Top Ten North American Relieves

Top Ten North American Relieves

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  1. Aztec Sun Stone
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    The Aztec calendar stone, Mexica sun stone, Stone of the Sun, or Stone of the Five Eras, is a large monolithic sculpture that was excavated in the Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City, on December 17, 1790. It was discovered while Mexico City Cathedral was being repaired. The stone is approximately 12 feet (3.7 m) across and weighs approximately 24 tons.
    Links: Top Ten Aztec Artifacts, Top Ten Rocks/Stones, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec_calendar_stone,
  2. Yaxchilán Relieves
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           Yaxchilan (also sometimes historically referred to by the names Menché and City Lorillard) is an ancient Maya city located on the bank of the Usumacinta River in what is now the state of Chiapas, Mexico. In the Late Classic Period Yaxchilan was one of the most powerful Maya states along the course of the Usumacinta, with Piedras Negras as its major rival. Architectural styles in subordinate sites in the Usumacinta region demonstrate clear differences that mark a clear boundary between the two kingdoms. Yaxchilan was a large center, important throughout the Classic era and the dominant power of the Usumacinta River area. It dominated such smaller sites as Bonampak, and had a long rivalry with Piedras Negras and at least for a time with Tikal; it was a rival of Palenque, with which Yaxchilan warred in 654. The site is particularly known for its well-preserved sculptured stone lintels set above the doorways of the main structures. These lintels, together with the stele erected before the major buildings, contain hieroglyphic texts describing the dynastic history of the city. The ancient name for the city was probably Pa’ Chan. Yaxchilan means “green stones” in Maya.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaxchil%C3%A1n,
  3. Mayan Volcanic Explosion Relief

    This Mayan relief depicts the explosion of a volcano and a man and women fleeing from the situation. Some speculate that this scene could be reminiscent of the Atlantean disaster.
    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts,
  4. Mayan Tablet of the Sun

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    Links: Top 100 Mayan Artifacts,
  5. Palenque Relieves, Mexico
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           Palenque (Bàak’ in Modern Maya) was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 100 BC to its fall around 800 AD. After its decline it was absorbed into the jungle, which is made up of cedar, mahogany, and sapodilla trees, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km (81 mi) south of Ciudad del Carmen about 150 m above sea-level. Palenque is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings that the Mayas produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the many monuments; historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the 7th century and extensive knowledge of the city-state’s rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque was Pacal the Great whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions. By 2005, the discovered area covered up to 2.5 km² (1 square mi), but it is estimated that less than 10% of the total area of the city is explored, leaving more than a thousand structures still covered by jungle.
    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions,
  6. El Tajín
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    Links: Top Ten Mexican Attractions,
  7. Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, Boston, USA (1897)

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  8. Wood Lintel Celebrating Military Victry of Yik’in Chan K’awiil

           The elaborately carved wooden Lintel 3 from Temple IV. It celebrates a military victory by Yik’in Chan K’awiil in 743.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten North American Parkshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikal_National_Park,
  9. Olmec Relief at La Venta Park, Villahermosa, Mexico

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  10. Mayan Relieves
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  11. Mayan Relieves
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  12. Mayan Relieves
    maya_relief_by_renemarcel27-d46elkzMayan relief sculpture with Lady Balam-Ix and Bird Jaguar IVMayan-Relief-of-Shield-Jaguar-and-Lady-Xoc
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  13. Mayan Relief
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  14. Mayan Relieves
    yaxchilanPre-Columbian_collection,_Dumbarton_Oaks,_Mayan_reliefStele51CalakmulMuseum
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  15. Aztec Plumed Serpent Relief

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  16. Relief of Pacal the Great

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    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, 
  17. Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs,

Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

  1. Sumerian Relief from Nimrod

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief from Nimrod and currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  2. Relief of Ashurnasirpal with the Tree of Life (883-859 BC)

    This is a relief from the N.W. palace of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) showing anointing of the Tree of Life. A winged god holds what appears to be a pinecone and a pot with the anointing oil. Above the Tree of Life is the royal signet of the god Ashur. The god Ashur is depicted as a man with a bow inside a winged solar disk or as a winged solar disk.
    Links: Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts,  http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  3. Shamash Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief which can be currently seen at the Louvre. The relief depicts an offering to the god, by Saint-Elme Gautier. The god appears to be Shamash, whose helmet has three sets of horns. The attendant with the sheep appears to be holding the solar disk emblem. The tassle held by the other attendant looks like a poppy. The relief on the right depicts the god Oannes in a fish suit.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  4. Sumerian Gods in Flying Craft Relief

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    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Relieves,
  5. Tablet of Shamash

    This is the Tablet of Shamash. It appears that a solar disk is held by two tassels. At the base of the pillar of the throne is the “lily” seen in the thrones of the kings and Phrygian text XW. The Sun disk is emerging from the “lily” symbol. Note that it is similar to the Egyption akhet, meaning “dawn.” The image represented the daily rebirth of the sun. It is curiously similar to the idols seen at Midas City. The Midas City idols appear to be abstract torsos, rectangles with disks atop.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  6. Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System

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  7. Cylinder Seal of Ashur

    This is a cylinder seal with the solar disk of Ashur, anointing with two eagle-headed gods before the Tree of Life. The blossoms on the tree appear to be pomegranates.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  8. Naram-Suen’s Victory Over the Lullubi
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  9. Sumerian Relief

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  10. Behistun Inscription and Ahura Mazda Relieves
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           The Behistun Inscription, meaning “the place of god,” is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought 19 battles in a period of one year (ending in December of 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. The inscription states in detail that the rebellions, which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great and his son Cambyses II, were orchestrated by several impostors and their co-conspirators in various cities throughout the empire, each of whom falsely proclaimed kinghood during the upheaval following Cyrus’s death. Darius the Great proclaimed himself victorious in all battles during the period of upheaval, attributing his success to the “grace of Ahura Mazda.” The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian (a later form of Akkadian). In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script. The inscription is approximately 15 m high by 25 m wide and 100 m up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana, respectively). The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and nine one-meter figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was Darius’s beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.
    Links: Top Ten Gods, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda,
  11. Ninurta Relief

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  12. Nimrod Temple Relief depicting Nimrod

    This Assyrian relief of Nimrod located in the Nimrod Temple is a 100 cm in height and 40 cm wide. It was carved on a special type of rock that stores light during the day, which causes it to glow during the night. (Stela of King Ashurnasirpal II, 883 – 859 BC.)
    Links: http://www.assyrian4all.net/akhne/index.php?topic=10496.0,
  13. Adad-Nirari III Relief (811 – 783 BC)

    Adad-nirari III was King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. He was the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad V and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his reign his mother Shammuramat acted as regent, which may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis. Adad-nirari’s youth and the struggles his father had faced early in his reign, caused a serious weakening for the Assyrian rulership over Mesopotamia and gave way to the ambitions of the most high officers, the governors and the local rulers.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adad-nirari_III,
  14. Shalmaneser III

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  15. Prosknesis Relief

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  16. Relief of Marduk-apla-iddina II

    Marduk-apla-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan. lit. Marduk has given me an Heir.) (reigned 722 BC – 710 BC, 703 BC – 702 BC) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC. Marduk-apla iddina II was also known as one of the brave kings who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade. Sargon of Assyria repressed the allies of Marduk-apla-iddina II in Aram and Israel and eventually drove (710 BC) him from Babylon. After the death of Sargon, Marduk-apla-iddina II recaptured the throne. In the time of his reign over Babylonia, he strengthened the Chaldean Empire. He reigned 9 months (703 BC – 702 BC). He returned from Elam and ignited all the Arameans in Babylonia into rebellion. He was able to enter Babylon and be declared king again. Nine months later he was defeated near Kish, but escaped to Elam with the gods of the south. He died in exile a couple of years later.
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  17. Ishtar

    Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, war, love and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate north-west Semitic goddess Astarte.
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  18. Enki Relief

    Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts, mischief; water, seawater, lakewater, intelligence and creation. Beginning around the second millennium BC, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for “40,” occasionally referred to as his “sacred number.” The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to “lord”; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning “mound.” In Sumerian E-A means “the house of water,” and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki,
  19. Sumerian Relief

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  20. Winged Sumerian Relieves

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  21. Gilgamesh Relieves

    This relieves may depict Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Huwawa and the bull of Heaven respectively.
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  22. Stele of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2,044 – 2,007 BC)

    Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens.” Further evidence relates a story of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2044 to 2007 BC) on a 5 x10′ stele. He received orders from his god and goddess to build the ziggurat The stele is nearly five feet across and ten feet high. At the top, the king stands in an attitude of prayer. Above his head is the symbol of the moon god Nannar, and to the right are figures of angels with vases from which flow the streams of life (this is the earliest known artistic figures of angels). The panels show the king setting out with compass, pick and trowel, and mortar baskets to begin construction. One panel contains just a single ladder used as the structure was rising. The reverse side depicts a commemorative feast.
    Links: http://kata-aletheia.blogspot.com/2007/12/tower-of-babel-gen-11-and-ancient-near.html,
  23. Relief

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  24. Relieves
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  25. Tammuz

    Tammuz was the Sumerian god of food and vegetation, also worshiped in the later Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar. The Levantine Adonis (“lord”), who was drawn into the Greek pantheon, was considered by Joseph Campbell among others to be another counterpart of Tammuz, son and consort. The Aramaic name “Tammuz” seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian. Tamuzi also is Dumuzid or Dumuzi.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_(deity),
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  27. Links: Top Ten Relieves,

Relieves and Petroglyphs

Relieves and Petroglyphs

Top Ten European Relieves

Top Ten European Relieves

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  1. The Elgin Marbles
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    The Parthenon Marbles, forming a part of the collection known as the Elgin Marbles, are a collection of classical Greek marble sculptures (mostly by Phidias and his pupils), inscriptions and architectural members that originally were part of the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis of Athens. Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1799–1803, had obtained a controversial permit from the Ottoman authorities to remove pieces from the Acropolis. From 1801 to 1812 Elgin’s agents removed about half of the surviving sculptures of the Parthenon, as well as architectural members and sculpture from the Propylaea and Erechtheum. The Marbles were transported by sea to Britain. In Britain, the acquisition of the collection was supported by some, while other critics compared Elgin’s actions to vandalism or looting. Following a public debate in Parliament and subsequent exoneration of Elgin’s actions, the marbles were purchased by the British government in 1816 and placed on display in the British Museum, where they stand now on view in the purpose-built Duveen Gallery. The debate continues as to whether the Marbles should remain in the British Museum or be returned to Athens.
    Links: Sculptures, Top Ten Greek Sculptures, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elgin_Marbles,
  2. Dionysian Procession on a Marble Sarcophagus and a Roman Sarcophagus
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    Links: Top Ten Sarcophagi, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysus,
  3. Romanesque Portal of Christ in Majesty (12th Century)
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  4. Roman Sarcophagus (250 AD)
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           This is a 3rd century Roman sarcophagus depicting soldiers battling Gothic troops It currently resides in the  National Museum of Rome.
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Artifacts, Top 100 Roman ArtifactsTop Ten Artifacts at the National Museum of Rome, Museums, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Empire,
  5. Tomb of King Pedro I
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    Peter I (19 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just, was King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile.
    Links: Top Ten Monasteries, Top Ten European Monasteries, Top Ten Tombs, Top Ten Kings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_I_of_Portugal,
  6. Harbaville Triptych
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           The Harbaville Triptych is a Byzantine ivory triptych of the middle of the 10th century AD with a Deesis and other saints, now in the Louvre. Traces of coloring can still be seen on some figures. It is regarded as the finest, and best-preserved, of the “Romanos group” of ivories from a workshop in Constantinople, probably closely connected with the Imperial Court. The group takes its name from another ivory in the Cabinet des Médailles of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris showing Christ crowning an Emperor, named as Romanos, and his Empress. This is thought to be either Romanos II crowned in 959, or possibly Romanos IV, crowned in 1068. Other related works are in Rome, the Vatican, and Moscow, this last another coronation probably datable to 944. The Harbaville Triptych is considered “by far the finest, for it shows an elegance and delicacy which are absent in the others. All are in the polished, elegant style typical of the Court school.” Other groups have also been identified, presumably representing the output of different workshops, perhaps also employed by the Court, but generally of lower quality, or at least refinement. Since much greater numbers of ivories survive than panel paintings from the period, they are very important for the history of Macedonian art. All sides of the triptych are fully carved, with more saints on the outsides of the side leaves, and an elaborate decorative scheme on the back of the central leaf.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harbaville_Triptych,
  7. Gates of Paradise by Lorenzo Ghiberti
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    Links: Top Ten Sculptures by Lorenzo Ghiberti,
  8. The Last Supper, Wieliczka Salt Mine, Poland
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    Links: Top Ten Polish Attractions, Top Ten Paintings of the Last Supper, Top Ten Paintings by Leonardo da Vinci,
  9. Expulsion from Paradise by Lorenzo Maitani, Orvieto Cathedral, Italy
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    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Top Ten Cathedrals, Top Ten European Cathedrals, Top Ten Gardens,
  10. Atropos
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           Atropos or Aisa, in Greek mythology, was one of the three Moirai, goddesses of fate and destiny. Her Roman equivalent was Morta. Atropos or Aisa was the oldest of the Three Fates, and was known as the “inflexible” or “inevitable.” It was Atropos who chose the mechanism of death and ended the life of each mortal by cutting their thread with her “abhorred shears.” She worked along with her two sisters, Clotho, who spun the thread, and Lachesis, who measured the length.
    Links: Top Ten Goddesses, Top Ten Greek Gods, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atropos,
  11. Links: Top Ten Relieves, Artifacts,

Top Ten Egyptian Relieves

Top Ten Egyptian Relieves

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  1. King Tut’s Throne Relief
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    Links: Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Kings, Top Ten Thrones,
  2. Akhenaten and Nerfertiti
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  3. Akhenaten and Nefertiti Worshiping the Sun Disk Aten
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  4. Aeronautic Hieroglyphs

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    Links: Top Ten Spacecraft, Top Ten Aircraft,
  5. Egyptian Lights in Dendera?

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    Links: Top 100 Scientists, Top Ten Emerging Energy Technologies, Top Ten Inventors, Top Ten Inventions,
  6. Akhenaten Depicted as a Sphinx at Amarna
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    Links: Top Ten Sphinx Statues,
  7. Ptah Relieves
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    Ptah (Egyptian ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian) was a deity in ancient Egyptian religion. Ptah was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelled Tathenen, Tatjenen, etc.), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land, though Tatenen was a god in his own right, before being assimilated with Ptah. Ptah also is referred to as the noble Djed. It was said (in the Shabaka Stone) that it was Ptah who called the world into being, having dreamt creation in his heart, and speaking it, his name meaning opener, in the sense of opener of the mouth. Indeed the opening of the mouth ceremony, performed by priests at funerals to release souls from their corpses, was said to have been created by Ptah. Atum was said to have been created by Ptah to rule over the creation, sitting upon the primordial mound. In art, he is portrayed as a bearded mummified man, often wearing a skull cap, with his hands holding an ankh, was, and djed, the symbols of life, power and stability, respectively. It was also considered that Ptah manifested himself in the Apis bull. He may have originally been a fertility god because of this. Since Ptah was the primordial mound, and had called creation into being, he was considered the god of craftsmen, and in particular stone-based crafts. Eventually, due to the connection of these things to tombs, and that at Thebes, the craftsmen regarded him so highly as to say that he controlled their destiny. Consequently, first amongst the craftsmen, then the population as a whole, Ptah also became a god of regeneration. Since Seker was also god of craftsmen, and of regeneration of the sun during the night, Seker was later assimilated with Ptah becoming Ptah-Seker. Consequently, Ptah-Seker became considered an underworld deity, and eventually, by the Middle Kingdom, become assimilated by Osiris, the lord of the underworld, occasionally being known as Ptah-Seker-Osiris. The English name Egypt derives from an ancient Egyptian name for Memphis, Hikuptah, which means “Home of the Soul of Ptah.” This entered Ancient Greek as Αιγυπτος (Aiguptos), which entered Latin as Ægyptus, which developed into English as Egypt.
    Links: Top Ten Gods, Top Ten Egyptian Gods, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptah,
  8. Luxor Temple Relief
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    This is a sunk relief as low relief within a sunk outline, from the Luxor Temple in Egypt, which carved in very hard granite.
    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Gods,
  9. Sethi I, Abydos Temple
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    Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a Pharaoh of the New Kingdom 19th dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC – 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today. The name Seti means “of Set,” which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (commonly “Seth”). As with most Pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen mn-m3‘t-r‘, usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means “Eternal is the Justice of Re.” His better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as sty mry-n-ptḥ, or Sety Merenptah, meaning “Man of Set, beloved of Ptah.” Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, and gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has ever been found for so long a reign.
    Links: Top Ten Pharaohs, Temples, Top Ten Egyptian Temples, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seti_I,
  10. Pharaoh Relief

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  11. Isis Relief
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    Links: Top Ten Egyptian Gods, Top Ten Goddesses, Top Ten Gods,
  12. Seth and Horus
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    Links: Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Egyptian Gods,
  13. Links: Top Ten Relieves, Top Ten African Relieves, Top 100 Artifacts, Top 100 African Artifacts, Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,

Top Ten Asian Relieves

Top Ten Asian Relieves

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  1. Konark Sun Temple, India
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           Konark Sun Temple is a 13th century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I (1238-1250 AD) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty. The temple is one of the most renowned temples in India and is one of the Seven Wonders of India. Legend has it that the temple was constructed by Samba, the son of Lord Krishna. It is said that Samba was afflicted by leprosy, brought about by his father’s curse on him. After 12 years of penance, he was cured by Surya, the Sun God, in whose honor he built the magnificent Konark Sun Temple.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten Hindu Deities, Sculptures, Top Ten Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark_Sun_Temple,
  2. Buddha
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    Links: Top Ten Statues of Buddha,
  3. Indian Vimana Relieve, Ellora Caves

    Vimāna is a word with several meanings ranging from temple or palace to flying palaces, or flying craft, as described in Sanskrit epics.
    Links: Top Ten Rock-Cut Architecture, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vimana,
  4. Cambodian Naga Portal and Naga Personification

    Nāga is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a deity or class of entity or being, taking the form of a very great snake, specifically the king cobra, found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. A female nāga is a nāgī or nāgiṇī. In these traditions the snake can also represent the kundalini energy, which travels up through the spine to the crown of the human body.
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  5. Sri Mahamariamman Temple
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    Links: Top Ten Indian AttractionsTemples, Top Ten Indian Temples,
  6. Temple at Khajuraho, India
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    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Indian Temples,
  7. Bas-relief Depicting Ravana Shaking Mount Kailasa, the Abode of Lord Siva, Banteay Srei, Cambodia
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    Links: Top Ten Cambodian Attractions, Top Ten Hindu Gods, Top Ten Mountains, Top Ten Asian Mountains,
  8. Yazılıkaya, Turkey
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    Yazılıkaya (Turkish for “inscribed rock”) was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey. This was a holy site for the Hittites, located within walking distance of the gates of the city of Hattusa. It had two main chambers formed inside a group of rock outcrops. Access to the roofless chambers were controlled by gateway and building structures built right in front of them, however only the foundations of those structures survived today. Most impressive today are the rock-cut reliefs of Chambers A and B portraying the gods of the Hittite pantheon. One of the uses of the sanctuary may have involved the New Year’s celebrations ceremonies. It was in use at least since late 16th century BC, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late 13th century BC, when the site underwent a significant restoration.
    Links: Top Ten Turkish Attractions, Top Ten Sanctuaries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yazilikaya,
  9. Durga Slays Mahishasura, Mahabalipuram
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    In Hinduism, Durga, meaning “the inaccessible” or “the invincible,” is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having many (variously, up to eighteen) arms, riding a lion or a tiger, carrying weapons and a lotus flower, maintaining a meditative smile, and practicing mudras, or symbolic hand gestures. For Shaktas the eternal virgin Durga is Adi Shakti (the original power very power), Adi Maya (the original illusion caster) and the material manifestation of the Brahman (Supreme Absolute Godhead).  An embodiment of creative feminine force (Shakti), Durga exists in a state of svātantrya (independence from the universe and anything/anybody else, i.e., self-sufficiency) and fierce compassion. Durga manifests fearlessness and patience, and never loses her sense of humor, even during spiritual battles of epic proportion. At the Durga Puja festival, Durga is shown as the mother of Ganesha, Lakshmi and Saraswati.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durga,
  10. Iranian Emperor Shapur I, Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran
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           This is a rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (kneeing) and Philip the Arab (standing).
    Links: Top Ten Iranian Attractions,
  11. Bas-Relief Sculptures at Unakoti, Tripura, India
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Sculptures,
  12. Asita Relief
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           Asita was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BC. He is best known for having predicted that Prince Siddhartha of Kapilavastu would either become a great king (chakravartin) or become a supreme religious leader (Buddha).
    Links: Buddhists, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asita,
  13. Links: Artifacts, Top 100 Asian Artifacts, Top Ten Relieves, Top 100 Symbols,

Top Ten Relieves

Top Ten Relieves

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  1. Tree of Life Relieves
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    The concept of a tree of life, a many-branched tree illustrating the idea that all life on earth is related, has been used in science, religion, philosophy, mythology and other areas. A tree of life is variously: a motif in various world theologies, mythologies and philosophies; a mystical concept alluding to the interconnectedness of all life on our planet; and a metaphor for common descent in the evolutionary sense. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the tree of knowledge, connecting to heaven and the underworld, and the tree of life, connecting all forms of creation, are both forms of the world tree or cosmic tree. According to some scholars, the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, portrayed in various religions and philosophies, are the same tree. According to others, however, the tree of life concept is distinct from the tree of knowledge of good and bad, if only because eating from the latter leads to death and not life, and because it is mentioned in Genesis that there exists a distinct tree of life in the Garden of Eden (although humans are barred from entry to the Garden by the time it is mentioned). The Abrahamic religions are Semitic in origin, and not Indo-European- which might serve to explain relegating the idea of a cosmological tree to esoteric sects (e.g. Kabballah) in most Semitic cultures.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, Top 100 Cannabis Strains, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_of_life,
  2. Konark Sun Temple, India
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    Konark Sun Temple is a 13th century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I (1238-1250 AD) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty. The temple is one of the most renowned temples in India and is one of the Seven Wonders of India. Legend has it that the temple was constructed by Samba, the son of Lord Krishna. It is said that Samba was afflicted by leprosy, brought about by his father’s curse on him. After 12 years of penance, he was cured by Surya, the Sun God, in whose honor he built the magnificent Konark Sun Temple.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Indian Temples, Top Ten Sun Temples, Top Ten Hindu Deities, Sculptures, Top Ten Asian Relieves, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark_Sun_Temple,
  3. Annunaki Relief
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    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  4. King Tut’s Throne Relief
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    This relief, which appears on the legendary golden throne of King Tutankhamen, depicts…
    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Pharoahs, Top Ten Queens,
  5. Akhenaten and Nerfertiti
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    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Queens,
  6. Akhenaten and Nefertiti Worshiping the Sun Disk Aten
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    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Egyptian ArtifactsTop Ten Egyptian Attractions, Top Ten Pharaohs, Top Ten Queens,
  7. Aeronautic Hieroglyphs

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten SpacecraftTop Ten Aircraft,
  8. Egyptian Lights in Dendera?

    Description:
    Links: Top 100 ScientistsTop Ten Emerging Energy Technologies, Top Ten InventorsTop Ten Inventions,
  9. Buddha
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Statues of Buddha,
  10. Seth and Horus
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    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Egyptian Artifacts, Top Ten Egyptian Attractions,
  11. Behistun Inscription and Ahura Mazda Relieves, Iran
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    The Behistun Inscription, meaning “the place of god,” is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought 19 battles in a period of one year (ending in December of 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. The inscription states in detail that the rebellions, which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great and his son Cambyses II, were orchestrated by several impostors and their co-conspirators in various cities throughout the empire, each of whom falsely proclaimed kinghood during the upheaval following Cyrus’s death. Darius the Great proclaimed himself victorious in all battles during the period of upheaval, attributing his success to the “grace of Ahura Mazda.” The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian (a later form of Akkadian). In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script. The inscription is approximately 15 m high by 25 m wide and 100 m up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana, respectively). The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and nine one-meter figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was Darius’s beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.
    Links: Top Ten Gods, Top Ten Babylonian Artifacts, Top Ten Iranian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda,
  12. Sri Mahamariamman Temple
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Indian Temples,
  13. Relief of the Apotheosis of Homer (2nd Century BC)
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    The Apotheosis of Homer is a common scene in classical and neo-classical art, showing the poet Homer’s apotheosis or elevation to divine status. Homer was the subject of a number of formal hero cults in classical antiquity. The earliest notable portrayal of the scene is a 3rd century BC marble relief by Archelaus of Priene, now in the British Museum. It was found in Italy, probably in 1658 AD, but is thought to have been sculpted in Egypt. It shows Ptolemy and his wife or sister Arsinoe III standing beside a seated poet, flanked by figures from the Odyssey and Iliad, with the nine Muses standing above them and a procession of worshippers approaching an altar, believed to represent the Alexandrine Homereion. Apollo, the god of music and poetry, also appears, along with a female figure tentatively identified as Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses. Zeus, the king of the gods, presides over the proceedings. The relief demonstrates vividly that the Greeks considered Homer not merely a great poet but the divinely-inspired reservoir of all literature.
    Links: Top 100 Greek Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Apotheosis_of_Homer,
  14. Links: Artifacts, Sculptures, Top Ten Stelae,

Top Ten Friezes

Top Ten Friezes

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       In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave (‘main beam’) and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous, and perhaps the most elaborate. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels. The material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of an architectural frieze on the façade of a building, the octagonal Tower of the Winds in the Roman agora at Athens bears relief sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze. A pulvinated frieze (or pulvino) is convex in section. Such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture. The concept of a frieze has been generalized in the mathematical construction of frieze patterns.

  1. Parthenon Frieze, Greece
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    The Parthenon frieze is the low relief, pentelic marble sculpture created to adorn the upper part of the Parthenon’s naos. It was sculpted between 443 and 438 BC, most likely under the direction of Pheidias. Of the 524 feet (160 m) of the original frieze, 420 feet (130 m) survives, some 80%. The rest is known only from the drawings made by Flemish artist Jacques Carrey in 1674, thirteen years before the Venetian bombardment that ruined the temple. At present, the majority of the frieze is at the British Museum in London (forming the major part of the Elgin Marbles); the largest proportion of the rest is in Athens, and the remainder of fragments shared between six other institutions. Casts of the frieze may be found in the Beazley archive at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, at the Spurlock Museum in Urbana, in the Skulpturhalle at Basel and elsewhere.
    Links: Top Ten Greek AttractionsTemples, Top Ten Greek Temples, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon_Frieze,
  2. Church of the Madeleine Frieze, Paris, French
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    L’église de la Madeleine is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It was designed in its present form as a temple to the glory of Napoleon’s army. To its south lies the Place de la Concorde, to the east is the Place Vendôme, and to the west L’église Saint-Augustin.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Churches, Top Ten European Churches, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_the_Madeleine,
  3. Frieze of Darius’s Palace at Susa
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Sphinx Statues,
  4. Walhalla Temple Frieze, Bavaria, Germany
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    The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history, politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue. The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology. It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I. Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze. The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history; the earliest person honored is Arminius, victor at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD).
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top 100 Busts,
  5. Hoysaleswara Temple Frieze, India
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    Hoysaleswara temple is a temple dedicated to Hindu God Shiva. It was built in Halebidu during the Hoysala Empire rule in the 12th century by King Vishnuvardhana. The construction was completed in 1121 AD. During the early 14th century, Halebidu was sacked and looted by Muslim invaders from northern India and the temple fell into a state of ruin and neglect. Previously known as Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra, Halebidu is 16 km from Belur, 31 km from Hassan and 149 km from Mysore, in the state of Karnataka, India.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Kings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysaleswara_temple,
  6. Frieze of Parnassus, London, England
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    The Frieze of Parnassus is a large sculpted stone frieze encircling the podium, or base, of the Albert Memorial in London, England. The Albert Memorial was constructed in the 1860’s in memory of Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. The frieze is named after Mount Parnassus, the favorite resting place in Ancient Greek mythology for the muses. It contains 169 life-size full-length sculptures, a mixture of low-relief and high-relief, of individual composers, architects, poets, painters and sculptors from history. The depictions of earlier figures necessarily, were imaginary, although many of the figures were based on materials contained in a collection of artworks and drawings gathered for the purpose of ensuring authentic depictions, where this was possible. The total length of the frieze is approximately 210 feet. The frieze was intended to be the ‘soul’ of the memorial, and the memorial’s designer, George Gilbert Scott, stated that he was inspired by the Hémicycle des Beaux Arts by Hippolyte Delaroche. The memorial was not laid out precisely to directions of the compass, however, closely enough that the sides are referred to by direction. Musicians and poets were placed on the south side, with painters on the east side, sculptors on the west side, and architects on the north side. Henry Hugh Armstead carved the figures on the south and east sides, the painters, musicians and poets (80 in total), and grouped them by national schools. John Birnie Philip carved the figures on the west and north sides, the sculptors and architects (89 named figures, plus two generic figures), and arranged them in chronological order. The carving was executed in situ, and was said by Scott to be “perhaps one of the most laborious works of sculpture ever undertaken.” The initial contracts, agreed around 1864, had specified that the work was to be completed in four years for £7,781 15s. The eventual cost, however, exceeded this by some £2,000 and the work was not finished until 1872. Large groups of figures of eminent persons from the past often decorate public buildings and monuments of the later 19th century, and some buildings such as the Walhalla temple in Bavaria and the Panthéon in Paris were dedicated to this purpose. Many figures of visual artists decorate the Victoria and Albert Museum close to the Albert Memorial at the other end of the “Albertopolis” complex. A mosaic frieze of more generalized figures from the arts runs round the circular Royal Albert Hall adjacent to the memorial. The Parnassus by Raphael (1511), opposite the philosophers of The School of Athens in the Vatican Raphael Rooms, is an earlier group portrait of great artists.
    Links: Top Ten English Attractions, Paintings, Top 100 Musicians, Top 100 Sculptors, Top 100 Architects, Top 100 Poets, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frieze_of_Parnassus,
  7. Belfast City Hall, Ireland
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    Belfast City Hall is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, it faces north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas of the city center.
    Links: Top Ten Irish Attractions, Top Ten Squares, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belfast_City_Hall,
  8. Tower of the Winds, Athens, Greece
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    The Tower of the Winds, also called horologion (timepiece), is an octagonal Pentelic marble clock tower on the Roman agora in Athens. The structure features a combination of sundials, a water clock and a wind vane. It was supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but according to other sources might have been constructed in the 2nd century BC before the rest of the forum.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions, Top Ten Clock Towers, Top Ten Towers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_the_Winds,
  9. Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frieze,