Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

Top Ten Middle Eastern Relieves

  1. Sumerian Relief from Nimrod

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief from Nimrod and currently resides in the Louvre.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  2. Relief of Ashurnasirpal with the Tree of Life (883-859 BC)

    This is a relief from the N.W. palace of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) showing anointing of the Tree of Life. A winged god holds what appears to be a pinecone and a pot with the anointing oil. Above the Tree of Life is the royal signet of the god Ashur. The god Ashur is depicted as a man with a bow inside a winged solar disk or as a winged solar disk.
    Links: Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts,  http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  3. Shamash Relief

    The relief on the left is an alabaster relief which can be currently seen at the Louvre. The relief depicts an offering to the god, by Saint-Elme Gautier. The god appears to be Shamash, whose helmet has three sets of horns. The attendant with the sheep appears to be holding the solar disk emblem. The tassle held by the other attendant looks like a poppy. The relief on the right depicts the god Oannes in a fish suit.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  4. Sumerian Gods in Flying Craft Relief

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    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Relieves,
  5. Tablet of Shamash

    This is the Tablet of Shamash. It appears that a solar disk is held by two tassels. At the base of the pillar of the throne is the “lily” seen in the thrones of the kings and Phrygian text XW. The Sun disk is emerging from the “lily” symbol. Note that it is similar to the Egyption akhet, meaning “dawn.” The image represented the daily rebirth of the sun. It is curiously similar to the idols seen at Midas City. The Midas City idols appear to be abstract torsos, rectangles with disks atop.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  6. Relief Depicting the Sun at the Center of our Solar System

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  7. Cylinder Seal of Ashur

    This is a cylinder seal with the solar disk of Ashur, anointing with two eagle-headed gods before the Tree of Life. The blossoms on the tree appear to be pomegranates.
    Links: http://www.maravot.com/Phrygian1b.html,
  8. Naram-Suen’s Victory Over the Lullubi
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  9. Sumerian Relief

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  10. Behistun Inscription and Ahura Mazda Relieves
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           The Behistun Inscription, meaning “the place of god,” is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought 19 battles in a period of one year (ending in December of 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. The inscription states in detail that the rebellions, which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great and his son Cambyses II, were orchestrated by several impostors and their co-conspirators in various cities throughout the empire, each of whom falsely proclaimed kinghood during the upheaval following Cyrus’s death. Darius the Great proclaimed himself victorious in all battles during the period of upheaval, attributing his success to the “grace of Ahura Mazda.” The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian (a later form of Akkadian). In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script. The inscription is approximately 15 m high by 25 m wide and 100 m up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana, respectively). The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and nine one-meter figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was Darius’s beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.
    Links: Top Ten Gods, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahura_Mazda,
  11. Ninurta Relief

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  12. Nimrod Temple Relief depicting Nimrod

    This Assyrian relief of Nimrod located in the Nimrod Temple is a 100 cm in height and 40 cm wide. It was carved on a special type of rock that stores light during the day, which causes it to glow during the night. (Stela of King Ashurnasirpal II, 883 – 859 BC.)
    Links: http://www.assyrian4all.net/akhne/index.php?topic=10496.0,
  13. Adad-Nirari III Relief (811 – 783 BC)

    Adad-nirari III was King of Assyria from 811 to 783 BC. He was the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad V and was apparently quite young at the time of his accession, because for the first five years of his reign his mother Shammuramat acted as regent, which may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis. Adad-nirari’s youth and the struggles his father had faced early in his reign, caused a serious weakening for the Assyrian rulership over Mesopotamia and gave way to the ambitions of the most high officers, the governors and the local rulers.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adad-nirari_III,
  14. Shalmaneser III

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  15. Prosknesis Relief

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  16. Relief of Marduk-apla-iddina II

    Marduk-apla-iddina II (the biblical Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan. lit. Marduk has given me an Heir.) (reigned 722 BC – 710 BC, 703 BC – 702 BC) was a Chaldean prince who usurped the Babylonian throne in 721 BC. Marduk-apla iddina II was also known as one of the brave kings who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade. Sargon of Assyria repressed the allies of Marduk-apla-iddina II in Aram and Israel and eventually drove (710 BC) him from Babylon. After the death of Sargon, Marduk-apla-iddina II recaptured the throne. In the time of his reign over Babylonia, he strengthened the Chaldean Empire. He reigned 9 months (703 BC – 702 BC). He returned from Elam and ignited all the Arameans in Babylonia into rebellion. He was able to enter Babylon and be declared king again. Nine months later he was defeated near Kish, but escaped to Elam with the gods of the south. He died in exile a couple of years later.
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  17. Ishtar

    Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, war, love and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate north-west Semitic goddess Astarte.
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  18. Enki Relief

    Enki is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts, mischief; water, seawater, lakewater, intelligence and creation. Beginning around the second millennium BC, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for “40,” occasionally referred to as his “sacred number.” The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was in Sumerian times, identified with Enki. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times. The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is “Lord of the Earth”: the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to “lord”; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means “earth”; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning “mound.” In Sumerian E-A means “the house of water,” and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the god at Eridu.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki,
  19. Sumerian Relief

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  20. Winged Sumerian Relieves

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  21. Gilgamesh Relieves

    This relieves may depict Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Huwawa and the bull of Heaven respectively.
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  22. Stele of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2,044 – 2,007 BC)

    Ur Nammu Atop the Ziggurat at Ur: “a Tower Unto the Heavens.” Further evidence relates a story of King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (2044 to 2007 BC) on a 5 x10′ stele. He received orders from his god and goddess to build the ziggurat The stele is nearly five feet across and ten feet high. At the top, the king stands in an attitude of prayer. Above his head is the symbol of the moon god Nannar, and to the right are figures of angels with vases from which flow the streams of life (this is the earliest known artistic figures of angels). The panels show the king setting out with compass, pick and trowel, and mortar baskets to begin construction. One panel contains just a single ladder used as the structure was rising. The reverse side depicts a commemorative feast.
    Links: http://kata-aletheia.blogspot.com/2007/12/tower-of-babel-gen-11-and-ancient-near.html,
  23. Relief

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  24. Relieves
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  25. Tammuz

    Tammuz was the Sumerian god of food and vegetation, also worshiped in the later Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar. The Levantine Adonis (“lord”), who was drawn into the Greek pantheon, was considered by Joseph Campbell among others to be another counterpart of Tammuz, son and consort. The Aramaic name “Tammuz” seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian. Tamuzi also is Dumuzid or Dumuzi.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_(deity),
  26. Relief

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  27. Links: Top Ten Relieves,