Top Ten Babylonian Artifacts

Top Ten Babylonian Artifacts

       Babylon was a city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 km (55 mi) south of Baghdad. All that remains of the original ancient city of Babylon today is a mound, or tell, of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in Iraq. Although it has been reconstructed, historical resources inform us that Babylon was at first a small town, that had sprung up by the beginning of the third millennium BC. The town flourished and attained prominence and political repute with the rise of the First Babylonian Dynasty. It was the “holy city” of Babylonia by approximately 2300 BC, and the seat of the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 612 BC. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

  1. Enûma Eliš (18th-12th Century BC)

           The Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words). It was recovered by Austen Henry Layard in 1849 (in fragmentary form) in the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), and published by George Smith in 1876. The Enûma Eliš has about a thousand lines and is recorded in Old Babylonian on seven clay tablets, each holding between 115 and 170 lines of text. Most of Tablet V has never been recovered, but aside from this lacuna the text is almost complete. A duplicate copy of Tablet V has been found in Sultantepe, ancient Huzirina, located near the modern town of Şanlıurfa in Turkey. This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the creation of humankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony, but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/En%C3%BBma_Eli%C5%A1,
  2. Atra Has

           The 18th century BC Akkadian epic of Atra-Hasis is named after its protagonist. An “Atra-Hasis” (“exceedingly wise”) appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. It includes both a creation myth and a flood account and is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BC), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BC. The Atrahasis story also exists in a later fragmentary Assyrian version, having been first rediscovered in the library of Ashurbanipal, but, because of the fragmentary condition of the tablets and ambiguous words, translations had been uncertain. Its fragments were assembled and translated first by George Smith as The Chaldean Account of Genesis; the name of its hero was corrected to Atra-Hasis by Heinrich Zimmern in 1899.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atra-Hasis,
  3. Hammurab’s Code

    Description:
    Link: Top Ten Political Documentshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Hammurabi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ancient_legal_codes,
  4. Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  5. Prologue Hammurabi Code

    Description:
    Links:
  6. World Map Of Babylonia

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Maps, Top Ten Ancient Maps,
  7. Cylinder of Nabonidus

    The Nabonidus Cylinder from Sippar is a long text in which king Nabonidus of Babylonia (556-539 BC) describes how he repaired three temples: the sanctuary of the moon god Sin in Harran, the sanctuary of the warrior goddess Anunitu in Sippar, and the temple of Šamaš in Sippar. The cylinder is particularly noteworthy because it mentions a son named Belshezzar, who is mentioned in the Book of Daniel. The cylinder states: “As for me, Nabonidus, king of Babylon, save me from sinning against your great godhead and grant me as a present a life long of days, and as for Belshazzar, the eldest son, my offspring, instill reverence for your great godhead in his heart and may he not commit any cultic mistake, may he be sated with a life of plenitude.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_of_Nabonidus,
  8. The Babylonian Tablet Plimpton 322

    Description:
    Links: http://www.math.ubc.ca/~cass/courses/m446-03/pl322/pl322.html,
  9. Boundary Stone Relief of Marduk-Balatsu-Ikbi

    This is a Babylonian boundary stone relief of Marduk-Balatsu-Ikbi.
    Links:
  10. Nabonidus Relief

    This is a relief of Nabonidus praying to the moon, sun and Venus.
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  11. Clay Tablet Relief

    Description:
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves,
  12. Links: Top Ten Wonders of the Ancient World, Top Ten Wonders of the Modern WorldArtifacts, Top 100 Middle Eastern Artifacts, Top Ten Gardenshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon,

Gnosis Recommended Products