Middle Eastern Artifacts by Civilization

Middle Eastern Artifacts by Civilization

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Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts

Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts

  1. Eridu Genesis (18th Century BC)

    The earliest record of the Sumerian creation myth and deluge myth is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and datable by its script to the 18th century BC (First Dynasty of Babylon, where the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian). The story starts with the “Anunnaki” landing on earth after a very detailed description of our outer solar system, with the intent of mining gold to take back to the home planet of Nibiru. Shortly there after, the Anunnaki decide to create a “primitive worker” to take the work load for them. They create a male and female, named Adamu and Ti-Amat. Eventually the Anunnaki Enki mates with two of the offspring of Adamu and Ti-Amat, giving spawn to another male and female, who were the first “Civilized” humans. Eventually, these two “Civilized” humans mate and give birth to two sons named Ka-in and Abeal. The tablet was published in 1914 by Arno Poebel.
    Links: Top 100 Ancient Textshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_creation_myth,
  2. Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief from Nimrod and currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  3. The Flood Tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh (2750-2500 BC)

    The “Epic of Gilgamesh” from Ancient Sumeria is perhaps the oldest known story in the world. It tells the story of the legendary hero king from the Sumerian city-state of Uruk. (2750-2500 BCE). Later Mesopotamian civilizations adopted this myth as their own. At first it was part of an oral tradition, but was finally written down on clay tablets like this one in cuneiform writing. It was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. From the Royal Tombs of Ur.
    Links:
  4. Sumerian Kings List

    The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of “official” kingship. It has been suggested that this manuscript could serve to support certain details that are set forth in the Book of Genesis, where, similarly, individuals live for an extraordinary length of time prior to a great flood, and then for a lesser amount of time after said flood. Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region. Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin’s claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia.
    Links: Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Sumerian Kingshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_King_List,
  5. Shamash Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief which can be currently seen at the Louvre. The relief depicts an offering to the god, by Saint-Elme Gautier. The god appears to be Shamash, whose helmet has three sets of horns. The attendant with the sheep appears to be holding the solar disk emblem. The tassle held by the other attendant looks like a poppy. The relief on the right depicts the god Oannes in a fish suit.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  6. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  7. Tablet of Shamash

    This is the Tablet of Shamash. It appears that a solar disk is held by two tassels. At the base of the pillar of the throne is the “lily” seen in the thrones of the kings and Phrygian text XW. The Sun disk is emerging from the “lily” symbol. Note that it is similar to the Egyption akhet, meaning “dawn.” The image represented the daily rebirth of the sun. It is curiously similar to the idols seen at Midas City. The Midas City idols appear to be abstract torsos, rectangles with disks atop.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieveshttp://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  8. Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System
    sumerian_panel
    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  9. Cylinder Seal of Ashur
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    This is a cylinder seal with the solar disk of Ashur, anointing with two eagle-headed gods before the Tree of Life. The blossoms on the tree appear to be pomegranates.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  10. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  11. Ninurta Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  12. Planisphere or Star Chart (3,300 BC)

    This clay tablet exhibits a sky map above Mesopotamia in 3,300BC. It is a “planisphere” found in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh of 650BC. It consists of segments mapping sections of the sky in cuneiform text. The Sumerians of the time were very sophisticated scholars, shown in that it took modern computer analysis to discover the true date of the star chart.
    Links:
  13. Relief of Enki

           Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts, mischief; water, seawater, lakewater, intelligence and creation. Beginning around the second millennium BC, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for “40,” occasionally referred to as his “sacred number.” The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to “lord”; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning “mound.” In Sumerian E-A means “the house of water,” and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki,
  14. Relief of Enki

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  15. Relief

    Description:
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  16. Winged Relieves

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  17. Instructions of Shuruppak (3,000 BC)

           The Instructions of Shuruppak are a well-known Sumerian “wisdom” text, a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East intended to teach proper piety, inculcate virtue and preserve community standing. The text is set in great antiquity by its incipit, “In those days, in those far remote times, in those nights, in those faraway nights, in those years, in those far remote years.” The precepts are placed in the mouth of a king “Shuruppak, son of Ubara-Tutu”: Ubara-Tutu was the last king of Sumer before the mythological universal deluge. The texts are dated to near 3,000 BC, and are included in the cuneiform tablets from Abu Salabikh, making up the oldest literature known. The Shuruppak instructions contain precepts later included in the Ten Commandments and other sayings that are reflected in the Biblical Book of Proverbs.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_of_Shuruppak,
  18. Golden Helmet

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Helmets,
  19. Khashkhamer Seal Moon Worship

           The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. It was written in the Sumerian language 2,100-2,050 BC. Although the preface directly credits the laws to king Ur-Nammu of Ur (2,112-2,095 BC), some historians think they should rather be ascribed to his son Shulgi. The first copy of the code, in two fragments found at Nippur, was translated by Samuel Kramer in 1952; owing to its partial preservation, only the prologue and 5 of the laws were discernible. Further tablets were found in Ur and translated in 1965, allowing some 40 of the 57 laws to be reconstructed. Another copy found in Sippar contains slight variants.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Ur-Nammu,
  20. Relieves of Gilgamesh and Enkidu

           This relieves may depict Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Huwawa and the bull of Heaven respectively.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  21. Sumerian Statuettes

    These are ancient Sumerian statuettes, which show blue eyed Sumerian nobility.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Middle Eastern Sculptures,
  22. Fragment of Eannatum’s Stele of the Vultures (2,500 BC)

           The Vulture Stele of king Eannatum, which shows vultures feeding on the enemy dead. This is the world’s first depiction of modern, organized warfare, and the first depiction of a modern soldier.  In both panels, King Eannatum (on foot, and in a chariot) leads his soldiers to war.  These are indeed “soldiers,” not just warriors, but soldiers, in the modern sense of the word.  Every man is “in uniform,” identically armed and equipped, as supplied by the state; rather than each man bringing his own weapons to the battle, as occurs in tribal warfare. Notice how these professional soldiers attack in a tight, disciplined formation, with many men acting as a single unit, as they advance to victory over the bodies of their enemies.
    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern Stelehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stele_of_Vultures_detail_02.jpg,
  23. Queen Shub-Ad’s Headdress

           This is a Sumerian Headdress Worn by Queen Pu-abi. It was discovered in the Royal Tombs of Ur by Mr. C. Leonard Woolley.
    Links: Top Ten Crowns,
  24. Gilgamesh Cylinder Seals

           These cylinder seals of Gilgamesh commemorate Acts of mythological characters from Sumerian culture.
    Links:
  25. Stele of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2,044 – 2,007 BC)

           Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens.” Further evidence relates a story of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2044 to 2007 BC) on a 5 x10′ stele. He received orders from his god and goddess to build the ziggurat The stele is nearly five feet across and ten feet high. At the top, the king stands in an attitude of prayer. Above his head is the symbol of the moon god Nannar, and to the right are figures of angels with vases from which flow the streams of life (this is the earliest known artistic figures of angels). The panels show the king setting out with compass, pick and trowel, and mortar baskets to begin construction. One panel contains just a single ladder used as the structure was rising. The reverse side depicts a commemorative feast.
    Links: http://kata-aletheia.blogspot.com/2007/12/tower-of-babel-gen-11-and-ancient-near.html,
  26. Cuneiform

    Description:
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  27. Ancient Sumerian Lyre (2600 BC)

           This ancient Sumerian lyre found in the Royal Cemetery of Ur, of what is now southern Iraq.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Instruments,
  28. Golden Ram in the Thicket (2,600 BC)

    Description:
    Links:
  29. Votive Vase (3,000 BC)

           This vase dates back to 3,000 BC and was found in Uruk (Akkad).
    Links: Top Ten Vases,
  30. Cylinder Seal of Shumash

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Louvre Artifacts,
  31. Relieves of Ur-Namma and Enlil

           The first relieve depicts Ur-Namma (left) in the presence of Enlil, with the Tree of Life between them. The second depicts Ur-Namma and a worker following Enlil on their way to begin construction of a temple.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  32. Teshub Relief/Armed Innana Cylinder Seal

    Description:
    Links:
  33. Warka Mask

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Masks, Top 100 Busts,
  34. Gudea (2,120 BC)

           This is a statue head of Gudea found in Telloh. It is considered a Neo-Sumerian work of art.
    Links: Top 100 Busts,
  35. Figurines (2750-2600 BC)

           Female Figurines from Tell Asmar Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia.
    Links:
  36. Religious Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  37. Clay Cone Urukagina

          Urukagina (reigned ca. 2380 BC–2360 BC, short chronology), alternately rendered as Uruinimgina or Irikagina, was a ruler (énsi) of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia. He is best known for his reforms to combat corruption, which are sometimes cited as the first example of a legal code in recorded history. Although the actual text has not been discovered yet, much of its content may be surmised from other references to it that have been found. In it, he exempted widows and orphans from taxes; compelled the city to pay funeral expenses (including the ritual food and drink libations for the journey of the dead into the lower world); and decreed that the rich must use silver when purchasing from the poor, and if the poor does not wish to sell, the powerful man (the rich man or the priest) cannot force him to do so. Urukagina’s code is perhaps the first recorded example of government reform, seeking to achieve a higher level of freedom and equality. It limited the power of the priesthood and large property owners and took measures against usury, burdensome controls, hunger, theft, murder, and seizure (of people’s property and persons); as he states, “The widow and the orphan were no longer at the mercy of the powerful man”. He is also said to have abolished the former custom of polyandry in his country, on pain of the woman taking multiple husbands being stoned with rocks upon which her crime is written.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urukagina,
  38. Cuneiform Clay Tablets (2,112-1,600 BC)

           These are ancient Babylonian clay Tablets which are inscribed in cuneiform.
    Links:
  39. Statues of Gudea (2,130 BC)

           These are statues of the Sumerian King Gudea who ruled in the city of Lagash. They are Neo-Sumerian pieces that were found in Telloh, ancient Girsu. The statue on the left is dedicated to the goddess Geshtinanna, while one on the right is dedicated to the god Ningizzada.
    Links:
  40. Carved Figurine (3,000 BC)

           A Sumerian Carved Figurine Dating from 3,000 BC.
    Links:
  41. Crown and Jewels

           This is a headdress from the tomb of Queen Pu-abi in the Royal Tombs of Ur. It was worn by one of the women who was sacrificed to serve the Queen in the afterlife.
    Links: Top Ten Crown Jewels, Top Ten Crowns,
  42. Balance Sheet

    Description:
    Links:
  43. Cylinder Seal (3,000 BC)

           A 5,000-year-old cylinder seal points to ancient Arabian trade, archaeologists say. In the current Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy journal, Holly Pittman of the University of Pennsylvania and Daniel Potts of Australia’s University of Sydney detail last year’s discovery of the cylinder seal, the oldest one found in Arabia, on a barren sand dune in Abu Dhabi. “Seals were used to make an impression on a soft substance like clay that was put around or over the mouth of a storage jar, or on clay that was put around a door lock, or on a cuneiform tablet, in each case to signify the ownership of the goods or the identity of the seal-user,” Potts says. In this case, the mystery seal derives from Uruk, a bronze age civilization in modern-day Iraq that saw the development of cuneiform writing. “Some seals were very individual and recognizable, whereas this one belongs to a well-known type,” Potts says, with carvings of spiders and women likely a visual pun, pointing to cloth from a weaving factory. How the seal arrived on a barren dune, “really it’s impossible to say,” Potts adds, “though I am sure it arrived in antiquity.” The seal might have arrived with ancient Sumerian merchants, or it might have arrived millennia later “perhaps used as a bead or exotic trinket,” says the study, and lost to mischance. “If the Abu Dhabi seal was not transported to its final resting place thousands of years after its manufacture, it may well have been amongst a range of goods brought by traders from southern Mesopotamia desirous of obtaining copper to take back to their homeland,” concludes the study. “Despite the forbidding nature of the desert of western Abu Dhabi, this kind of movement could well account for the deposition of a cylinder seal in such a sandy environment.”
    Links: http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/history_and_archeology/,
  44. Map of Canals and Irrigation Systems (1,684 – 1,647 BC)

           This is a map of the canals and irrigation systems west of the Euphrates.
    Links: Top 100 Maps, Top Ten Ancient Maps,
  45. Gold and Lapis Lazuli Pendant

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Minerals,
  46. Game Board (2,550 – 2,400 BC)

           This is an ancient Sumerian board game, believed to be a precursor of backgammon.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Games,
  47. Links: Top Ten Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Artifacts, Top Ten Zigguratshttp://www.thehiddenrecords.com/clues.php, http://sumerianshakespeare.com/71412.html

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Top Ten Hittite Artifacts

Top Ten Hittite Artifacts

       Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, south-western Syria as far as Ugarit, and upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC. The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East.

  1. Royal Sun Disk

    This is a sun disk found in the royal tombs at Alaca Hüyük point to possible Indo-European influence.
    Links: Top Ten Suns,
  2. Rhyon

    Description: from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    Links:
  3. Egypto-Hittite Peace Treaty (1,258 BC)

    Description:
    Links:
  4. Teshub Slaying Illuyanka Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illuyanka,
  5. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  6. Relief of King Warpalawas Worshipping Tarhunt (Teshub)

           Tarhunt being worshipped by king Warpalawas of Tyana.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  7. Relief of Hittite God

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  8. Relief of Hittite Gods

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  9. Relief of Suppiluliuma II

           This is a relief of Suppiluliuma II, the last known king of the Hittite Empire.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  10. Relief of Tudhaliya IV

           This is a relief of Tudhaliya IV.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  11. Yazilikaya Relieves

           The most impressive Chamber is Chamber A, which contains rock-cut relief of 64 deities in procession. The left wall shows a procession of male deities, wearing the traditional kilts, pointed shoes and horned hats. Mountain gods are also shown with scaled skirts to symbolise the rocky mountains. The right wall shows a procession of female deities wearing crowns and long skirts. The only exception to this divide is the goddess of love and war, Shaushka (Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar/Inanna) who is shown on the male procession with two female attendants. This is likely to be because of her male attributes as the goddess of war. The processions lead to a central scene of the supreme couple of the pantheon; the storm-god Teshub and the sun-goddess Hebat. Teshub stands on two mountain gods whilst Hebat stands on a panther. Behind Hebat are shown their son Sharruma, daughter Alanzu and a granddaughter.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaz%C4%B1l%C4%B1kaya,
  12. Hittite Musicians Relief

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  13. Chariot Relief

    Description:
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  14. Links:

Top Ten Babylonian Artifacts

Top Ten Babylonian Artifacts

       Babylon was a city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 km (55 mi) south of Baghdad. All that remains of the original ancient city of Babylon today is a mound, or tell, of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in Iraq. Although it has been reconstructed, historical resources inform us that Babylon was at first a small town, that had sprung up by the beginning of the third millennium BC. The town flourished and attained prominence and political repute with the rise of the First Babylonian Dynasty. It was the “holy city” of Babylonia by approximately 2300 BC, and the seat of the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 612 BC. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

  1. Enûma Eliš (18th-12th Century BC)

           The Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words). It was recovered by Austen Henry Layard in 1849 (in fragmentary form) in the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), and published by George Smith in 1876. The Enûma Eliš has about a thousand lines and is recorded in Old Babylonian on seven clay tablets, each holding between 115 and 170 lines of text. Most of Tablet V has never been recovered, but aside from this lacuna the text is almost complete. A duplicate copy of Tablet V has been found in Sultantepe, ancient Huzirina, located near the modern town of Şanlıurfa in Turkey. This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the creation of humankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony, but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/En%C3%BBma_Eli%C5%A1,
  2. Atra Has

           The 18th century BC Akkadian epic of Atra-Hasis is named after its protagonist. An “Atra-Hasis” (“exceedingly wise”) appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. It includes both a creation myth and a flood account and is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BC), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BC. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atra-Hasis,
  3. Hammurab’s Code

    Description:
    Link: Top Ten Political Documentshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Hammurabi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ancient_legal_codes,
  4. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  5. Prologue Hammurabi Code

    Description:
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  6. World Map Of Babylonia

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Maps, Top Ten Ancient Maps,
  7. Cylinder of Nabonidus

    The Nabonidus Cylinder from Sippar is a long text in which king Nabonidus of Babylonia (556-539 BC) describes how he repaired three temples: the sanctuary of the moon god Sin in Harran, the sanctuary of the warrior goddess Anunitu in Sippar, and the temple of Šamaš in Sippar. The cylinder is particularly noteworthy because it mentions a son named Belshezzar, who is mentioned in the Book of Daniel. The cylinder states: “As for me, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, save me from sinning against your great godhead and grant me as a present a life long of days, and as for Belshazzar, the eldest son, my offspring, instill reverence for your great godhead in his heart and may he not commit any cultic mistake, may he be sated with a life of plenitude.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_of_Nabonidus,
  8. The Babylonian Tablet Plimpton 322

    Description:
    Links: http://www.math.ubc.ca/~cass/courses/m446-03/pl322/pl322.html,
  9. Boundary Stone Relief of Marduk-Balatsu-Ikbi

    This is a Babylonian boundary stone relief of Marduk-Balatsu-Ikbi.
    Links:
  10. Nabonidus Relief

    This is a relief of Nabonidus praying to the moon, sun and Venus.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  11. Clay Tablet Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  12. Links: Top Ten Wonders of the Ancient World, Top Ten Wonders of the Modern WorldArtifacts, Top 100 Middle Eastern Artifacts, Top Ten Gardenshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon,

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Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts

Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts

       Assyria or Aššur (Akkadian for Assyria) was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC to 605 BC. Assyria was centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq). The Assyrians came to rule powerful empires a number of times through history. As part of the greater Mesopotamian civilization  Assyria was at its height a highly advanced nation for its time in terms of architecture, engineering, agriculture, economics, civil service, mathematics, medicine, literature, military technology, law, astronomy and libraries/record keeping. Assyria originally was one of a number of Akkadian city states in Mesopotamia. In the late 24th century BC, Assyrian kings were regional leaders only, and subject to Sargon of Akkad who united all the Akkadian Semites and Sumerian speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. Following the fall of the Akkadian Empire c. 2154 BC, and the succeeding Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, there were a number of other competing Amorite states such as Isin and Larsa, but Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two distinct nations: Assyria in the north, and Babylonia in the south. From the late 19th century BC Assyria came into conflict with the newly created state of Babylonia which eventually eclipsed the older Sumero-Akkadian states in the south. Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period. Assyria had a period of empire under Shamshi-Adad I and Ishme-Dagan in the 19th and 18th centuries BC. Following this it found itself under short periods of Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination in the 18th and 15th centuries BC respectively, and another period of great power with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire (from 1365 BC to 1075 BC) that included the reigns of kings such as Ashur-uballit I, Arik-den-ili, Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglath-Pileser I. During this period Assyria overthrew the Mitanni and eclipsed both the Hittite Empire and Egyptian Empire in the Near East. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II from 911 BC, it again became a great power over the next three centuries, overthrowing the 25th dynasty of Egypt and conquering Egypt, Babylonia, Elam, Urartu/Armenia, Media, Persia, Mannea, Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea (Syria), Arabia, Israel, Judah, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea, Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun and the Hurrians, Sutu and Neo-Hittites, driving the Ethiopians and Nubians from Egypt, defeating the Cimmerians and Scythians and exacting tribute from Phrygia, Magan and Punt among others. After its fall, (between 612 BC and 605 BC), Assyria remained a province and Geo-political entity under the Babylonian, Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of Mesopotamia in the mid-7th century, when it was finally dissolved.

  1. Šedu

           In art they were depicted as hybrids, as winged bulls or lions with the head of a human male. There are still surviving figures of lamassu in bas-relief and some statues in museums. Notable examples of lamassu held by museums include those at the British Museum, Musée du Louvre, National Museum of Iraq, Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Oriental Institute, Chicago. They are generally attributed to the ancient Assyrians. The motif of a winged animal with a human head is common to the near east with the first recorded instance in Ebla 3,000 BC. The first distinct lamassu motif appeared in Assyria during the reign of Tilgath Pilser.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Middle Eastern Sculptures, Top Ten Louvre Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shedu,  
  2. Relief of Ashurnasirpal with the Tree of Life (883-859 BC)

    This is a relief from the N.W. palace of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) showing anointing of the Tree of Life. A winged god holds what appears to be a pinecone and a pot with the anointing oil. Above the Tree of Life is the royal signet of the god Ashur. The god Ashur is depicted as a man with a bow inside a winged solar disk or as a winged solar disk.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves, http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  3. Nimrod Temple Relief depicting Nimrod

    This Assyrian relief of Nimrod located in the Nimrod Temple is a 100cm in height and 40cm wide. It was carved on a special type of rock that stores light during the day, which causes it to glow during the night. (Stela of King Ashurnasirpal II, 883 – 859 BC.)
    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern Stelehttp://www.assyrian4all.net/akhne/index.php?topic=10496.0,
  4. Adad-Nirari III Relief (811 – 783 BC)

    Adad-nirari III was King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. He was the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad V and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his reign his mother Shammuramat acted as regent, which may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis. Adad-nirari’s youth and the struggles his father had faced early in his reign, caused a serious weakening for the Assyrian rulership over Mesopotamia and gave way to the ambitions of the most high officers, the governors and the local rulers.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adad-nirari_III,
  5. Shalmaneser III

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  6. The King

           Assyrian, 875–860 B.C. From Nimrud, Temple of Ishtar Sharrat-niphi. Magnesite. Statue: H 113 cm, W 32 cm, D 15 cm. Base: H 78 cm, W 35 cm, D 55 cm. ME 118871. The Trustees of the British Museum.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Middle Eastern Sculptures, Top Ten Kings,
  7. Epic of Gilgamesh Tablet

           Tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh (Tablet 11 depicting the Deluge), now part of the holdings of the British Museum
    Links: Top Ten Libraries, Top Ten Ancient Libraries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Ashurbanipal,
  8. MUL.APIN Tablet

           Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia. These star catalogues, written in cuneiform script, contained lists of constellations, individual stars, and planets. The constellations were probably collected from various other sources, the earliest catalogue, Three Stars Each mentions stars of Akkad, of Amurru, of Elam and others. Various sources have theorized a Sumerian origin for these Babylonian constellations, but an Elamite origin have also been proposed. A connection to the star symbology of Kassite kudurru border stones have also been claimed, but whether such kudurrus really represented constellations and astronomical information aside for the use of the symbols remains unclear. Star catalogues after Three Stars Each include the MUL.APIN list named after the first Babylonian constellation MULAPIN, “the Plough,” which is the current Triangulum constellation plus Gamma Andromedae. It lists, among others, 17 or 18 constellations in the zodiac. Later catalogues reduces the zodiacal set of constellations to 12, which were borrowed by the Egyptians and the Greeks, still surviving among the modern constellations.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_star_catalogues#MUL.APIN,
  9. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

           The “Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III” is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, commemorating the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC). It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it displays the earliest ancient depiction of an Israelite. Tribute offerings are shown being brought from identifiable regions and peoples. It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard in 1846 and is now in the British Museum. A replica can be found at the Oriental Institute in Chicago, Illinois.
    Links: Top Ten Obelisks, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Obelisk_of_Shalmaneser_IIIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shalmaneser_III,
  10. Assyrian Copy of Sumerian Planisphere

           A planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in the Hellenistic civilization, is a predecessor of the modern planisphere.
    Links:
  11. Ishtar

           Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, war, love, and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate north-west Semitic goddess Astarte.
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  12. Winged Statuette of Imdugud (Pazuzu)

           In Assyrian and Babylonian mythology, Pazuzu (sometimes Fazuzu or Pazuza) was the king of the demons of the wind, and son of the god Hanbi. He also represented the southwestern wind, the bearer of storms and drought.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pazuzu,
  13. Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa

           The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa contains astrological forecasts. It currently resides in the British Museum under reference K.160.
    Links: Top Ten Libraries, Top Ten Ancient Libraries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Ashurbanipal,
  14. Nimrud Lens

           The Nimrud lens is a 3,000 year old piece of rock crystal, which was unearthed by Austen Henry Layard at the Assyrian palace of Nimrud, in modern-day Iraq. It may have been used as a magnifying glass, or as a burning-glass to start fires by concentrating sunlight. Assyrian craftsmen made intricate engravings, and could have used such a lens in their work. Italian scientist Giovanni Pettinato of the University of Rome has proposed that the lens was used by the ancient Assyrians as part of a telescope, and that this explains their knowledge of astronomy. Experts on Assyrian archaeology are unconvinced, doubting that the optical quality of the lens is sufficient to be of much use. The ancient Assyrians saw the planet Saturn as a god surrounded by a ring of serpents, which Pettinato suggests was their interpretation of Saturn’s rings as seen through a telescope. Other experts say that serpents occur frequently in Assyrian mythology, and note that there is no mention of a telescope in any of the many surviving Assyrian astronomical writings. The Nimrud lens is on display in the British Museum.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimrud_lens,
  15. Relief ofRoyal Hunting Scenes (1,000-612 BC)

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  16. Bonus: Ishtar

           This statuette of Ishtar currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Middle Eastern SculpturesTop Ten Venus Figurines,
  17. Victory Stele of Esarhaddon and Black Stone Inscription

           Esarhaddon was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC. He was the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramean queen Naqi’a (Zakitu), Sennacherib’s second wife.
    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern SteleTop Ten Kingshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esarhaddon,
  18. Synonym List Tablet

           Tablet of synonyms. British Museum reference K.4375.
    Links: Top Ten Libraries, Top Ancient Ten Libraries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Ashurbanipal,
  19. Stela of Teshub

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    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern Stele,
  20. Taylor Prism and Sennacherib Prism

           The Taylor Prism and Sennacherib Prism are clay prisms inscribed with the same text, the annals of the Assyrian king Sennacherib notable for describing his siege of Jerusalem during the reign of king Hezekiah. This event is recorded in several books contained in Bible including Isaiah chapters 33 and 36; 2 Kings 18:17; 2 Chronicles 32:9. This event is also recorded by Herodotus. The Sennacherib Prism is in the Oriental Institute of Chicago; the Taylor Prism is in the British Museum. Another Sennacherib Prism is in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taylor_and_Sennacherib_Prisms,
  21. Anshar Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  22. Relief of Ashurbanipal Hunting

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  23. Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  24. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Middle Eastern Artifacts, http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria,

Top Ten Akkadian Artifacts

Top Ten Akkadian Artifacts

       The Akkadian Empire was an empire centered in the city ofAkkadand its surrounding region in Ancient Iraq, (Mesopotamia). The Akkadian state was the predecessor of the ethnic Akkadian states of Babylonia and Assyria; formed following centuries of Akkadian cultural synergy with Sumerians, it reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC following the conquests of king Sargon of Akkad, and is sometimes regarded as the first manifestation of an empire in history, though there are also previous claimants.

  1. Bronze Head of Sargon

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    Links: Top 100 Busts,
  2. Atra-Hasis

    The 18th century BC Akkadian epic of Atra-Hasis is named after its protagonist. An “Atra-Hasis” (“exceedingly wise”) appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. It includes both a creation myth and a flood account and is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BCE), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BC. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.
    Links: Top 100 BooksTop 100 Ancient Texts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atra-Hasis,
  3. Stele of Naram-Sin, King of Akkad (2,310 BC)

    This stele depicts Naram-Sin, King of Akkad and grandson of Sargon the Great, celebrating his victory against the Lullubi. It was comes from Zagros in present day Iran.
    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern Stelehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sargon_of_Akkad, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naram-Suen_of_Akkad,
  4. Inscription of Naram Sin

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  5. Gilgamesh Motif Cylinder Seal Impression (2,400 BC)

           This is a Gilgamesh motif cylinder seal impression dated to 2,400 BC. It currently resides in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.
    Links:
  6. Zu Relief (2550 – 2500 BC)

           This is a relief of Zu, a divinity of Akkadian mythology, and the son of the bird goddess Siris, as a lion-headed eagle. It currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Top Ten Louvre Artifacts,
  7. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Middle Eastern Artifacts, Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,

Top Ten Ancient Afghani Artifacts

Top Ten Ancient Afghani Artifacts

"Interior of the palace of Shauh Shujah Ool Moolk, Late King of Cabul"

       Tillya tepe, Tillia tepe or Tillā tapa (literally “Golden Hill” or “Golden Mound”) is an archaeological site in northern Afghanistan near Sheberghan, surveyed in 1979 by a Soviet-Afghan mission of archaeologists led by Victor Sarianidi, a year before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The hoard is a collection of about 20,000 gold ornaments that were found in six graves (five women and one man) with extremely rich jewelry, dated to around the 1st century BC. Altogether several thousand pieces of fine jewelry were recovered, usually made of gold, turquoise and/or lapis-lazuli. The ornaments include coins, necklaces set with gems, belts, medallions and crowns. A new museum in Kabul is being planned where the Bactrian gold will eventually be kept. The heavily fortified town of Yemshi-tepe, just five km to the northeast of modern Sheberghan on the road to Akcha, is only half a km from the now-famous necropolis of Tillia-tepe.

  1. Golden Jewelry

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  2. Golden Ram Ornament

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    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  3. Bactrian Gold Crown

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    Links: Top Ten Crowns,
  4. Bactrian Gold Necklace

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    Links: Top Ten Ancient Necklaces, Top Ten Pieces of Ancient Jewelry
  5. Bactrian Aphrodite Gold Figurine (1st Century)

           This is known as the Bactrian Aphrodite and was found in tomb VI in Tillia tepe.
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  6. Bracelet (1st Century)

    These bracelets adorned with antelopes were found in a tomb in Tillia Tepe and currently reside in the Afghanistan National Museum.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Bracelets, Top Ten Pieces of Ancient Jewelry
  7. Indian Coin (1st Century)

    Description: These gold coins were found in tomb IV of Tillia tepe.
    Links: Top 100 Coins, Top 100 Asian Coins, Top Ten Gold Coins,
  8. Gold Earrings

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    Links:
  9. Seal Carved with a Griffon (1st Century)

    Description: This is a seal depicting a griffin, which was found in tomb V of Tillia Tepe. It currently resides in the Musée National d’Afghanistan.
    Links: Top Ten Tombs,
  10. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Middle Eastern Artifacts, Top Ten Treasure Troves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tillia_tepe,

Top Ten Achaemenid Empire Artifacts

Top Ten Achaemenid Empire Artifacts

       The Achaemenid Persian Empire (c. 550–330 BC), also known as the First Persian Empire or First Iranian Empire, was a Persian empire in Western Asia, founded in the 6th century BC by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation. The dynasty draws its name from king Achaemenes, who ruled Persia between 705 BC and 675 BC. The empire expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BC stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece, making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads. Calling themselves the Pars after their original Aryan tribal name Parsa, Persians settled in a land which they named Parsua, bounded on the west by the Tigris River and on the south by the Persian Gulf. This became their heartland for the duration of the Achaemenid Empire. It was from this region that eventually Cyrus the Great would advance to defeat the Median, the Lydian,and the Babylonian Empires, opening the way for subsequent conquests into Egypt and Asia Minor. At the height of its power after the conquest of Egypt, the empire encompassed approximately 8 million km2 spanning three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe. It is noted in Western history as the antagonist foe of the Greek city states during the Greco-Persian Wars, for emancipation of slaves including the Jewish people from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting infrastructures such as a postal system, road systems, and the usage of an official language throughout its territories. The empire had a centralized  bureaucratic administration under the Emperor and a large professional army and civil services, inspiring similar developments in later empires. The historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences as well. Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by, or allied to the Persian kings. The impact of Cyrus the Great’s Edict of Restoration is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts and the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China. Even Alexander the Great, the man who would set out to conquer this vast empire, would respect its customs, by enforcing respect for the royal Persian kings including Cyrus the Great, and even by appearing in proskynesis, a Persian royal custom, despite stern Macedonian disapproval. A notable engineering achievement is the Qanat water management system, the oldest and longest of which is older than 3,000 years and longer than 44 miles (71 km). In 480 BC, it is estimated that 50 million people lived in the Achaemenid Empire or about 44% of the world’s population at the time, making it the largest empire by population percentage.

  1. Cyrus Cylinder

    The Cyrus Cylinder is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several fragments, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of the Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great. It dates from the 6th century BC and was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) in 1879. It is currently in the possession of the British Museum, which sponsored the expedition that discovered the cylinder. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus’ army invaded and conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire, incorporating it into the Persian Empire. The text on the Cylinder praises Cyrus the Great, listing his genealogy as a king from a line of kings. The Babylonian king Nabonidus, who was defeated and deposed by Cyrus, is denounced as an impious oppressor of the people of Babylonia and his low-born origins are implicitly contrasted to Cyrus’s kingly heritage. The victorious Cyrus is portrayed as having been chosen by the chief Babylonian god Marduk to restore peace and order to the Babylonians. The text states that Cyrus was welcomed by the people of Babylon as their new ruler and entered the city in peace. It appeals to Marduk to protect and help Cyrus and his son Cambyses. It exalts Cyrus’s efforts as a benefactor of the citizens of Babylonia who improved their lives, repatriated displaced people and restored temples and cult sanctuaries across Mesopotamia and elsewhere in the region. It concludes with a description of the work of Cyrus in repairing the city wall of Babylon, in which he found a similar inscription by an earlier king of Babylon. The Cylinder’s text has been linked by some as corroborative evidence of Cyrus’ policy of the repatriation of the Jewish people following their Babylonian captivity, (an act that the Book of Ezra attributes to Cyrus), as the text refers to the restoration of cult sanctuaries and repatriation of deported peoples. Some scholars, dispute this interpretation, noting that the Cyrus Cylinder identifies only Mesopotamian sanctuaries, and makes no mention of Jews, Jerusalem, or Judea. The Cylinder has also been interpreted by some including the United Nations as an early “human rights charter,” though the British Museum and other scholars reject this as anachronistic and a misunderstanding of the Cylinder’s status as a generic foundation deposit. It was adopted as a symbol by the Shah of Iran’s pre-1979 government, which put it on display in Tehran in 1971 to commemorate 2,500 years of the Iranian monarchy.
    Links: Top Ten British Museum Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_Cylinder,
  2. Golden Rhyton

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    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  3. Kalardasht Gold Cup

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    Links: Top Ten Chalices/Cups, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  4. Janus Gold Mug

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    Links: Top Ten Chalices/Cups, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  5. Golden Rhyton from Ecbatana Tehran

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    Links: Top Ten Chalices/Cups, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  6. Gold Bracelet

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    Links: Top Ten Pieces of Ancient Jewelry, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  7. Gold Chariot and Other Gold Artifacts from the Oxus Treasure

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  8. Proskynesis Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  9. Relieves

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  10. Bonus: Silver Ryon

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  11. Rams Head Sculpture

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    Links: Top 100 Busts,
  12. Administrative Tablet with Cuneiform Writing

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  13. Ahura Mazda

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  14. Bonus: Tomb of Cyrus the Great

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    Links: Top Ten Tombs,
  15. Links: Artifacts, Top Ten Middle Eastern Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenids,

Top Ten Scythian Artifacts

Top Ten Scythian Artifacts

       The Scythians or Scyths were an Ancient Iranian people of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who throughout Classical Antiquity dominated the Pontic-Caspian steppe, known at the time as Scythia. By Late Antiquity the closely-related Sarmatians came to dominate the Scythians in this area. Much of the surviving information about the Scythians comes from the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 440 BC) in his Histories and Ovid in his poem of exile Epistulae ex Ponto, and archaeologically from the exquisite gold work found in Scythian burial mounds in Ukraine and Southern Russia. The name “Scythian” has also been used to refer to various peoples seen as similar to the Scythians, or who lived anywhere in a vast area covering present-day Central Asia, Russia, and Ukraine—known until medieval times as Scythia.

  1. Royal Crown

    This is a royal crown found at Tillia tepe.
    Links: Top Ten Crowns, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  2. Pectoral

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    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten PectoralsTop Ten Ancient Necklaces,
  3. Kings with Dragons Earrings

    These earrings known as the “Kings with dragons” were found at Tillia tepe.
    Links:
  4. The Golden Comb

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    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  5. Scythian Gold Bong
    3104896320scythian-gold-bong01 Solid gold bong - Aryan Kings
    Discovered in a mass grave in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia these two gold bongs were traced back to the Scythians who ruled the surrounding area between the 9th century BC and 4th century AD.
    Links: Top Ten Drug Related Artifacts,
  6. Necklaces (1st Century)

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    Links: Top Ten Ancient Necklaces, Top 100 Necklaces,
  7. Gold Figures Depicting Greek Soldiers

    These gold figures of Greek men fighting in armor was found in Tomb III.
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Armor, Top Ten Weapons,
  8. The Circle Six Horses

    A Greek-Scythian Gold Cup from the Archeological Institute at Kiev, Russia.
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Horses,
  9. Silla Crown

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    Links: Top Ten Crowns,
  10. Throne Arm (7th Century BC)

    This is an arm from the throne of a Scythian king. It was found at the Kerkemess kurgan, Krasnodar Krai in 1905. It is currently on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum.
    Links: Top Ten Thrones, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  11. Vessel Depicting Scythians

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    Links: Top Ten Vases, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  12. Decorated Daggers

    “Akinakes” polylobed decorated daggers. Tomb IV.
    Links: Top Ten Daggers/Knives, Top 100 Gold Artifacts,
  13. Scythians Shooting with Bows, Kertch (4th Century BC)

    This …, antique Panticapeum Ukrainia
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Bows, Top Ten Archers,
  14. Golden Belt

    This is a golden belt with depictions of Dyonisos riding a lion. It was found in Tomb IV.
    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Belts
  15. Gold Buddhist Coin

    This is a gold Buddhist coin found at Tillia tepe in Tomb IV.
    Links: Coins, Top 100 Asian Coins, Top Ten Gold CoinsTop 100 Gold Artifacts,
  16. Skunkha Relief, King of the Sakā Tigraxaudā

    This Scxynthia relief depicts Skunkha who was the king of the Sakā Tigraxaudā…
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Asian Relieves,
  17. Silver Coin of King Azes II (35-12 BC)

    This is a silver coin depicting King Azes II. There is a Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
    Links: Top 100 Coins, Top 100 Asian Coins,
  18. Jade Plaques (4th-3rd Century BC)

    Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. Currently reside in the British Museum.
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  19. Bonus: Bowl

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  20. Links: Artifacts, Top Ten Middle Eastern Artifacts, Top Ten Treasure Troveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scythians,