Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts

Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts

  1. Eridu Genesis (18th Century BC)

    The earliest record of the Sumerian creation myth and deluge myth is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and datable by its script to the 18th century BC (First Dynasty of Babylon, where the language of writing and administration was still Sumerian). The story starts with the “Anunnaki” landing on earth after a very detailed description of our outer solar system, with the intent of mining gold to take back to the home planet of Nibiru. Shortly there after, the Anunnaki decide to create a “primitive worker” to take the work load for them. They create a male and female, named Adamu and Ti-Amat. Eventually the Anunnaki Enki mates with two of the offspring of Adamu and Ti-Amat, giving spawn to another male and female, who were the first “Civilized” humans. Eventually, these two “Civilized” humans mate and give birth to two sons named Ka-in and Abeal. The tablet was published in 1914 by Arno Poebel.
    Links: Top 100 Ancient Textshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_creation_myth,
  2. Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief from Nimrod and currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  3. The Flood Tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh (2750-2500 BC)

    The “Epic of Gilgamesh” from Ancient Sumeria is perhaps the oldest known story in the world. It tells the story of the legendary hero king from the Sumerian city-state of Uruk. (2750-2500 BCE). Later Mesopotamian civilizations adopted this myth as their own. At first it was part of an oral tradition, but was finally written down on clay tablets like this one in cuneiform writing. It was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. From the Royal Tombs of Ur.
    Links:
  4. Sumerian Kings List

    The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of “official” kingship. It has been suggested that this manuscript could serve to support certain details that are set forth in the Book of Genesis, where, similarly, individuals live for an extraordinary length of time prior to a great flood, and then for a lesser amount of time after said flood. Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region. Throughout its Bronze Age existence, the document evolved into a political tool. Its final and single attested version, dating to the Middle Bronze Age, aimed to legitimize Isin’s claims to hegemony when Isin was vying for dominance with Larsa and other neighboring city-states in southern Mesopotamia.
    Links: Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Sumerian Kingshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_King_List,
  5. Shamash Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief which can be currently seen at the Louvre. The relief depicts an offering to the god, by Saint-Elme Gautier. The god appears to be Shamash, whose helmet has three sets of horns. The attendant with the sheep appears to be holding the solar disk emblem. The tassle held by the other attendant looks like a poppy. The relief on the right depicts the god Oannes in a fish suit.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  6. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  7. Tablet of Shamash

    This is the Tablet of Shamash. It appears that a solar disk is held by two tassels. At the base of the pillar of the throne is the “lily” seen in the thrones of the kings and Phrygian text XW. The Sun disk is emerging from the “lily” symbol. Note that it is similar to the Egyption akhet, meaning “dawn.” The image represented the daily rebirth of the sun. It is curiously similar to the idols seen at Midas City. The Midas City idols appear to be abstract torsos, rectangles with disks atop.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieveshttp://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  8. Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System
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    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  9. Cylinder Seal of Ashur
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    This is a cylinder seal with the solar disk of Ashur, anointing with two eagle-headed gods before the Tree of Life. The blossoms on the tree appear to be pomegranates.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  10. Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  11. Ninurta Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  12. Planisphere or Star Chart (3,300 BC)

    This clay tablet exhibits a sky map above Mesopotamia in 3,300BC. It is a “planisphere” found in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh of 650BC. It consists of segments mapping sections of the sky in cuneiform text. The Sumerians of the time were very sophisticated scholars, shown in that it took modern computer analysis to discover the true date of the star chart.
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  13. Relief of Enki

           Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts, mischief; water, seawater, lakewater, intelligence and creation. Beginning around the second millennium BC, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for “40,” occasionally referred to as his “sacred number.” The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to “lord”; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning “mound.” In Sumerian E-A means “the house of water,” and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki,
  14. Relief of Enki

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  15. Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  16. Winged Relieves

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  17. Instructions of Shuruppak (3,000 BC)

           The Instructions of Shuruppak are a well-known Sumerian “wisdom” text, a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East intended to teach proper piety, inculcate virtue and preserve community standing. The text is set in great antiquity by its incipit, “In those days, in those far remote times, in those nights, in those faraway nights, in those years, in those far remote years.” The precepts are placed in the mouth of a king “Shuruppak, son of Ubara-Tutu”: Ubara-Tutu was the last king of Sumer before the mythological universal deluge. The texts are dated to near 3,000 BC, and are included in the cuneiform tablets from Abu Salabikh, making up the oldest literature known. The Shuruppak instructions contain precepts later included in the Ten Commandments and other sayings that are reflected in the Biblical Book of Proverbs.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_of_Shuruppak,
  18. Golden Helmet

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    Links: Top Ten Helmets,
  19. Khashkhamer Seal Moon Worship

           The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. It was written in the Sumerian language 2,100-2,050 BC. Although the preface directly credits the laws to king Ur-Nammu of Ur (2,112-2,095 BC), some historians think they should rather be ascribed to his son Shulgi. The first copy of the code, in two fragments found at Nippur, was translated by Samuel Kramer in 1952; owing to its partial preservation, only the prologue and 5 of the laws were discernible. Further tablets were found in Ur and translated in 1965, allowing some 40 of the 57 laws to be reconstructed. Another copy found in Sippar contains slight variants.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Ur-Nammu,
  20. Relieves of Gilgamesh and Enkidu

           This relieves may depict Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Huwawa and the bull of Heaven respectively.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  21. Sumerian Statuettes

    These are ancient Sumerian statuettes, which show blue eyed Sumerian nobility.
    Links: Sculptures, Top 100 Middle Eastern Sculptures,
  22. Fragment of Eannatum’s Stele of the Vultures (2,500 BC)

           The Vulture Stele of king Eannatum, which shows vultures feeding on the enemy dead. This is the world’s first depiction of modern, organized warfare, and the first depiction of a modern soldier.  In both panels, King Eannatum (on foot, and in a chariot) leads his soldiers to war.  These are indeed “soldiers,” not just warriors, but soldiers, in the modern sense of the word.  Every man is “in uniform,” identically armed and equipped, as supplied by the state; rather than each man bringing his own weapons to the battle, as occurs in tribal warfare. Notice how these professional soldiers attack in a tight, disciplined formation, with many men acting as a single unit, as they advance to victory over the bodies of their enemies.
    Links: Top Ten Stelae, Top Ten Middle Eastern Stelehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stele_of_Vultures_detail_02.jpg,
  23. Queen Shub-Ad’s Headdress

           This is a Sumerian Headdress Worn by Queen Pu-abi. It was discovered in the Royal Tombs of Ur by Mr. C. Leonard Woolley.
    Links: Top Ten Crowns,
  24. Gilgamesh Cylinder Seals

           These cylinder seals of Gilgamesh commemorate Acts of mythological characters from Sumerian culture.
    Links:
  25. Stele of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2,044 – 2,007 BC)

           Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens.” Further evidence relates a story of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2044 to 2007 BC) on a 5 x10′ stele. He received orders from his god and goddess to build the ziggurat The stele is nearly five feet across and ten feet high. At the top, the king stands in an attitude of prayer. Above his head is the symbol of the moon god Nannar, and to the right are figures of angels with vases from which flow the streams of life (this is the earliest known artistic figures of angels). The panels show the king setting out with compass, pick and trowel, and mortar baskets to begin construction. One panel contains just a single ladder used as the structure was rising. The reverse side depicts a commemorative feast.
    Links: http://kata-aletheia.blogspot.com/2007/12/tower-of-babel-gen-11-and-ancient-near.html,
  26. Cuneiform

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  27. Ancient Sumerian Lyre (2600 BC)

           This ancient Sumerian lyre found in the Royal Cemetery of Ur, of what is now southern Iraq.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Instruments,
  28. Golden Ram in the Thicket (2,600 BC)

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  29. Votive Vase (3,000 BC)

           This vase dates back to 3,000 BC and was found in Uruk (Akkad).
    Links: Top Ten Vases,
  30. Cylinder Seal of Shumash

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    Links: Top Ten Louvre Artifacts,
  31. Relieves of Ur-Namma and Enlil

           The first relieve depicts Ur-Namma (left) in the presence of Enlil, with the Tree of Life between them. The second depicts Ur-Namma and a worker following Enlil on their way to begin construction of a temple.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  32. Teshub Relief/Armed Innana Cylinder Seal

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  33. Warka Mask

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    Links: Top 100 Masks, Top 100 Busts,
  34. Gudea (2,120 BC)

           This is a statue head of Gudea found in Telloh. It is considered a Neo-Sumerian work of art.
    Links: Top 100 Busts,
  35. Figurines (2750-2600 BC)

           Female Figurines from Tell Asmar Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia.
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  36. Religious Relief

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  37. Clay Cone Urukagina

          Urukagina (reigned ca. 2380 BC–2360 BC, short chronology), alternately rendered as Uruinimgina or Irikagina, was a ruler (énsi) of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia. He is best known for his reforms to combat corruption, which are sometimes cited as the first example of a legal code in recorded history. Although the actual text has not been discovered yet, much of its content may be surmised from other references to it that have been found. In it, he exempted widows and orphans from taxes; compelled the city to pay funeral expenses (including the ritual food and drink libations for the journey of the dead into the lower world); and decreed that the rich must use silver when purchasing from the poor, and if the poor does not wish to sell, the powerful man (the rich man or the priest) cannot force him to do so. Urukagina’s code is perhaps the first recorded example of government reform, seeking to achieve a higher level of freedom and equality. It limited the power of the priesthood and large property owners and took measures against usury, burdensome controls, hunger, theft, murder, and seizure (of people’s property and persons); as he states, “The widow and the orphan were no longer at the mercy of the powerful man”. He is also said to have abolished the former custom of polyandry in his country, on pain of the woman taking multiple husbands being stoned with rocks upon which her crime is written.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urukagina,
  38. Cuneiform Clay Tablets (2,112-1,600 BC)

           These are ancient Babylonian clay Tablets which are inscribed in cuneiform.
    Links:
  39. Statues of Gudea (2,130 BC)

           These are statues of the Sumerian King Gudea who ruled in the city of Lagash. They are Neo-Sumerian pieces that were found in Telloh, ancient Girsu. The statue on the left is dedicated to the goddess Geshtinanna, while one on the right is dedicated to the god Ningizzada.
    Links:
  40. Carved Figurine (3,000 BC)

           A Sumerian Carved Figurine Dating from 3,000 BC.
    Links:
  41. Crown and Jewels

           This is a headdress from the tomb of Queen Pu-abi in the Royal Tombs of Ur. It was worn by one of the women who was sacrificed to serve the Queen in the afterlife.
    Links: Top Ten Crown Jewels, Top Ten Crowns,
  42. Balance Sheet

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  43. Cylinder Seal (3,000 BC)

           A 5,000-year-old cylinder seal points to ancient Arabian trade, archaeologists say. In the current Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy journal, Holly Pittman of the University of Pennsylvania and Daniel Potts of Australia’s University of Sydney detail last year’s discovery of the cylinder seal, the oldest one found in Arabia, on a barren sand dune in Abu Dhabi. “Seals were used to make an impression on a soft substance like clay that was put around or over the mouth of a storage jar, or on clay that was put around a door lock, or on a cuneiform tablet, in each case to signify the ownership of the goods or the identity of the seal-user,” Potts says. In this case, the mystery seal derives from Uruk, a bronze age civilization in modern-day Iraq that saw the development of cuneiform writing. “Some seals were very individual and recognizable, whereas this one belongs to a well-known type,” Potts says, with carvings of spiders and women likely a visual pun, pointing to cloth from a weaving factory. How the seal arrived on a barren dune, “really it’s impossible to say,” Potts adds, “though I am sure it arrived in antiquity.” The seal might have arrived with ancient Sumerian merchants, or it might have arrived millennia later “perhaps used as a bead or exotic trinket,” says the study, and lost to mischance. “If the Abu Dhabi seal was not transported to its final resting place thousands of years after its manufacture, it may well have been amongst a range of goods brought by traders from southern Mesopotamia desirous of obtaining copper to take back to their homeland,” concludes the study. “Despite the forbidding nature of the desert of western Abu Dhabi, this kind of movement could well account for the deposition of a cylinder seal in such a sandy environment.”
    Links: http://blogs.usatoday.com/sciencefair/history_and_archeology/,
  44. Map of Canals and Irrigation Systems (1,684 – 1,647 BC)

           This is a map of the canals and irrigation systems west of the Euphrates.
    Links: Top 100 Maps, Top Ten Ancient Maps,
  45. Gold and Lapis Lazuli Pendant

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    Links: Top 100 Gold Artifacts, Top Ten Minerals,
  46. Game Board (2,550 – 2,400 BC)

           This is an ancient Sumerian board game, believed to be a precursor of backgammon.
    Links: Top Ten Ancient Games,
  47. Links: Top Ten Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Artifacts, Top Ten Zigguratshttp://www.thehiddenrecords.com/clues.php, http://sumerianshakespeare.com/71412.html

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