Top Ten Ancient Libraries

Top Ten Ancient Libraries

  1. Hall of Records, Egypt

           Located under the Sphinx, the hall of records contains traces of a Pre Egyptian society, that lived…, …May contain clues to the Atlantean society. The Hall of Records is a library buried under the Great Sphinx of Giza, which is in the Giza pyramid complex. It is rumored to house the knowledge of the Egyptians by papyrus scrolls, much as the Great Library of Alexandria housed Grecian knowledge. According to some, the Hall was not the work of Ancient Egyptians at all but another society (this has ranged from advanced prehistoric societies to a superior race of intelligent beings). Accordingly, this society sealed the Hall away with scrolls of their accumulated knowledge at about 10,500 BC, the last period of time when the constellation of Leo was located between the Sphinx’s paws when it rose in the night sky. Also of note, following Egdar’s Cayce’s remote viewings of the Egyptian Hall of Records, there are two other Halls of records rumored; one in or around Bimini, and another in the Yucatán jungle, most likely the ruins of Piedras Negras.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hall_of_Records,
  2. Library of Alexandria

           The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was probably the largest, and certainly the most famous, of the libraries of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and functioned as a major center of scholarship, at least until the time of Rome’s conquest of Egypt and probably for many centuries thereafter. Alexander, although picking the site and planning the general layout of the city, died before he could take part in the construction of the library or academy that was created in his name. nerally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the third century BC, the library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II. Plutarch (AD 46–120) wrote that during his visit to Alexandria in 48 BC, Julius Caesar might have accidentally burned the library when he set fire to his own ships to frustrate Achillas’ attempt to limit his ability to communicate by sea. According to Plutarch’s account, this fire spread to the docks and then to the library.
    Links: Top Ten Greek Philosophers, Top Ten Greek Artifacts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria,
  3. Library of Ashurbanipal in Ninevah

           One of the greatest discoveries of Mesopotamia, the Library of Ashurbanipal in Ninevah contained more than 25,000 clay tablets arranged by subject, that covered everything from epic tales to astrological forecasts. Named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the catalogued library contained texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC. Among its holdings was the famous Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the sloppy handling of the original material much of the library is irreparably jumbled, making it impossible for scholars to discern and reconstruct many of the original texts, although some have survived intact. The materials were found in the archaeological site of Kouyunjik (then ancient Nineveh, capital of Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia.
    Links: Top Ten Assyrian Artifacts, Top Ten Ancient Middle Eastern Textshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Ashurbanipal,
  4. Library of Celsus

           The library of Celsus, in Ephesus, Asia Minor (Anatolia, now Turkey), was built in honor of Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (completed in 135 AD) by Celsus’ son, Gaius Julius Aquila (consul, 110 AD). Celsus had been consul in 92 AD, governor of Asia in 115 AD, and a wealthy and popular local citizen. The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. It was unusual to be buried within a library or even within city limits, so this was a special honor for Celsus.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Celsus,
  5. Library of Pergamon (3rd Century BC)

           The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world. Pergamum is credited with being the home and namesake of parchment (charta pergamena). Prior to the creation of parchment, manuscripts were transcribed on papyrus, which was produced only in Alexandria. When the Ptolemies of Egypt refused to export any more papyrus to Pergamum, King Eumenes II commanded that an alternative source be found. This led to the production of parchment, which is made out of a thin sheet of sheep or goat skin. Parchment reduced the Roman Empire’s dependency on Egyptian papyrus and allowed for the increased dissemination of knowledge throughout Europe and Asia. The introduction of parchment also greatly expanded the holdings of the Library of Pergamum.
    Links: Top Ten Turkish Attractions,
  6. Ebla Library

           The archives and texts at Ebla, 2,500 BC to the destruction of the city 2,250 BC, constitute the oldest organized library yet discovered.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebla_tablets,
  7. Forum Libraries of Rome

           The forum libraries of Rome date to the reign of Caesar Augustus and contained separate libraries, which housed both Greek and Latin texts.
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  8. House of Wisdom Library of Academy of Gundishapur (3rdCentury AD)
    The Academy of Gundishapur, also Jondishapur, was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty was versed not only in the Zoroastrian and Persian traditions, but in Greek and Indian learning as well. According to The Cambridge History of Iran, it was the most important medical center of the ancient world (defined as Europe, the Mediterranean and the Near East) during the 6
    th and 7th centuries.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_of_Gundishapur,
  9. Royal Library of Hattusas

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  10. Library of HarranDescription:
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  11. The Libraries of Ugarit (1,200 BC)       In present day Syria – diplomatic and literary works, as well as the earliest privately owned libraries yet found. Some of the oldest written copies of an alphabet come from Ugarit.
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  12. Nag Hammadi LibraryDescription:
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  13. Bonus: Metallic Library of Ecuador or Bolivia??Description:
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  14. Bonus: Rumored Library on the Moon

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  15. Bonus: Caesarea Maritima (3rdCentury AD)       Located in present day Israel, the Caesarea Maritima, a theological school under Origen of Alexandria, may have housed the largest ecclesiastical library of the day with more than 30,000 manuscripts.
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  16. Bonus: Library of Constantinople (330 AD)       Destroyed by the Third Crusade, thought to be the last vestige of texts of Antiquity.
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  17. Bonus: Villa of the Papyri (1stCentury AD)       Herculaneum near Pompeii, buried by the volcanic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. The only “surviving” library of ancient papyrus from the ancient world. Thought to have belonged to Julius Caesars father in Law. The upper story of the villa that has been excavated contained 1,800 carbonized scrolls that are now being deciphered. More scrolls may exist below this.
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  18. Bonus: Desert Library of Timbuktu       Timbuktu a remote city in Mali on the edge of the Sahara Desert is thought to have once housed the first University in the world. It was a significant cultural, religious and merchant centre that traded with Europe, Asia and Africa. Its education of Islamic scholars became renown throughout the world. Many manuscripts still exist today from many varied topics of human endeavor.
    Links: Top Ten Malian Attractions,
  19. Links: Top Ten Libraries, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_libraries_of_the_ancient_world, http://historicconnections.webs.com/historyofwriting.htm,

Enlightening Works of Literary Revelation