Adventurers and Explorers

Adventurers and Explorers


Top Ten Pirates

Top Ten Pirates

  1. Captain James Misson

    Misson was French, born in Provence, and it was while in Rome on leave from the French warship Victoire that he lost his faith, disgusted by the decadence of the Papal Court. In Rome he ran into Caraccioli, a “lewd Priest” who over the course of long voyages with little to do but talk, gradually converted Misson and a sizeable portion of the rest of the crew to his way of thinking: “…he fell upon Government, and shew’d, that every Man was born free, and had as much Right to what would support him, as to the Air he respired…that the vast Difference betwixt Man and Man, the one wallowing in Luxury, and the other in the most pinching Necessity, was owing only to Avarice and Ambition on the one Hand, and a pusillanimous Subjection on the other.” Embarking on a career of piracy, the 200 strong crew of the Victoire called upon Misson to be their captain. They shared the wealth of the ship, deciding “all should be in common.” All decisions were to be put to “the Vote of the whole Company.” Thus they set out on their new “Life of Liberty.” Off the west coast of Africa they captured a Dutch slave ship. The slaves were freed and brought aboard the Victoire, Misson declaring that “the Trading for those of our own Species, cou’d never be agreeable to the Eyes of divine Justice: That no Man had Power of Liberty of another” and that “he had not exempted his Neck from the galling Yoak of Slavery, and asserted his own Liberty, to enslave others.” At every engagement they added to their numbers with new French, English and Dutch recruits, and freed African slaves. While cruising round the coast of Madagascar, Misson found a perfect bay in an area with fertile soil, fresh water and friendly natives. Here the pirates built Libertalia, renouncing their titles of English, French, Dutch or African and calling themselves Liberi. They created their own language, a polyglot mixture of African languages, combined with French, English, Dutch, Portuguese and native Madagascan. Shortly after the beginning of building work on the colony of Libertalia, the Victoire ran into the pirate Thomas Tew, who decided to accompany them back to Libertalia. Such a colony was no new idea to Tew; he had lost his quartermaster and 23 of his crew when they had left to form a settlement further up the Madagascan coast. The Liberi, “Enemies to Slavery,” aimed to boost their numbers by capturing another slave ship. Off the coast of Angola, Tew’s crew took an English slave ship with 240 men, women and children below decks. The African members of the pirate crew discovered many friends and relatives among the enslaved and struck off their fetters and handcuffs, regaling them with the glories of their new life of liberty. The pirates settled down to become farmers, holding the land in common, “no Hedge bounded any particular Man’s Property.” Prizes and money taken at sea were “carry’d into the common Treasury, Money being of no Use where every Thing was in common.” Captain William Kidd is said to have visited in 1697 to undertake repairs to his ship, and to have lost half his crew to Libertatia.
  2. Blackbeard aka Edward Teach (1680 – 1718)

    Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate in the Caribbean Sea during the early 18th century, a period of time referred to as the Golden Age of Piracy. His best known vessel was the Queen Anne’s Revenge, which is believed to have run aground near Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina in 1718. Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself, wearing a big feathered tricorn, and having multiple swords, knives, and pistols at his disposal. It was reported in the General History of the Pirates that he had hemp and lighted matches woven into his enormous black beard during battle. Accounts of people who saw him fighting say that they thought he “looked like the devil” with his fearsome face and the smoke cloud around his head. This image, which he cultivated, has made him the premier image of the seafaring pirate. Blackbeard would plunder merchant ships, forcing them to allow his crew to board their ship. The pirates would seize all of the valuables, food, liquor, and weapons. Ironically, despite his ferocious reputation, there are no verified accounts of him actually killing anyone. He generally prevailed by fear alone. Despite being pardoned, a group of men went after him in order to win a £100 bounty. Teach was reportedly shot five times and stabbed more than twenty times before he died and was decapitated. Legends about his death immediately sprang up, including the oft-repeated claim that Teach’s headless body, after being thrown overboard, swam between 2 and 7 times around the Adventure before sinking.
    Links: Top 100 Flags,
  3. Henry Morgan (1635 – 1688)

    Morgan was a Welsh privateer, who made a name in the Caribbean as a leader of buccaneers. He was among England’s most notorious and successful privateers. In 1667, Morgan was commissioned to capture some Spanish prisoners in Cuba in order to discover details of the threatened attack on Jamaica. Collecting ten ships with five hundred men, Morgan landed on the island and captured and sacked Puerto Principe, then went on to take the fortified and well-garrisoned town of Portobelo, Panama. It is said that Morgan’s men used captured Jesuits as human shields in taking the third, most difficult fortress. He recaptured the island of Santa Catalina on December 15, 1670, and on December 27, he gained possession of the castle of Chagres, killing three hundred of the garrison. Then with one thousand four hundred men he ascended the Chagres River, some of the worst swampland in the area. When his force finally appeared outside of Panama they were very weakened and tired. Morgan had lived in an opportune time for pirates. He was successfully able to use the conflicts between England and her enemies both to support England and to enrich himself and his crews. With his death, the pirates that would follow would also use this same ploy, but with less successful results. He also was one of the few pirates who was able to retire from his piracy, having had great success, and with little legal retribution.
  4. Edward Lowe (Late 1600’s – 1723 or 1724)

    Edward Lowe was born in Westminster, London, England. As he grew older, Lowe tired of pickpocketing and thievery, and left England for Boston. At first he worked honestly as a rigger, but in May 1722 he joined a gang of men on a sloop headed for Honduras, where they planned to steal a shipment of logs for resale in Boston. Following a failed mutiny, however, Lowe and his friends were forced to leave the boat. A day later, Lowe led the gang in taking over a small sloop, and officially turned pirate determined “to go in her, make a black Flag and declare War against all the World.” Lowe was a success as a pirate. In one early notable raid, he attacked 13 New England fishing vessels sheltering at anchor in Port Roseway. As Lowe’s success increased in the Caribbean, so did his notoriety. After heading to the Azores, Lowe became particularly noted for his brutality and sadism, which included acts such as cutting off a victim’s lips, cooking them, and forcing the victim to eat them. There are two conflicting stories about his death: One states that Edward Lowe and his ship, the Fancy, were last sighted in July 1723, near the Canaries and Guinea, and it is believed his boat sank in a storm, with the loss of all hands. A second states that Lowe was sent adrift by his own crew, and was rescued by a French ship who tried and hanged him in 1724 after learning his identity.
  5. Thomas Tew (? – 1695)

    Born in England, Tew’s family moved to Rhode Island when he was a youth. Although he embarked on only two major piratical voyages, and met a bloody death on the latter journey, Tew pioneered the route which became known as the Pirate Round. Many other famous pirates, including Henry Every and William Kidd, would follow in Tew’s path. Tew first attach was in the Red Sea, where he ran down a large ship en route from India to the Ottoman Empire, some time in late 1693. Despite its enormous garrison of 300 soldiers, the Indian ship surrendered without serious resistance, inflicting no casualties on the assailants. Tew’s pirates helped themselves to the ship’s rich treasure, worth £100,000 in gold and silver alone, not counting the value of the ivory, spices, jewels and silk taken. In September, 1695, a 25-ship Mughal convoy approached the Mandab Strait, slipping past the pirates during the night. Tew and his fellow pirates pursued. The Amity overtook one of the Mughal ships, believed to be the Fateh Muhammed, and attacked it. Tew was killed in this battle, reportedly disemboweled by a cannon shot. Thomas Tew’s sea chest is the only known sea chest with its origins leading back to a pirate, and can be seen in Pirate Soul Museum, a pirate themed museum in the Florida Keys.
  6. Calico Jack (1682 – 1720)

    John Rackham (Calico Jack) is remembered for employing two of the most notorious female pirates of his time, Anne Bonny and Mary Read, in his crew. He and most of his crew were executed in Jamaica. Jack became captain when the crew of the ship of Charles Vane mutinied. On the day that he was made captain, he plundered several small vessels, earning him a good reputation with the crew. Once, while drinking in a local tavern, he met a woman named Anne Bonny. He decided to court her and eventually asked if she would like to come along pirating with them. She agreed and dressed as a man so the crew would take little notice in her. One day, they raided a small merchant vessel near the West Indies. Most of the crew had been killed and they had one man cornered. They asked if the man would join their crew rather than be run through with a cutlass, an offer to which he agreed. Bonny befriended the young man and became his constant companion, igniting Rackham’s jealousy. He confronted the man, who admitted to being a woman in disguise. The new sailor was, in fact, Mary Read. Governor Woodes Rogers had learned Rackham had stolen an anchored ship in Nassau harbor. He sent two large ships with 45 men to find the thief. Captain Johnathan Barnet caught up with the stolen ship. Rackham immediately set sail trying to escape. When the pursuers caught up with them, most of the pirates took cover below deck but Bonny and Read fought on. It was a hopeless fight and they were captured. Rackham and 11 members of his crew were sentenced to death. Bonny and Read, both pregnant, were jailed.
  7. Bartholomew Roberts (1682 – 1722)

    Born John Roberts, Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. He was the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, capturing far more ships than some of the best-known pirates of this era such as Blackbeard or Captain Kidd. His first act as a pirate captain was to lead his crew to Príncipe to avenge the death of his old captain Howell Davis. Roberts and his crew sprang onto the island in the darkness of night, killed a large portion of the male population, and stole all items of value that they could carry away. Soon afterwards he captured a Dutch Guineaman, then two days later an English ship called the Experiment. Roberts was the archetypal pirate captain in his love of fine clothing and jewelry, but had some traits unusual in a pirate, notably a preference for drinking tea rather than rum. Black Bart was not as cruel to prisoners as some pirates, such as Edward Lowe, but did not treat them as well as did Howell Davis or Edward England. Captain Roberts was killed by grapeshot cannon fire, which struck him in the throat, while he stood on the deck. Before his body could be captured by Ogle, Roberts’ wish to be buried at sea was fulfilled by his crew, who weighted his body down and threw his body overboard after being tied in his ship’s sail. It was never found. Some consider his death to mark the end of the Golden Age of Piracy.
  8. William Kid (1645 – 1701)

    William “Captain” Kidd is best remembered for his trial and execution for piracy after returning from a voyage to the Indian Ocean. Some modern historians deem his piratical reputation unjust, as there is evidence that Kidd acted only as a privateer. His fame springs largely from the sensational circumstances of his questioning before the English Parliament and ensuing trial. Kidd started out as a privateer, but after a series of unfortunate events he became a wanted pirate. On January 30, 1698, he raised French colors and took his greatest prize, an Armenian ship, the 400 ton Quedah Merchant, which was loaded with satins, muslins, gold, silver, an incredible variety of East Indian merchandise, as well as extremely valuable silks. With the loyal remnant of his crew, he returned home aboard the Adventure Prize. Bellomont, an investor, lured Kidd into Boston with false promises of clemency, then ordered him arrested on July 6, 1699. Kidd was placed in Stone Prison, spending most of the time in solitary confinement. His wife, Sarah, was also imprisoned. The conditions of Kidd’s imprisonment were extremely harsh, and appear to have driven him at least temporarily insane. He was moved to London and tried without representation and was shocked to learn at trial that he was charged with murder. He was found guilty on all charges (murder and five counts of piracy) and was hanged on May 23, 1701, at ‘Execution Dock’, Wapping, in London.
  9. Edward England (? – 1720)

    Edward England, born Edward Seegar in Ireland, was a famous African coast and Indian Ocean pirate from 1717 to 1720. The ships he sailed on included the Pearl and later the Fancy, for which England exchanged the Pearl in 1720. His flag was the classic Jolly Roger with a skull above two crossed thigh bones on a black background. He differed from many other pirates of his day in that he did not kill captives unless it was absolutely necessary. However, this ultimately led to his downfall, for his crew mutinied against him when he refused to kill sailors from the Cassandra, an English trading ship, captained by James Macrae. He was subsequently marooned on Mauritius with two other crew members, where they fashioned a small raft and made it to St. Augustine’s Bay in Madagascar. England survived for a short while by begging for food and died around the end of 1720.
  10. Benjamin Hornigold
    Captain Benjamin Hornigold (died 1719) was an 18th-century English pirate. His career lasted from 1715 to 1718, after which he turned into a pirate hunter and pursued his former allies on behalf of the Governor of the Bahamas. He was killed when his ship was wrecked on a reef during the 1719 hurricane season.
  11. Stede Bonnet (1688 – 1718)

           Stede Bonnet was an early 18th century English pirate, sometimes called the “the gentleman pirate”, since he had lived as a moderately wealthy landowner before turning to a life of crime. In the summer of 1717, with no prior shipboard life, he decided to become a pirate. He bought a sailing vessel, named it Revenge, and traveled with his crew along the American eastern seaboard, capturing other vessels and burning down Barbadian ships. He set sail forNassau, but en route, he was seriously wounded in an encounter with a Spanish warship. Bonnet met the infamous pirate Blackbeard inNassau. Incapacitated to lead his crew, he temporarily ceded his ship’s command to Blackbeard. Before separating in December 1717, Blackbeard and Bonnet plundered and captured merchant ships along the East Coast. In August 1718, Bonnet anchored his ship on an estuary of theCape Fear River to repair and careen the ship. In late August-September, Colonel William Rhett, with the authorization ofSouth Carolina governor Robert Johnson, led a naval expedition against pirates on the river. Bonnet was brought to trial and charged with two acts of piracy. He was found guilty and hanged inCharleston on December 10, 1718.
  12. Bonus: Jack Rackham
    John Rackham (21 December 1682 – 18 November 1720), commonly known as Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain operating in the Bahamas during the early 18th century (Rackham is often spelled as Rackam or Rackum in historical documentation). His nickname was derived from the calico clothing he wore. Active towards the end (1717–1720) of the “golden age of piracy” (1690–1730) Rackham is most remembered for two things: the design of his Jolly Roger flag, a skull with crossed swords, which contributed to the popularization of the design, and for having two female crew members (Mary Read and Rackham’s lover Anne Bonny). After deposing Charles Vane from his captaincy, Rackham cruised the Leeward Islands, Jamaica Channel and Windward Passage. He accepted a pardon some time in 1719 and moved to New Providence where he met Anne Bonny, who was married to James Bonny. When Rackham returned to piracy in 1720, by stealing a British sloop, Bonny joined him. Their new crew included Mary Read. After a short run he was captured by pirate hunter Jonathan Barnet in 1720, before being hanged in November of the same year in Port Royale, Jamaica.
  13. Henry Every (1653 – Disappeared 1696)

           Henry Every or Avery was a pirate whose aliases included John Avary, Long Ben, and Benjamin Bridgeman. He is most famous for being apparently one of the few major pirate captains to retire with his loot without being arrested or killed in battle. Every was a sailor from youth, serving on various Royal Navy ships. Accounts of uncertain veracity place him aboard the English fleet bombarding Algiers in 1671, buccaneering in the Caribbean Sea, and captaining a logwood freighter. By the early 1690s he had entered the Atlantic slave trade, in which he was known to buy slaves on the West African coast, then seize the slave traders themselves and chain them in his ship’s hold alongside their former captives. Every only made one voyage in his capacity as a pirate captain. But in that single journey he succeeded in committing, as Fraser puts it, “the single richest crime in history.” In August, 1694, Every and this ship, the Fancy, reached the Mandab Strait, where he teamed up with four other pirate ships, including Thomas Tew’s sloop Amity. Every and his men attacked the Fateh Muhammed, which had earlier repulsed an attack by the Amity, killing Captain Tew. Perhaps intimidated by the Fancy’s 46 guns or weakened by their earlier battle with Tew, the Fateh Muhammed’s crew put up little resistance, and Every’s pirates sacked the ship for £50,000 worth of treasure. Every then sailed in pursuit of the Ganj-I-Sawai, overtaking her about eight days out of Surat. After a violent battle, Every took the ship. The loot from the Ganj-I-Sawai totalled between £325,000 and £600,000, including 500,000 gold and silver pieces. Unable to buy a pardon from the governor of Jamaica, Every’s crew split up, some heading to North America, while the majority, including Every, returned to Britain aboard the sloop Isaac, landing in Ireland. Although 24 of his men were caught, many soon after disembarking, Every was never seen again. His last words to his men were a litany of conflicting stories of where he planned to go, doubtless intended to throw pursuers off his trail.
  14. Bonus: Anne Bonny
    File:Bonney, Anne (1697-1720).jpg
    Anne Bonny (8 March 1702 – 22 April 1782) was an Irish woman who became a famous female pirate, operating in the Caribbean. What little is known of her life comes largely from A General History of the Pyrates.
  15. Bonus: Mary Read
    File:Mary Read killing her antagonist cph.3a00980.jpg
    Mary Read (died 1721) was an English pirate. She is chiefly remembered as one of only two women (her comrade, Anne Bonny, was the other) known to have been convicted of piracy during the early 18th century, at the height of the Golden Age of Piracy.
  16. Links: Top Ten Pirate Films, Top Ten Rums,

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Top Ten Modern Adventurers

Top Ten Modern Adventurers

  1. Chrononauts (Andrew D. Basiago, William Stillings) (*unacknowledged)

           Andrew Basiago claims to have been involved in an Above Top Secret government project known as Project Pegasus, which worked with teleportation portals
    Links: Top Ten Chrononauts,
  2. Astronauts (+Unacknoldeged Space Explorers)
          Dedicated to all those who have ventured into the universe.
    Links: Top Ten Spacecraft, Top Ten UFO Photos, Top Ten Hubble Telescope Photos, Top Ten Led Zeppelin Songs,
  3. Sir Ranulph Fiennes

    Sir Ranulph Fiennes gained notoriety in 1979, when he and two colleagues undertook a journey around the world on its polar axis using only surface transportation. The Transglobe Expedition took three years to complete and resulted in the three men becoming the first people ever to accomplish this feat. In 1984, the Guinness Book of World Records named Fiennes the greatest living adventurer. Not one to rest on his laurels, he continued his intrepid life, crossing Antarctica and discovering the lost city of Ubar in Oman, which had been buried in sand for nearly 2,000 years. In 2003, Fiennes completed seven marathons in seven days on seven continents. Most astounding is that he did so despite having just undergone heart bypass surgery a few months before. On May 20, 2009, 65-year-old Fiennes became the oldest Briton to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
    Links: Top Ten Omani Attractions, Top Ten Marathons,
    Products: Living Dangerously (Book),
  4. Mike Horn

    In 1999, South African modern adventurer Mike Horn set out to circumnavigate the globe along the equator without the use of motorized vehicles. The Latitude Zero expedition began in Gabon, from which Horn crossed the Atlantic Ocean in an eight-meter trimaran. He traversed South America on foot and Africa by mountain bike. Since completing the Latitude Zero expedition, Horn has reached the North Pole on foot and climbed two 8,000-meter peaks. He is currently leading the Pangaea Expedition, a four-year youth expedition around the world intended to promote environmental protection and the conservation of natural resources.
  5. Bertrand Piccard

    Bertrand Piccard comes from a science and exploration dynasty. His grandfather explored the upper atmosphere in a pressurized cabin of his own design, and his father was a deep sea explorer. It’s no wonder Piccard has made a name for himself as a scientist and adventurer. In 1999, he gained notoriety when he and a colleague became the first to fly a balloon nonstop around the world. The journey has been called “the last great adventure of the 20th century.” Piccard is currently developing the Solar Impulse, an unmanned solar-powered, ultra-light plane, which is intended to circumnavigate the world in 2011.
  6. Philippe Petit

           Philippe Petit (born 13 August 1949) is a French high-wire artist who gained fame for his high-wire walk between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, New York, on 7 August 1974. For his feat (that he referred to as “le coup”), he used a 450-pound (200-kilogram) cable and a custom-made 26-foot (8 m) long, 55-pound (25-kilogram) balancing pole.
    Links: Top 100 Films, Top Ten DocumentariesTop Ten Towers,
  7. Ed Viesturs

    Ed Viesturs, a high-altitude mountaineer, isn’t afraid to not make a summit. In his first attempt to climb Mount Everest, he turned around just 300 feet short of the top because conditions weren’t ideal. Viesturs has a motto: “Getting to the top is optional, getting to the bottom is mandatory.” This has earned him a reputation as a cautious climber. However, it has saved his life more than once and hasn’t prevented him from achieving his goals. In 2005, Viesturs became the first American to climb all 14 of the world’s 8,000-meter peaks.
    Links: Top Ten Tallest Mountains,
  8. John Goddard

    John Goddard is the consummate adventurer; at the age of 15, he made a list of 127 challenging goals and set about a lifetime spent checking them off one by one. To date, Goddard has accomplished 109 items from his original list plus over 500 additional items he added as he went. The list includes items as varied as climbing Mount Kilimanjaro, riding an ostrich and appearing in a Tarzan film. In the process, he has accumulated several world records as a civilian jet pilot. Goddard’s achievements include having explored the entire length of the Nile and Congo rivers, retraced the footsteps of Marco Polo and Alexander the Great, dove the Great Barrier Reef, learned to fence, and witnessed a cremation ceremony in Bali.
    Links: Top 100 Events, Top 100 Places/Events to Witness,
  9. Tudor Parfitt

    Dubbed “the real Indiana Jones,” Parfitt found what he believes to be a descendant of the Ark of the Covenant. His journey started in the 1980s when he met members of the Lemba tribe, an ethnic group in southern Africa who are believed to have a common ancestry to the Jews of ancient Israel. The Lemba told Parfitt stories of a “ngoma” — a wooden container used for storing sacred objects. Parfitt soon came to believe that the object may be the lost Ark of the Covenant. It was then that Parfitt began his 20-year quest. He started in the Zedekiah’s Cave beneath Jerusalem. To describe it in Indiana Jones terms, the red line on the map left Jerusalem for Jordan, then to Yemen, stretching to Egypt, Ethiopia, and landing in Zimbabwe. His work was the subject of a 2008 documentary and a book
    Products: Books (The Lost Ark of the Covenant) (Lost Tribes of Israel)
  10. Benedict Allen

    While planning an expedition from the Orinoco River to the mouth of the Amazon, Allen developed a plan that he would carry through to all his future travels: Rather than relying on sponsorship, he would immerse himself in the environment and befriend indigenous people in the hopes that they would help him in his journey. Allen eventually did cross the Orinoco with a group of locals; however, in the process he caught two different types of malaria, was attacked by gold miners and had to eat his own dog to survive. Allen is the author of seven adventure travelogues, and has filmed several documentaries of his journeys. The first of which, The Raiders of the Lost Lake, follows his trek through Peruvian jungles in search of a “wild lake” thought to be the home of a “super snake.”
  11. Rob Gauntlett and James Hooper

    In 2008, the National Geographic Society named these two 21-year-olds “Adventurers of the Year” for completing a 22,000-mile journey from the magnetic North to the magnetic South Poles. They used only human and natural power to accomplish this feat, dogsledding through Greenland, biking through the Americas and sailing to Antarctica. On top of the fact that this expedition had never been attempted by anyone before, neither guy had any previous sailing or dogsledding experience. This was Rob Gauntlett and James Hooper’s style — they jumped first and looked later. The pair had just climbed Mount Everest with no previous climbing experience, picking up skills as they went.
    Sadly, Gauntlett died while ice climbing in the French Alps in January 2009.
  12. Jason Lewis

    Jason Lewis’ chosen adventure is the most impressive feat of human achievement on the list. In 1994, Lewis’ friend, Steve Smith, proposed that the two attempt to circumnavigate the globe using only human power. This meant walking, cycling, rollerblading, kayaking, and pedal boating. Dubbed “Expedition 360,” they thought it would take three and half years to complete. Five years later, Smith left the expedition. Lewis continued on — he crossed five continents, two oceans and a sea. He survived malaria, a crocodile attack and a near-fatal car accident while rollerblading in Colorado. In the end, the trip took Lewis 13 years to complete.
  13. Bonus: Tom Avery

    At 27, Tom Avery became the youngest Briton to reach the South Pole on foot. The highlight of his career came in 2005, when he set out to recreate Robert Peary’s 1909 expedition to the North Pole. The original expedition was the subject of controversy as many believed that Peary’s reported time of 37 days to cross 413 nautical miles in the arctic was impossibly fast. Equipped with wooden dogsleds similar to those used in 1909 and armed with Peary’s journal, Avery attempted to confirm his hero’s claim. In the end, he and his team managed to reach the Pole in 36 days, 22 hours and 11 minutes, a full five hours faster than Peary
  14. Links: Explorers, Top Ten Adventure Films, Top Ten Adventure Books,

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