Top Ten Friezes

Top Ten Friezes

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       In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave (‘main beam’) and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous, and perhaps the most elaborate. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels. The material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of an architectural frieze on the façade of a building, the octagonal Tower of the Winds in the Roman agora at Athens bears relief sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze. A pulvinated frieze (or pulvino) is convex in section. Such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture. The concept of a frieze has been generalized in the mathematical construction of frieze patterns.

  1. Parthenon Frieze, Greece
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    The Parthenon frieze is the low relief, pentelic marble sculpture created to adorn the upper part of the Parthenon’s naos. It was sculpted between 443 and 438 BC, most likely under the direction of Pheidias. Of the 524 feet (160 m) of the original frieze, 420 feet (130 m) survives, some 80%. The rest is known only from the drawings made by Flemish artist Jacques Carrey in 1674, thirteen years before the Venetian bombardment that ruined the temple. At present, the majority of the frieze is at the British Museum in London (forming the major part of the Elgin Marbles); the largest proportion of the rest is in Athens, and the remainder of fragments shared between six other institutions. Casts of the frieze may be found in the Beazley archive at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, at the Spurlock Museum in Urbana, in the Skulpturhalle at Basel and elsewhere.
    Links: Top Ten Greek AttractionsTemples, Top Ten Greek Temples, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon_Frieze,
  2. Church of the Madeleine Frieze, Paris, French
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    L’église de la Madeleine is a Roman Catholic church occupying a commanding position in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It was designed in its present form as a temple to the glory of Napoleon’s army. To its south lies the Place de la Concorde, to the east is the Place Vendôme, and to the west L’église Saint-Augustin.
    Links: Top Ten French Attractions, Top Ten Churches, Top Ten European Churches, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_the_Madeleine,
  3. Frieze of Darius’s Palace at Susa
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    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Sphinx Statues,
  4. Walhalla Temple Frieze, Bavaria, Germany
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    The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history, politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue. The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology. It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I. Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze. The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history; the earliest person honored is Arminius, victor at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD).
    Links: Top Ten German Attractions, Top 100 Busts,
  5. Hoysaleswara Temple Frieze, India
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    Hoysaleswara temple is a temple dedicated to Hindu God Shiva. It was built in Halebidu during the Hoysala Empire rule in the 12th century by King Vishnuvardhana. The construction was completed in 1121 AD. During the early 14th century, Halebidu was sacked and looted by Muslim invaders from northern India and the temple fell into a state of ruin and neglect. Previously known as Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra, Halebidu is 16 km from Belur, 31 km from Hassan and 149 km from Mysore, in the state of Karnataka, India.
    Links: Top Ten Indian Attractions, Temples, Top Ten Kings, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoysaleswara_temple,
  6. Frieze of Parnassus, London, England
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    The Frieze of Parnassus is a large sculpted stone frieze encircling the podium, or base, of the Albert Memorial in London, England. The Albert Memorial was constructed in the 1860’s in memory of Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. The frieze is named after Mount Parnassus, the favorite resting place in Ancient Greek mythology for the muses. It contains 169 life-size full-length sculptures, a mixture of low-relief and high-relief, of individual composers, architects, poets, painters and sculptors from history. The depictions of earlier figures necessarily, were imaginary, although many of the figures were based on materials contained in a collection of artworks and drawings gathered for the purpose of ensuring authentic depictions, where this was possible. The total length of the frieze is approximately 210 feet. The frieze was intended to be the ‘soul’ of the memorial, and the memorial’s designer, George Gilbert Scott, stated that he was inspired by the Hémicycle des Beaux Arts by Hippolyte Delaroche. The memorial was not laid out precisely to directions of the compass, however, closely enough that the sides are referred to by direction. Musicians and poets were placed on the south side, with painters on the east side, sculptors on the west side, and architects on the north side. Henry Hugh Armstead carved the figures on the south and east sides, the painters, musicians and poets (80 in total), and grouped them by national schools. John Birnie Philip carved the figures on the west and north sides, the sculptors and architects (89 named figures, plus two generic figures), and arranged them in chronological order. The carving was executed in situ, and was said by Scott to be “perhaps one of the most laborious works of sculpture ever undertaken.” The initial contracts, agreed around 1864, had specified that the work was to be completed in four years for £7,781 15s. The eventual cost, however, exceeded this by some £2,000 and the work was not finished until 1872. Large groups of figures of eminent persons from the past often decorate public buildings and monuments of the later 19th century, and some buildings such as the Walhalla temple in Bavaria and the Panthéon in Paris were dedicated to this purpose. Many figures of visual artists decorate the Victoria and Albert Museum close to the Albert Memorial at the other end of the “Albertopolis” complex. A mosaic frieze of more generalized figures from the arts runs round the circular Royal Albert Hall adjacent to the memorial. The Parnassus by Raphael (1511), opposite the philosophers of The School of Athens in the Vatican Raphael Rooms, is an earlier group portrait of great artists.
    Links: Top Ten English Attractions, Paintings, Top 100 Musicians, Top 100 Sculptors, Top 100 Architects, Top 100 Poets, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frieze_of_Parnassus,
  7. Belfast City Hall, Ireland
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    Belfast City Hall is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. Located in Donegall Square, Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, it faces north and effectively divides the commercial and business areas of the city center.
    Links: Top Ten Irish Attractions, Top Ten Squares, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belfast_City_Hall,
  8. Tower of the Winds, Athens, Greece
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    The Tower of the Winds, also called horologion (timepiece), is an octagonal Pentelic marble clock tower on the Roman agora in Athens. The structure features a combination of sundials, a water clock and a wind vane. It was supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but according to other sources might have been constructed in the 2nd century BC before the rest of the forum.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Attractions, Top Ten Clock Towers, Top Ten Towers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_of_the_Winds,
  9. Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frieze,