Top Ten Mongolian Artifacts

Top Ten Mongolian Artifacts

       The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries AD, and was the largest contiguous land empire in human history. Beginning in the Central Asian steppes, it eventually stretched from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan, covering large parts of Siberia in the north and extending southward into Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Iranian plateau, and the Middle East. At its greatest extent it spanned 9,700 km (6,000 mi), covered an area of 24,000,000 km2 (9,300,000 sq mi), 16% of the Earth’s total land area, and held sway over a population of 100 million. The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes of historical Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under the rule of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire which connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowed trade, technologies, commodities and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia. The empire began to split as a result of wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from Genghis’s son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. When one Great Khan died, rival kurultai councils would simultaneously elect different successors, such as the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai, they were both elected and then not only had to defy each other, but also deal with challenges from descendants of other of Genghis’s sons. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued, as Kublai sought, unsuccessfully, to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families. The Battle of Ain Jalut marked the high-water point of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been permanently beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. After previous battlefield defeats, the Mongols had always returned and avenged their loss, ultimately defeating their enemies. The Battle of Ain Jalut marked the first time they were unable to do so. By the time of Kublai’s death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the west, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan Dynasty based in modern-day Beijing. In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan Dynasty, but when it was overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.

  1. Deer Stones

    Deer stones are Mongolian ancient megaliths carved with symbols. The name comes from their carved depictions of flying deer. Their purpose and creators are unknown. Archaeologists have found around 500 deer stones around Mongolia. However, Cimmerian ruins also show deer stones and they were known to have expanded into the Mongolian area and other areas. In additions to images of flying deer, the stones also include a circle at the top and stylized dagger and belt at the bottom, which has made some scholars speculate that the stones were supposed to represent notable people. Some rare stones do have a human face carved at the top. The tallest of the stones is 15 feet tall.
    Links: http://www.si.edu/mci/english/research/conservation/deer_stones.html,
  2. Statue of the Buddha Amitābha (18th Century)

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures, Top Ten Buddha Statues,
  3. Statuette

    Description:
    Links:
  4. Shadakshari Avalokiteshvara Figurine (17-18th Century)

    This is a gilt bronze statuette crafted by the School of Zanabazar.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Asian Sculptures,
  5. Seated Buddha (17-18th Century)

    This is a cotton thangka with gold and mineral pigment.
    Links: Buddhists, Top Ten ThangkasTop Ten Tapestries,
  6. Hayagriva (17-18th Century)

    This is a cotton thangka with gold and mineral pigment.
    Links: Top Ten Thangkas, Top Ten Tapestries,
  7. Sitipati (17-18th Century)

    This is a painted mineral pigment copper repousse from the Huvsgul province of Mongolia.
    Links: Top Ten Skeletons, Top Ten Human Skeletons,
  8. Kurkulla (18-19th Century)

    This is a silk applique with gold threat and coral, pearl and turquoise beads.
    Links: Top Ten Thangkas, Top Ten Tapestries,
  9. Dorjpagmo (19th Century)

    This is a silk applique with coral and pearl beads.
    Links: Top Ten Thangkas, Top Ten Tapestries
  10. Bone Carving

    Bone Carving in the Huhhot Museum,
    Links:
  11. Hand of Buddha (18th Century)

    This is a gilt bronze representation of the hand of Buddha.
    Links: Buddhists, Top Ten Buddha Statues,
  12. Prayer Wheel (18th Century)

    This is a wood, steel and silver prayer wheel with gilding and mineral pigments.
    Links:
  13. Hayagriva Phurbu Knife (15th Century)

    This is a gilt steel Hayagriva Phurbu knife.
    Links: Top Ten Daggers/Knives,
  14. Traditional Drawer (18-19th Century)

    This is a Mongolian wood drawer with silver, gilding and mineral pigments.
    Links:
  15. Buddha Shakyamuni (18-19th Century)

    This is a thangka created by the School of Zanabazar.
    Links: Top Ten ThangkasTop Ten Tapestries,
  16. Stupa (17-18th Century)

    This is a cotton thangka with gold and mineral pigment.
    Links: Top Ten Thangkas, Top Ten Tapestries,
  17. Begtse Dharmapala (18-19th Century)

    , Silk applique, silk with threat
    Links:
  18. Yamantaka with Consort (17-18th Century)

    This is a gilt bronze created by the School of Zanabazar.
    Links:
  19. Bonus: Woodwinds

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Historical Instruments,
  20. Padmasambhava (17-18th Century)

    This is a gilt bronze created by the School of Zanabazar.
    Links:
  21. Standing Buddha (18th Century)

    This is a copper and wood statue of Buddha with gilding, coral and turquoise from the Dornod province.
    Links: Buddhists, Top Ten Buddha Statues,
  22. Knife with Ibex Head

    This bronze Mongolian knife dates back to between the 12-7th century B.C. It is 17cm in length and…
    Links: Top Ten Daggers/Knives,
  23. Precious Elephant

    Description:
    Links:
  24. Ritual Headdress of Monk

    Description:
    Links:
  25. Incense Burners

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Incense Holders, Top Ten Incenses,
  26. Bell and Vajra

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Bells, Top 100 Symbols,
  27. Ritual Knife

    Links: Top Ten Dagger/Knives,
  28. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Asian Artifacts, http://mongolianantique.com/view.php?con=vw&id=42http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_Empire,