Top Ten Wonders of Space

Top Ten Wonders of Space

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       Space, the next frontier, is a very mysterious, beautiful and at times overwhelming place in which we have come to exist.

  1. Energetic Unity (God, Godhead, Oneness, Brahma, Yahweh, Allah, etc.)
    OnenessOneness1Oneness2Oneness3
    Everyone’s opinion of the oneness of all things is unique to their particular journey and as such is one of the most wonderful aspects of our collective experience.
    Links: Spiritual Teachers, Top 100 Spiritual Teachers, Top Ten Personifications of God,
  2. Consciousness (Inner Space)
    ConsciousnessConsciousness1Consciousness2Consciousness3Consciousness4
           Consciousness is a term that has been used to refer to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts. It has been defined, at one time or another, as: subjective experience; awareness; the ability to experience feelings; wakefulness; having a sense of selfhood; or as the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty of definition, many philosophers believe that there is a basic underlying intuition about consciousness that is shared by nearly all people. As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: “Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives.” In philosophy, consciousness is often said to imply four characteristics: subjectivity, change, continuity, and selectivity. Philosopher Franz Brentano has also suggested intentionality or aboutness (that consciousness is about something); however, there is no consensus on whether intentionality is a requirement for consciousness. Issues of practical concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether consciousness can ever be explained mechanistically; whether non-human consciousness exists and if so how it can be recognized; at what point in fetal development consciousness begins; and whether it may ever be possible for computers to achieve a conscious state. At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists and considered within the domain of philosophers and theologians, but in recent years it has been an increasingly significant topic of scientific research. In psychology and neuroscience, the focus of most research is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness, that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blindsight, denial of impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by psychoactive drugs or spiritual or meditative techniques.
    Links: Spiritual Teachers, Top 100 Spiritual Teachers, Buddhists, The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and Om, Alex Gray Paintings,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness,
  3. Infinity

           Infinity is a concept in many fields, most predominantly mathematics and physics, that refers to a quantity without bound or end. People have developed various ideas throughout history about the nature of infinity. The word comes from the Latin infinitas or “unboundedness.” In mathematics, “infinity” is often treated as if it were a number (i.e., it counts or measures things: “an infinite number of terms”) but it is not the same sort of number as the real numbers. In number systems incorporating infinitesimals, the reciprocal of an infinitesimal is an infinite number, i.e. a number greater than any real number. Georg Cantor formalized many ideas related to infinity and infinite sets during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the theory he developed, there are infinite sets of different sizes (called cardinalities). For example, the set of integers is countably infinite, while the set of real numbers is uncountably infinite.
    Links: Top Ten Mathematicians, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinity,
  4. Multiple Dimensions (Parallel Dimensions)

           In physics, three dimensions of space and one of time is the accepted norm. There are theories that try to unify different forces and such—these theories require more dimensions. Superstring theory, M-theory and Bosonic string theory respectively posit that physical space has 10, 11 and 26 dimensions. These extra dimensions are said to be spatial. However, we perceive only three spatial dimensions and, to date, no experimental or observational evidence is available to confirm the existence of these extra dimensions. A possible explanation that has been suggested is that space acts as if it were “curled up” in the extra dimensions on a subatomic scale, possibly at the quark/string level of scale or below. An analysis of results from the Large Hadron Collider in December 2010 severely constrains theories with large extra dimensions. Other physical theories that have introduced extra dimensions of space are: Kaluza–Klein theory introduces extra dimensions to explain the fundamental forces other than gravity (originally only electromagnetism); Large extra dimension and the Randall–Sundrum model attempt to explain the weakness of gravity. This is also a feature of brane cosmology; and Universal extra dimension.
    Links: Top Ten Scientific Theories, Top 100 Scientistshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimensionality#Additional_dimensions,
  5. Anti-Matter
    Anti-Matter
           In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. For example, an antielectron (a positron, an electron with a positive charge) and an antiproton (a proton with a negative charge) could form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom. Furthermore, mixing matter and antimatter would lead to the annihilation of both in the same way that mixing antiparticles and particles does, thus giving rise to high-energy photons (gamma rays) or other particle–antiparticle pairs. There is considerable speculation as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, whether there exists other places that are almost entirely antimatter instead and what might be possible if antimatter could be harnessed, but at this time the apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. The process by which this asymmetry between particles and antiparticles developed is called baryogenesis.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimatter,
  6. Exoplanets/Extraterrestrial Life
    ExoplanetsExtraterrestrial LifeExoplanetsExtraterrestrial Life1ExoplanetsExtraterrestrial Life2
           An exoplanet is a planet beyond our Solar System, orbiting a star other than our Sun. So far we have discovered 353 exoplanets with new discoveries happening each year. Currently Gliese 581 d, the fourth planet of the red dwarf star Gliese 581 (approximately 20 light years from Earth), appears to be the best example yet discovered of a possible terrestrial exoplanet that orbits within the habitable zone surrounding its star.
    Links: ET’s, Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Top Ten Exoplanets, Top Ten Exoplanets Believed to be Inhabited, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exoplanets,
  7. Black Holes
    Schwarzschild black hole
           A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. The hole is called “black” because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit radiation like a black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or greater. Objects whose gravity fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality. Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses may form. There is general consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies. Astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems, and established that the core of our Milky Way galaxy contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses.
    Links: Top Ten Black Holeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole,
  8. Dark Matter
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            In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is hypothetical matter that is undetectable by its emitted radiation, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. Dark matter is postulated to explain the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and other evidence of “missing mass” in the universe. According to present observations of structures larger than galaxies, as well as Big Bang cosmology, dark matter and dark energy account for the vast majority of the mass in the observable universe. The observed phenomena which imply the presence of dark matter include the rotational speeds of galaxies, orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters, gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster, and the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Dark matter also plays a central role in structure formation and galaxy evolution, and has measurable effects on the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. All these lines of evidence suggest that galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and the universe as a whole contain far more matter than that which interacts with electromagnetic radiation: the remainder is frequently called the “dark matter component,” even though there is a small amount of baryonic dark matter.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter,
  9. Galactic Cannibalism
    Galactic CannibalismGalactic Cannibalism1
            Galactic cannibalism refers to the process by which a large galaxy, through tidal gravitational interactions with a companion, merges with that companion, resulting in a larger, often irregular galaxy. The most common result of the gravitational merger of two or more galaxies is an irregular galaxy of one form or another, although elliptical galaxies may also result. It has been suggested that galactic cannibalism is currently occurring between the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Streams of gravitationally-attracted hydrogen arcing from these dwarf galaxies to the Milky Way is taken as evidence for this theory. Colliding galaxies are common in galaxy evolution. Due to the extremely tenuous distribution of matter in galaxies, these are not collisions in the normal sense of the word, but rather gravitational interaction. Colliding may lead to merging. This occurs when two galaxies collide and do not have enough momentum to continue traveling after the collision. Instead, they fall back into each other and eventually merge after many passes through each other, forming one galaxy. If one of the colliding galaxies is much larger than the other, it will remain largely intact after the merger; that is, the larger galaxy will look much the same while the smaller galaxy will be stripped apart and become part of the larger galaxy. Through-passes are less disruptive of galaxy shapes than mergers in that both galaxies largely retain their material and shape after the pass.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, Top Ten Galaxy Clustershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galactic_cannibalism,
  10. Quasars

           A quasi-stellar radio source (quasar) is a powerfully energetic and distant galaxy with an active galactic nucleus. Quasars were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than extended sources similar to galaxies. While there was initially some controversy over the nature of these objects, as recently as the early 1980s, there was no clear consensus as to their nature, there is now a scientific consensus that a quasar is a compact region 10-10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius of the central super massive black hole of a galaxy, powered by its accretion disc.
    Links: Sacred Geometry, Top Ten Quasarshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quasars,
  11. Gravitational Waves
    Gravitational WavesGravitational Waves1
           In physics, a gravitational wave is a fluctuation in the curvature of spacetime which propagates as a wave, traveling outward from the source. Predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the waves transport energy known as gravitational radiation. Sources of gravitational waves include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes. Although gravitational radiation has not yet been directly detected, it has been indirectly shown to exist. This was the basis for the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for measurements of the Hulse-Taylor binary system. Various gravitational wave detectors exist.
    Links: Top Ten Antigravity Craft, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_wave,
  12. Vacuum Energy
    Vacuum Energy
           Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when devoid of matter (known as free space). The vacuum energy is deduced from the concept of virtual particles, which are themselves derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle. Its effects can be observed in various phenomena (such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect, the van der Waals bonds, or the Lamb shift), and it is thought to have consequences for the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_energy,
  13. Mini-Black Holes
    Mini-Black Holes
           Micro black holes are tiny hypothetical black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role. It is possible that such quantum primordial black holes were created in the high-density environment of the early universe (or big bang), or possibly through subsequent phase transitions. They might be observed by astrophysicists in the near future, through the particles they are expected to emit by Hawking radiation. Some theories involving additional space dimensions predict that micro black holes could be formed at an energy as low as the TeV range, which will be available in particle accelerators such as the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Popular concerns have then been raised over end-of-the-world scenarios. However, such quantum black holes would instantly evaporate, either totally or leaving only a very weakly interacting residue. Beside the theoretical arguments, we can notice that the cosmic rays bombarding the Earth do not produce any damage, although they reach center of mass energies in the range of hundreds of TeV.
    Links: Top Ten Back Holes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_black_holes,
  14. Neutrinos
    Neutrinos
           Neutrinos are elementary particles that often travel close to the speed of light, lack an electric charge, are able to pass through ordinary matter almost undisturbed and are thus extremely difficult to detect. Neutrinos have a minuscule, but nonzero mass. Neutrinos are created as a result of certain types of radioactive decay or nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the Sun, in nuclear reactors, or when cosmic rays hit atoms. There are three types, or “flavors,” of neutrinos: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos; each type also has an antimatter partner, called an antineutrino. Electron neutrinos or antineutrinos are generated whenever neutrons change into protons or vice versa, the two forms of beta decay. Interactions involving neutrinos are generally mediated by the weak force. Most neutrinos passing through the Earth emanate from the Sun, and more than 50 trillion solar electron neutrinos pass through the human body every second.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrinos,
  15. Cosmic Microwave Background
    Cosmic Microwave Background
           Outer Space as we commonly think of it is filled with a cosmic microwave background, which is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the universe. The CMB’s discovery in 1964 by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940’s, and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. The CMBR is well explained by the Big Bang model – when the universe was young, before the formation of stars and planets, it was smaller, much hotter, and filled with a uniform glow from its white-hot fog of hydrogen plasma. According to the model, the radiation from the sky we measure today comes from a spherical surface called the surface of last scattering. As the universe expanded, both the plasma and the radiation filling it grew cooler. When the universe cooled enough, stable atoms could form. These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog. The photons that were around at that time have been propagating ever since, though growing fainter and less energetic, since the exact same photons fill a larger and larger universe. This is the source for the term relic radiation, another name for the CMBR.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation,
  16. Monuments and Structures on Mars
    Monuments and Structures on MarsMonuments and Structures on Mars1Monuments and Structures on Mars2
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    Links: Top Ten Destinations on Mars, Top Ten Chrononauts,
  17. Links: The Universe, Top Ten Mysteries of Space, Top Ten Natural Wonders of the World, Top Ten Ancient Wonders, Top Ten Medieval Wonders, Top Ten Modern Wonders,

To Infinity and Beyond!