originally identified as Hindu, but Prof. Juan Francisco argued that Hindu goddesses were rarely in cast in gold, and they were usually depicted standing, not seated in the lotus position as this was. He consequently proposed that the image was a Tara of Mahayana Buddhism, dating back to the Indo-Javanese Madjapahit Empire.
    Links: Top Ten Madjapahit Empire Artifacts, http://ericflo.blogspot.com/2007/03/opium-vivien-tan_11.html
  35. Golden Celestial Apsara

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    Links: Top Ten Majapahit Artifacts, Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures,
  36. Scythian Royal Crown

    This is a royal crown found at Tillia tepe.
    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, Top Ten Crowns,
  37. Russian Gold Crest

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    Links: Top Ten Russian Artifacts,
  38. Ceremonial Knife Used by Shamans for Offerings

    This Ceremonial Knife, which now resides in the Museo del Oro in Colombia, was once used by shamans in sacrificial offerings.
    Links: Museums and Galleries, Top Ten South American Museums, Top Ten Colombian Attractions,
  39. Gold Cup
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    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts, Top Chalices/Cups, 
  40. Gold Knife

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    Links: Top Ten Knives/Daggers,
  41. Janus Gold Chalice (3rd or 4th Century BC)
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  42. Golden Rhyton from Ecbatana Tehran

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    Links: Top Ten Chalices/Cups, Top Ten Achaemenid Empire Artifacts,
  43. The Sumerian Crown and Jewels of Queen Pu-abi

           This is a headdress from the tomb of Queen Pu-abi in the Royal Tombs of Ur. It was worn by one of the women who was sacrificed to serve the Queen in the afterlife.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, Top Ten Crown JewelsTop Ten Crowns, 
  44. Moche Gold Figure with Sacriicial Knife and Head
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    This is a gold Mochica figure with sacrificial knife and head from the Gold Museum of Peru in Lima.
    Links: Top Ten Moche Artifacts,
  45. Chimu Headband with Feather (1370-1470 AD)

           This hammered gold headband with feather dates back to 1370-­1470 AD and is currently part of the Dumbarton Oaks Collection.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts,
  46. Gold Bracelet

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    Links: Top Ten Pieces of Ancient JewelryTop Ten Achaemenid Empire Artifacts, 
  47. Bracelet (1st Century)

           These bracelets adorned with antelopes were found in a tomb in Tillia Tepe and currently reside in the Afghanistan National Museum.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Afghani Artifacts, Top Ten Ancient BraceletsTop Ten Pieces of Ancient Jewelry
  48. Celtic Stater

    Somewhere between cave art and Picasso there was a Celtic engraver who should be honored among the best. Truly Remarkable.
    Links: Coins, Top 100 Coins, Top 100 European Coins, Top Ten Gold Coins,
  49. Gold Bracelet

    Description:
    Links:
  50. Lambeyeque Funerary Mask (10th-11th Century AD)

    Many Andean peoples placed masks as false faces on the mummy bundles of important individuals. Depending on the status and wealth of the deceased, the masks could be of wood, ceramic, or cloth; those of the most powerful were of gold and silver. This mask comes from the northern La Leche River valley, where a succession of powerful rulers amassed prodigious amounts of wealth in metal objects. Recently, archaeologists discovered a royal burial at the presumed ceremonial and funerary center of the Sicán culture, Batán Grande. The main personage’s face was covered by a sheet-gold mask similar to the present example. It was painted with bright red cinnabar and embellished with nose and ear ornaments and dangles. In some South American countries today, red is thought to have protective qualities. Perhaps the mask’s red pigment was meant to protect the deceased in the afterlife. Poorly understood features on Sicán burial masks are the skewer-like projections from the pupils of the eyes. They may symbolize a penetrating gaze. This Lambayeque funerary mask currently resides in the Metropolitan Museum of art in New York.
    Links: Top Ten Lambeyeque Artifacts,
  51. Lambeyeque Mask

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Lambeyeque Artifacts,
  52. Gold Chariot and Other Gold Artifacts from the Oxus Treasure

    Description:
    Links:
  53. The Trundholm Sun Chariot (18th-16th Century  BC)

           The Trundholm sun chariot is a late Nordic Bronze Age artifact discovered in Denmark, that has been interpreted as a depiction of the sun being pulled by a mare that may have relation to later Norse mythology attested in 13th century sources.
    Links: The Universe, Top Ten Suns, Top Ten Norse Artifacts, Top Ten Chariots,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trundholm_Sun_chariot,
  54. Golden Horns of Gallehus

           The Golden Horns of Gallehus were two horns made of sheet gold, discovered in Gallehus, north of Møgeltønder in South Jutland, Denmark. The horns date to the early 5th century, the beginning of the Germanic Iron Age. The horns were found in 1639 and 1734 at locations only some 15–20 meters apart. They were composed of segments of double sheet gold. The two horns were found incomplete, the longer one found in 1639 has seven segments with ornaments, to which six plain segments and a plain rim were added, possibly by the 17th century restaurateur. The shorter horn found in 1734 has six segments, a narrow one bearing a Proto-Norse Elder Futhark inscription at the rim and five ornamented with images. It is uncertain whether the horns were intended as drinking horns, or as blowing horns, although drinking horns have more pronounced history as luxury items made from precious metal. The original horns were stolen and melted down in 1802. Unfortunately, casts made of the horns in the late 18th century were also lost. Replicas of the horns must thus rely on 17th and 18th century drawings exclusively and are accordingly fraught with uncertainty. Nevertheless, replicas of the original horns were produced and are exhibited at the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark and the Moesgaard Museum, near Aarhus, Denmark. These replicas also have a history of having been stolen and retrieved twice, in 1993 and in 2007.
    Links: Top Ten Historical Instruments, Top Ten Norse Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_horns_of_Gallehus
  55. Zimbabwean Gold Rhinoceros (Pre-1270)

           The fascinating remains of the ancient civilization on top of the flat-topped Mapungubwe mountain, show that it was the centre of the kingdom and exclusive domain of its royal family. The famous mountain now forms the nucleus of the Park, which is fast becoming a top wildlife and cultural safari destination in South Africa. It was also the location where the famous Gold Rhino and many other artifacts were uncovered.
    Links: Top 100 African Artifacts, Top Ten Zimbabwean Attractions, Top 100 Animals,
  56. Golden Bird

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  57. Alexander the Great Lifetime Gold Stater from Abydos

           The obverse depicts a strong and beautiful Athena, goddess of wisdom and warfare, the reverse Nike, goddess of victory, with stunning body-length wings. Reid adds: “As with all ancient gold, this coin is intrinsically radiant, speaking with a bright voice about how humankind through the ages has prized this metal above all others.
    Links: Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten War Strategists, Top Ten Generals, Coins, Top 100 Coins, Top 100 African Coins, Top 100 European Coins, Top Ten Gold Coins,
  58. Gold and Silver Death Mask (1000–1465 AD)

           This is a death mask made of gold and silver alloy with copper eyes and ears. It can be seen at the Museo Larco in Peru.
    Links: Top 100 Masks, Top Ten Chimu Artifacts,
  59. Nebra Sky Disk

    The Nebra Sky Disk is a bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way or as a rainbow). The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, and dated to circa 1600 BC. It has been associated with the Bronze Age Unetice culture. The disk is unlike any known artistic style from the period, and had initially been suspected of being a forgery, but is now widely accepted as authentic.
    Links: Top Ten Unetice Artifacts,
  60. Mycenaean Gold Funerary Masks
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    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Greek Artifacts, Top Ten Mycenaean Artifacts, Top 100 Masks,
  61. Minoan Bull’s Head with Gold Horns and Mycenaean Silver Repoussé Rhyton with Gold Horns

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Greek Artifacts, Top Ten Minoan Artifacts, Top Ten Mycenaean Artifacts,
  62. Chimu Gold Kero Beaker

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts, Top Ten Chalices/Cups, 
  63. Vinča Script

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Historical Swastikas, Sacred Geometry, 
  64. Moche Gold Fan Headdress

    Description:
    Links:
  65. Gold Blowgun with Zoomorph Figure

           This is a gold blowgun with zoomorph figure that resides at the Museo Larco. Blowguns…
    Links: Weapons and Armor, Top Ten South American Weapons, (Museo Larco)http://catalogomuseolarco.perucultural.org.pe/,
  66. 1849 Double Eagle $20

    The $20 gold coin shown here is the only known specimen of its kind and is among the rarest US  coins. It owes its existence, in part, to the discovery of gold in California in 1848, of which the famous Sutter’s Mill discovery was but the beginning. The California Gold Rush created a steady flow of gold, part of which reached the United States Mint in Philadelphia. Instead of striking gold in traditional $10 pieces, the Mint decided to also issue larger denominations. In February 1849, Congress authorized the striking of $20 gold coins, which were created by the very talented Chief-Engraver James Barton Longacre. This coin is one of two trial patterns struck on March 12, 1850, even though it bears the date 1849. The second pattern has never been found. This coin inaugurated the series of gold 20 dollars, nicknamed “double eagles,” which were issued from 1850 to 1907. The term “double eagle” is derived from the fact that the $10 coin is called an “eagle”.
    Links: Coins, Top 100 Coins, Top Ten Gold Coins, Top Ten American Coins,
  67. Olmec Gold Plate Cloak

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Olmec Artifacts,
  68. Libyan Gold Jackal (1st Century BC)

           This is a Gold Jackal found in Cyrene, Libya, which was supposedly exported from Meroe. It currently resides in the British Musuem in London.
    Links: Top Ten Libyan Attractions, 
  69. Gold Collar of Princess Khnumet

           This beautiful gold collar necklace belonged to Princess Khnumet who reigned during the twelfth dynasty Middle Kingdom. The necklace currently resides in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo.
    Links: Top Ten Pectorals, Top Ten Middle Kingdom Egyptian Artifacts,
  70. Gold Ring of Akhenaten

    Akhenaten, meaning “living spirit of Aten,” known before the 5th year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), was a Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods. Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the 18th Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as “the enemy” in archival records. He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in the 19th century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, whose tomb was unearthed in 1907 in a dig led by Edward R. Ayrton. Interest in Akhenaten increased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who has been proved to be Akhenaten’s son according to DNA testing in 2010. A mummy found in KV55 in 1907 has been identified as that of Akhenaten. This elder man and Tutankhamun are related without question, but the identification of the KV55 mummy as Akhenaten has been questioned. Akhenaten remains an interesting figure, as does his queen, Nefertiti. Their modern interest comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish.
    Links: The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and Om, Top Ten RingsTop Ten Pharaohs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenhotep_IV
  71. Flying Fish

    This gold flying fish is located in the Museo del Oro in Colombia.
    Links:
  72. Moche Earflare (3rd-7th Century AD, 2nd-3rd Century AD)

           On these technically complex condor earflares, the front plates are made of sheet gold to which repoussé silver birds are attached by small tabs. The back plates and shafts are of gilded copper and also join in this manner. The ornaments were worn in the distended lobes of the ears, the long tubular shafts counterbalancing the weight of the frontals. The birds with massive talons and strong, curved beaks adorning these earflares depict Andean condors, identified by the large caruncle (fleshy protuberance) at the base of their beaks and the wattle around their necks. Impressive birds with a wing span of up to ten feet, Andean condors inhabit the high Andes mountains above 9,000 feet. They are primarily carrion eaters, but will occasionally kill for food. Condors and vultures are highly symbolic birds and are a frequent theme in Moche art. They embellish tumis, or knives used in ritual sacrifice, and are often shown pecking at human and animal heads and bodies. Because of their eating habits, they have a natural connection with predation, death, and sacrifice. The condor earflares can be found in the Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection.
    Links: Top Ten Moche Artifacts,
  73. Golden Ram in the Thicket (2,600 BC)

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  74. Gold Canaanite Bowl

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Canaanite Artifacts,
  75. Vessel Depicting Scythians

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Scythian Artifacts, Top Ten Vases, 
  76. Gold Figurines of Flying Fish from South America

    Description:
    Links:
  77. Moche Gold Jewelry

    Moche jewelry is very intricate and beautiful.
    Links: Top Ten Moche Artifacts,
  78. Incan Gold Figurine

    This gold figurine can be found at the Costa Rica National Gold Museum, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Links: Top Ten Incan Artifacts,
  79. Gold Byzantine Coins

    Two rare gold coins from the reign of Emperor Valens have been unearthed in Egypt. Nevine El-Aref reports on the find. Archaeologists from the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) carrying out a routine archaeological survey at Sail Al-Tofaha area, west of Saint Catherine’s Monastery in Sinai, have chanced upon two gold Byzantine coins bearing the head of Emperor Valens (364-378 AD). A number of grotto caves and fragments of clay and glass have already been found in the area.
    Links: Top Ten Byzantine Artifacts, Coins, Top 100 European Coins
  80. Incan Gold Mask

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Incan Artifacts, Top 100 Masks,
  81. Gold Rings of Tillya Tepe

    Tillya tepe, Tillia tepe or Tillā tapa, literally “Golden Hill” or “Golden Mound,” is an archaeological site in northern Afghanistan near Sheberghan, surveyed in 1979 by a Soviet-Afghan mission of archaeologists led by Victor Sarianidi, a year before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The hoard is a collection of about 20,000 gold ornaments that were found in six graves (five women and one man) with extremely rich jewelry, dated to around the 1st century BC. Altogether several thousand pieces of fine jewelry were recovered, usually made of gold, turquoise and/or lapis-lazuli. The ornaments include coins, necklaces set with gems, belts, medallions and crowns. A new museum in Kabul is being planned where the Bactrian gold will eventually be kept. The heavily fortified town of Yemshi-tepe, just five km to the northeast of modern Sheberghan on the road to Akcha, is only half a km from the now-famous necropolis of Tillia-tepe.
    Links: Top Ten Necropolises, Top Ten Treasure Troves, Top Ten Rings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tillya_Tepe,
  82. Chimu Gold Monkey Kero

           The KERO (or beaker) of beaten gold was created by the indigenous Chimú culture of northern Peru prior to its domination by the Inca in the fifteenth century. Gold was highly prized by the Peruvians and was even thought to be the congealed “tears of the gods.” The artistry required to fashion such a large container with ornate relief elements represents this culture’s highly skilled metal-working tradition. The design of the beaker is well suited to its shape. When inverted, the lower embossed band serves as a collar, and the two bands at the top become a flat cap. Several gold keros of this type bear upside-down faces. Only when empty can these beakers be placed bottom-side up to display the face of the god.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts, 
  83. Lambeyeque Gold Mask

    Desc:
    Links: Top Ten Lambeyeque Artifacts, Top 100 Masks,
  84. Byzantine Gold Wedding Ring

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Byzantine Artifacts, Top Ten Ancient Rings,
  85. Chimu Gold Piece

           This square cast gold piece measures 5 in and resides in the American Museum Of Natural History Collection.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts,
  86. Chimu Earflares (900-1470 AD)

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts,
  87. Chimu  Gold Pectoral

           This is a gold Chimu pectoral, which can be found at the Museo Larco in Peru.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts, Top Ten Peruvian Attractions, Top Ten Pectorals,
  88. Chimu Gold and Copper Tunic

    This Gold & Copper Repoussé Tunic can be seen at the National Museum Of Peru.
    Links: Top Ten Chimu Artifacts,
  89. Gold Frog

    Description:
    Links:
  90. Bonus: Ark of the Covenant
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  91. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Artifacts, Museums and Galleries, Top Ten Museums, Top Ten Treasure Troves, Museo del Oro del Colombia (Gold Museum in Colombia),

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Top Ten Mysterious Artifacts

13

       What else will we discover about our past that will profoundly change our view of history?

  1. Sumerian Relieves of Flying ‘Gods’ and the Tree of Life

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Artifacts Depicting Extraterrestrials, Top 100 Sumerian Relieves, Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  2. Sumerian Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System
    Apparently the Sumerians knew about the planets in our solar system before the advent of the modern telescope. So how did they understand this knowledge. Extraterrestrial ‘Gods’ perhaps?
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  3. Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana
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           The Nazca Lines are a series of ancient geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert of Peru. The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 km (50 mi) between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana. Although some local geoglyphs resemble Paracas motifs, scholars believe the Nazca Lines were created by the Nazca culture between 200 BC and 700 AD. The hundreds of individual figures range in complexity from simple lines to stylized hummingbirds, spiders, monkeys, fish, sharks or orcas, llamas, and lizards. The lines are shallow designs made in the ground by removing the ubiquitous reddish pebbles and uncovering the whitish ground beneath. Hundreds are simple lines or geometric shapes; more than seventy are designs of animal, bird, fish or human figures. The largest figures are over 200 meters (660 ft) across. Scholars differ in interpreting the purpose of the designs, but they generally ascribe religious significance to them, as they were major works that required vision, planning and coordination of people to achieve.
    Links: Top Ten Archeological Mysteries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazca_Lines,
  4. Ancient Sculptures of the Platonic Solids (3,200-2,500 BC)

    Carved Stone Balls are petrospheres, usually round and rarely oval. They have from 3 to 160 protruding knobs on the surface. Their size is fairly uniform at around 2.75 inches or 7 cm across, they date from the late Neolithic to possibly as late as the Iron Age and are mainly found in Scotland, but also elsewhere in Britain and Ireland. They range from having no ornamentation (apart from the knobs) to extensive and highly varied engraved patterns. A wide range of theories have been produced to explain their use or significance, without any one gaining very wide acceptance. These five represent the platonic solids, which until recently were not fully understood by mainstream scientists. They have now realized that these five shapes are responsible for all elemental and atomic structures.
    Links: Sacred Geometry, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carved_Stone_Balls,
  5. Dropa Stones
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           The Dropa stones, otherwise known as the Dzopa stones, Dropas stones or Drop-ka stones, are said by some ufologists and pseudoarchaeologists to be a series of at least 716 circular stone discs, dating back 12,000 years, on which tiny hieroglyph-like markings may be found. Each disc is claimed to measure up to 1 foot (30 cm) in diameter and carry two grooves, originating from a hole in their center, in the form of a double spiral. The hieroglyph-like markings are said to be found in these grooves. The Dropa stones were first mentioned in 1960 in the Russian newspaper Literaturnaya Gazeta and then reprinted in the “Current Digest of the Russian Press,” a Russian language magazine published in America. This said that caves near the Himalayan mountains close to the Chinese-Tibetan border in January 1938 had been investigated by Chinese archaeologist Chi Pu Tei from Beijing University. These caves were said to contain the graves of tiny beings (about a meter tall) with elongated heads, and cave drawings of these people and the sun, moon and stars. Also found was a 300mm diameter stone disk with a double spiral from a hole in the center to the rim, 716 more disks were later reportedly found. For 20 years the Dropa stones were said to have sat in storage before they were given to Tsum Um Nui for study in 1958. It is said the he came to the conclusion that the grooves on the discs were actually very tiny hieroglyphs, none of which were of a pattern that had been seen before, and which can only be seen with the use of a magnifying glass. By 1962, he had allegedly deciphered them into a story that told of a spacecraft that crashed landed in the area of the cave, the Bayan Har Shan region and that the ship contained the Dropa people who could not fix it and therefore had to adapt to Earth. Further, his research claims that the Dropa people were hunted down and killed by the local Ham tribesmen for a period. Tsum Um Nui noted specifically that one glyph apparently said “The Dropa came down from the clouds in their aircraft. Our men, women and children hid in the caves ten times before sunrise. When at last they understood the sign language of the Dropas, they realized that the newcomers had peaceful intentions.”
    Links: Exoplanets Believed to be Inhabited, Top Ten Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Top Ten Artifacts Depicting ET’s, Top Ten ET Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dropa_stones,
  6. Dendera Lights?

           The “Dendera light” is a technology of electrical lighting supposedly in existence in ancient Egypt, proposed by some fringe authors. Proponents argue that the technology is depicted in the Hathor temple at the Dendera Temple complex located in Egypt on three stone reliefs (one single and a double representation), which resemble some modern electrical lighting systems. Egyptologists reject the theory and explain the reliefs as a typical set of symbolic images from Egyptian mythology.
    Links: Top Ten Temples, Top Ten African Temples, Top Ten Egyptian Temples, Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Relieves, Top Ten African Relieves, Top Ten Egyptian Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendera_light,
  7. Antikythera Mechanism
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           The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient analog computer designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was recovered in 1900–1901 from the Antikythera wreck, but its significance and complexity were not understood until a century later. Jacques-Yves Cousteau visited the wreck in 1978, but found no additional remains of the Antikythera mechanism. The construction has been dated to the early 1st century BC. Technological artifacts approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the 14th century AD, when mechanical astronomical clocks began to be built in Western Europe. Professor Michael Edmunds of Cardiff University, who led the most recent study of the mechanism, said: “This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind. The design is beautiful, the astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics are designed just makes your jaw drop. Whoever has done this has done it extremely carefully…in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism as being more valuable than the Mona Lisa.” The Antikythera mechanism is displayed at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, accompanied by a reconstruction made and donated to the museum by Derek de Solla Price. Other reconstructions are on display at the American Computer Museum in Bozeman, Montana, the Children’s Museum of Manhattan in New York, in Kassel, Germany, and at the Musee des Arts et Metiers in Paris.
    Links: Top 100 Greek Artifacts, Top Ten Computers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antikythera_mechanism,
  8. Baalbeck Megaliths
    Baalbek TempleBaalbek Temple52134
           Baalbek, also known as Baalbeck is a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon situated east of the Litani River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the Roman period, when Baalbek, then known as Heliopolis, was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire. It also contains some of the largest megalithic trilithons in the world weighing in excess of 800 tons! It is Lebanon’s greatest Roman treasure, and it can be counted among the wonders of the ancient world, containing some of the largest and best preserved Roman ruins. Towering high above the Beqaa plain, their monumental proportions proclaimed the power and wealth of Imperial Rome. The gods worshiped there, the triad of Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus, were grafted onto the indigenous deities of Hadad, Atargatis and a young male god of fertility. Local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, which vary from the classic Roman design.
    Links: Top Ten Megaliths, Top Ten Lebanese Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baalbek#Moving_the_stones,
  9. Ancient Model Aircraft and Abydos Temple Hieroglyphs of Aircraft
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Aircraft, Top Ten Spacecraft, Top Ten Temples, Top Ten Egyptian Temples, Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Egyptian Relieves, Top 100 Birds, http://lost-civilizations.net/flying-vehicles-ancient-egypt.html,
  10. Atlantean Crystal Ball

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Underwater Ruins, http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=K_Ohu5PLKwM,
  11. Piri-Reis Map (1513)
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           The legendary Piri-Reis map of 1513 is believed to be the oldest map of America (the Vinland map may be older but only shows a part of North America). The Piri Reis map shows North America, South America, and Africa. Piri Reis was a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the 16th century. His passion was cartography and was always on the lookout for new maps and other such documents. In 1513 a map had been commissioned by him. Piri Reis was high rank within the Turkish navy which allowed him to have a privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople. He was considered an expert on Mediterranean lands and coastlines, and he even wrote a famous sailing book called Kitabi Bahriye where he described all the details of coastlines, harbors, currents, shallows, bays and straits of the Mediterranean and Aegean seas. He died in 1554 or 1555 being beheaded for unknown reasons.
    Links: Maps, Top Ten Piri Reis Maps, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piri_Reis_map,
  12. Tokomai
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           In the middle of the 20th century, archaeological excavations on the Japanese island Hondo yielded some interesting statuettes. These unique statuettes were discovered, with 60 height centimeters for 15 of diameter, with an estimated age of 12,000 years old.
    Links: Top 100 Japanese Artifactshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog%C5%AB,
  13. Baghdad Battery

           The Baghdad Battery, sometimes referred to as the Parthian Battery, is the common name for a number of artifacts created in Mesopotamia, during the dynasties of Parthian or Sassanid period (the early centuries AD), and probably discovered in 1936 in the village of Khuyut Rabbou’a, near Baghdad, Iraq. These artifacts came to wider attention in 1938 when Wilhelm König, the German director of the National Museum of Iraq, found the objects in the museum’s collections. In 1940, König published a paper speculating that they may have been galvanic cells, perhaps used for electroplating gold onto silver objects. Though far from settled, this interpretation continues to be considered as at least a hypothetical possibility. If correct, the artifacts would predate Alessandro Volta’s 1800 invention of the electrochemical cell by more than a millennium.
    Links: Top 100 Inventions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baghdad_Battery,
  14. Ancient Rocket?

           This interesting piece appears to be in the shape of a rocket, but it dates to? It can be seen at the Museum of Archaeology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Links:
  15. The Lolladoff Plate
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    Links:
  16. Crystal Skulls
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           The crystal skulls are a number of human skull hardstone carvings made of clear or milky quartz, known in art history as “rock crystal,” claimed to be pre-Columbian Mesoamerican artifacts by their alleged finders; however, none of the specimens made available for scientific study have been authenticated as pre-Columbian in origin. The results of these studies demonstrated that those examined were manufactured in the mid-19th century or later, almost certainly in Europe. Despite some claims presented in an assortment of popularizing literature, legends of crystal skulls with mystical powers do not figure in genuine Mesoamerican or other Native American mythologies and spiritual accounts. The skulls are often claimed to exhibit paranormal phenomena by some members of the New Age movement, and have often been portrayed as such in fiction.
    Links: Top Ten Skull Artifacts, Top Ten Human Skulls, Top Ten Skulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_skull,
  17. Bonus: Tombstone of Pacal the Great
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           This artifact has been a topic of heated debate and curiosity. The widely accepted interpretation of the sarcophagus lid is that Pakal is descending into Xibalba, the Maya underworld. Around the edges of the lid are glyphs representing the Sun, the Moon, Venus, and various constellations, locating this event in the nighttime sky. Below him is the Maya water god, who guards the underworld. Beneath Pakal are the “unfolded” jaws of a dragon or serpent, into whose mouth Pakal descends. This is a common iconographic representation of the entrance to the underworld. Other examples of this imagery are found in sculpture on Monument 1 “El Rey” and Monument 9 at the Olmec site of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, on Altar 4 at the Olmec site of La Venta, Tabasco and in recently discovered murals at the Late Preclassic Maya site of San Bartolo, Guatemala. For those who believe in the ancient cosmonaut theory however, they believe that this stone carving illustrates Pacal the Great flying in a spaceship of some kind.
    Links: Top Ten Artifacts Depicting Extraterrestrials, Top Ten Mayan Artifacts, Top Ten Extraterrestrial Artifacts, http://www.delange.org/PalenqueTomb/PalenqueTomb.htm,
  18. Phaistos Disk
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           The Phaistos Disc (also spelled Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the Greek island of Crete, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC). It is about 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter and covered on both sides with a spiral of stamped symbols. Its purpose and meaning, and even its original geographical place of manufacture, remain disputed, making it one of the most famous mysteries of archaeology. This unique object is now on display at the archaeological museum of Heraklion. The disc was discovered in 1908 by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier in the Minoan palace-site of Phaistos, and features 241 tokens, comprising 45 unique signs, which were apparently made by pressing pre-formed hieroglyphic “seals” into a disc of soft clay, in a clockwise sequence spiraling towards the disc’s center. The Phaistos Disc captured the imagination of amateur and professional archeologists, and many attempts have been made to decipher the code behind the disc’s signs. While it is not clear that it is a script, most attempted decipherments assume that it is; most additionally assume a syllabary, others an alphabet or logography. Attempts at decipherment are generally thought to be unlikely to succeed unless more examples of the signs are found, as it is generally agreed that there is not enough context available for a meaningful analysis. Although the Phaistos Disc is generally accepted as authentic by archaeologists, a few scholars have forwarded the opinion that the disc is a forgery or a hoax.
    Links: Top Ten Unsolved Codes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaistos_Disk,
  19. Bonus: Fuente Magna
           A bowl with what appears to be a Sumerian inscription on it, but was found in Tiwanaku.
    Links:
  20. Bonus: Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca Head

           The Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head is said to be a bust in the Classical Roman style, found in a burial offering under three intact floors of a pre-colonial building, which was dated between 1476 and 1510.
    Links: Top 100 Busts, Top Ten Roman Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca_head,
  21. Bonus: Enigma of the Ashokan Pillar

           The iron pillar (also known as the Ashokan pillar) of Delhi, India, is a 7 m (23 ft.) high pillar in the Qutb complex, notable for the composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar, which weighs more than six tons, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413 AD) of the Gupta Empire, though other authorities give dates as early as 912 BC. The pillar initially stood in the center of a Jain temple complex housing 27 temples that were destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, and their material was used in building the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque and the Qutub Minar complex where the pillar stands today. The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists and has been called “a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths” because of its high resistance to corrosion. The corrosion resistance results from an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate forming on the high phosphorus content iron, which serves to protect it, and also the effects of the local Delhi climate, which alternates from wet to dry.  The name of the city of Delhi is thought to be based on a legend associated with the pillar.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Top Ten Columns/Pillars, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_pillar_of_Delhi,
  22. Bonus: Klerksdorp Spheres, South Africa
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           Klerksdorp spheres are small objects, often spherical to disc-shaped, that have been collected by miners and rockhounds from 3-billion-year-old pyrophyllite deposits mined by Wonderstone Ltd., near Ottosdal, South Africa. They have been cited by alternative researchers and reporters in books, popular articles, and many web pages, as inexplicable out-of-place artifacts that could only have been manufactured by intelligent beings. Geologists who have studied these objects argue that the objects are not manufactured, but are rather the result of natural processes
    Links: Top Ten South African Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klerksdorp_sphere,
  23. Bonus: Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica

           The stone spheres (or stone balls) of Costa Rica are an assortment of over 300 petrospheres in Costa Rica, located on the Diquis Delta and on Isla del Caño. Locally, they are known as Las Bolas. The spheres are commonly attributed to the extinct Diquis culture and are sometimes referred to as the Diquis Spheres. They are the best-known stone sculptures of the Isthmo-Colombian area. Numerous myths surround the stones, such as they came from Atlantis, or that they were made as such by nature. Some local legends state that the native inhabitants had access to a potion able to soften the rock. Research led by Joseph Davidovits of the Geopolymer Institute in France has been offered in support of this hypothesis, but it is not supported by geological or archaeological evidence. (No one has been able to demonstrate that gabbro, the material from which most of the balls are sculpted, can be worked this way.)
    Links: Top Ten Costa Rican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_spheres_of_Costa_Rica,
  24. Bonus: Winnipesaukee Mystery Stone

           The mystery stone from Lake Winnipesaukee is an alleged out-of-place artifact, reportedly found in 1872 while workers were digging a hole for a fence post. It is a carved stone about 4 inches (100 mm) long and 2.5 inches (64 mm) thick, dark and egg-shaped, bearing a variety of symbols. The stone’s age, purpose, and origin are unknown. Seneca Ladd, a Meredith businessman who hired the workers, was given credit for the discovery. Upon Ladd’s death in 1892, the stone passed to one of his daughters, who donated it to the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1927. The stone is currently on exhibit at the Museum of New Hampshire History.
    Links: Top Ten Stones/Rocks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Winnipesaukee_mystery_stone,
  25. Bonus: Inca Stone Portraying a Triceratops and Other Dinosaurs, (Hoax)
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Dinosaurs,
  26. Links: Artifacts,

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