Computers

Computers

Gnosis Recommended Computers

Top Ten Supercomputers

Top Ten Supercomputers

  1. Tianhe-2 (Milky Way)
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    Tianhe-2 is a 33.86 petaflop supercomputer located in Guangzhou, China. It is currently the world’s fastest supercomputer according to the TOP500 list for June 2013. The development of Tianhe-2 was sponsored by the 863 High Technology Program, initiated by the Chinese Government, the government of Guangdong province, and the government of Guangzhou city. It was built by China’s National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) in collaboration with the Chinese IT firm Inspur. Inspur manufactured the printed circuit boards and helped with the installation and testing of the system software. It is expected to reach its full computing capabilities by the end of 2013. In June 2013, Tianhe-2 topped the TOP500 list of fastest supercomputers in the world. The computer beat out second place finisher Titan by nearly a 2-to-1 margin. Titan, which is housed at the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, achieved 17.59 petaflops, while Tianhe-2 achieved 33.86 petaflops. Tianhe-2’s phenomenal performance returned the title of the world’s fastest supercomputer to China after Tianhe-I’s debut in November 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers said Tianhe-2’s win “symbolizes China’s unflinching commitment to the supercomputing arms race.” China houses 66 of the top 500 supercomputers, 2nd only to the US’ 252 systems.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tianhe-2,
  2. Titan
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    Titan is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). It is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers’ speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected code must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard codes were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their codes. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.
    Links: Top Ten Laboratories, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titan_(supercomputer),
  3. Sequoia
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    IBM Sequoia is a petascale Blue Gene/Q supercomputer constructed by IBM for the National Nuclear Security Administration as part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC). It was delivered to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2011 and was fully deployed in June 2012. On 14 June 2012, the TOP500 Project Committee announced that Sequoia replaced the K computer as the world’s fastest supercomputer, with a LINPACK performance of 16.32 petaflops, 55% faster than the K computer’s 10.51 petaflops, having 123% more cores than the K computer’s 705,024 cores. Sequoia is also more energy efficient, as it consumes 7.9 MW, 37% less than the K computer’s 12.6 MW. As of 17 June 2013, Sequoia had dropped to #3 on the TOP500 ranking, behind Tianhe-2 and Titan. Record-breaking science applications have been run on Sequoia, the first to cross 10 petaflops of sustained performance. The cosmology simulation framework HACC achieved almost 14 petaflops with a 3.6 trillion particle benchmark run, while the Cardioid code, which models the electrophysiology of the human heart, achieved nearly 12 petaflops with a near real-time simulation. The entire supercomputer runs on Linux, with CNK running on over 98,000 nodes, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux running on 768 I/O nodes that are connected to the filesystem.
    Links: Top Ten Laboratories, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Sequoiahttp://www.top500.org/,
  4. K Computer
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    The K computer, named for the Japanese word “kei,” meaning 10 quadrillion (1016), is a supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, currently installed at the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Japan. The K computer is based on a distributed memory architecture with over 80,000 computer nodes. It is used for a variety of applications, including climate research, disaster prevention and medical research. The K computer’s operating system is based on the Linux kernel, with additional drivers designed to make use of the computer’s hardware. In June 2011, TOP500 ranked K the world’s fastest supercomputer, with a computation speed of over 8 petaflops, and in November 2011, K became the first computer to top 10 petaflops. It had originally been slated for completion in June 2012. In June 2012, K was superseded as the world’s fastest supercomputer by the American IBM Sequoia; as of 2013, K is the world’s 4th fastest computer.
    Links: Top Ten Laboratories, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K_computer,
  5. IBM Mira
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    Mira is a petascale Blue Gene/Q supercomputer. As of June 2013, it is listed on TOP500 as the fifth-fastest supercomputer in the world. It has a performance of 8.16 petaflops and consumes 3.9 MW in power. The supercomputer was constructed by IBM for Argonne National Laboratory’s Argonne Leadership Computing Facility with the support of the US Department of Energy, and partially funded by the National Science Foundation. Mira will be used for scientific research, including studies in the fields of material science, climatology, seismology, and computational chemistry. The supercomputer is being utilized initially for 16 projects, selected by the Department of Energy. The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, which commissioned the supercomputer, was established by the America COMPETES Act, signed by President Bush in 2007, and President Obama in 2011. The US’ emphasis on supercomputing has been seen as a response to China’s progress in the field. China’s Tianhe-2 is ranked as the most powerful supercomputer in the world. Mira is, along with IBM Sequoia and the upcoming Blue Waters, one of three American petascale supercomputers deployed in 2012. The cost for building Mira has not been released by IBM. Early reports estimated that construction would cost US$50 million, and Argonne National Laboratory announced that Mira was bought using money from a grant of US$180 million. In a press release, IBM marketed the supercomputer’s speed, claiming that “if every man, woman and child in the US performed one calculation each second, it would take them almost a year to do as many calculations as Mira will do in one second.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mira_(supercomputer),
  6. Stampede
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    Stampede, a supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center, which is a research center for advanced computational science, engineering and technology. On January 7, 2013, TACC’s new cluster, “Stampede,” went into production. Stampede comprised 6400 nodes, 102400 cpu cores, 205 TB total memory, 14 PB total and 1.6 PB local storage. The bulk of the cluster consisted of 160 racks of primary compute nodes, each with dual Xeon E5-2680 8-core processors, Xeon Phi coprocessor, and 32 GB ram. The cluster also contained 16 nodes with 32 cores and 1 TB ram each, 128 “standard” compute nodes with Nvidia Kepler K20 GPUs, and other nodes for I/O (to a Lustre filesystem), login, and cluster management. Stampede was the 7th fastest supercomputer on the November 2012 Top500 list, which reported the system as having twice as many cores (204900), likely due to counting of hyperthreading cores. In the November 2012 Top500 ranking, Stampede is listed as having a peak performance of 3959 TFlops, but the cluster was not operational until January 2013.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Advanced_Computing_Center#Stampede,
  7. JUQUEEN
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    JUQUEEN is a supercomputer located at Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers and is one of the largest interdisciplinary research centers in Europe. It was founded on 11 December 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia as a registered association, before it became “Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH” or Nuclear Research Centre Jülich in 1967. In 1990, the name of the association was changed to “Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forschungszentrum_J%C3%BClich,
  8. Vulcan
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    Vulcan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 24-rack, 5 PFLOPS (peak), Blue Gene/Q system that became available in 2013. Vulcan will serve Lab-industry projects through Livermore’s High Performance Computing (HPC) Innovation Center as well as academic collaborations in support of DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) missions.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Gene,
  9. SuperMUC
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    The SuperMUC is the name of a new supercomputer of the Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (Leibniz Supercomputing Centre) in Garching near Munich which will provide a sustained computing power in the petaflop/s regime. The new supercomputer will be run by the Germany’s Bavarian Academy of Science’s Leibniz Supercomputing Centre and will be available for European researchers to use to probe the frontiers of medicine, astrophysics and quantum chromodynamics and other scientific disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics, computational chemistry, life sciences, genome analysis and earth quake simulations.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SuperMUC,
  10. Tianhe-1 (Milky Way 1)
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    Tianhe-I, Tianhe-1, or TH-1, “Milky Way (literally, Sky River) Number One,” is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax (maximum range) of 2.566 petaFLOPS. Located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin, China, it was the fastest computer in the world from October 2010 to June 2011 and is one of the few Petascale supercomputers in the world. In October 2010, an upgraded version of the machine (Tianhe-1A) overtook ORNL’s Jaguar to become the world’s fastest supercomputer, with a peak computing rate of 2.507 petaFLOPS. In June 2011 the Tianhe-1A was overtaken by the K computer as the world’s fastest supercomputer. Both the original Tianhe-1 and Tianhe-1A use a Linux-based operating system.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tianhe-I,
  11. Bonus: Cray Computer

    Cray Inc. (NASDAQ: CRAY) is an American supercomputer manufacturer based in Seattle, Washington. The company’s predecessor, Cray Research, Inc. (CRI), was founded in 1972 by computer designer Seymour Cray. Seymour Cray went on to form the spin-off Cray Computer Corporation (CCC), in 1989, which went bankrupt in 1995, while Cray Research was bought by SGI the next year. Cray Inc. was formed in 2000 when Tera Computer Company purchased the Cray Research Inc. business from SGI and adopted the name of its acquisition.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cray_Computer,
  12. Links: Science, Emerging Technologies, http://www.top500.org/,

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Discoveries

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Top Ten Laboratories

Top Ten Laboratories

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA
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    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy national laboratory, managed and operated by Los Alamos National Security (LANS), located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The laboratory is one of the largest science and technology institutions in the world and conducts multidisciplinary research in fields such as national security, space exploration, renewable energy, medicine, nanotechnology and supercomputing. LANL is the largest institution and the largest employer in northern New Mexico, with approximately direct 9,000 employees and around 650 contractor personnel. Additionally, there are roughly 120 employees stationed at the laboratory to provide federal oversight of LANL’s work and operations. Approximately one-third of the laboratory’s technical staff members are physicists, one quarter are engineers, one-sixth are chemists and materials scientists, and the remainder work in mathematics and computational science, biology, geo-science, as well as other disciplines. Professional scientists and students also come to Los Alamos as visitors to participate in scientific projects. The staff collaborates with universities and industry in both basic and applied research to develop resources for the future. The annual budget is approximately US$2.2 billion. Los Alamos is one of two laboratories in the US where classified work towards the design of nuclear weapons is undertaken. The other, since 1952, is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Alamos_National_Laboratory,
  2. Wright Patterson Airforce Base, USA
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    Today, as in the early 1900’s, Wright-Patterson is where weapon systems of the future are conceived, tested, modified and tested again until worthy of acceptance as part of the most responsive deterrent force in the history of military aviation. Some believe Wright-Patterson to be a top-secret UFO monitoring and research station, which considering its past programs, doesn’t seem unreasonable at all.
    Links:
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
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    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located just outside Livermore, California, is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center founded by the University of California in 1952. It is primarily funded by the US Department of Energy and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Livermore_National_Laboratory,
  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA
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    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by UT-Battelle. ORNL is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system by acreage. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ORNL’s scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, energy, high-performance computing, systems biology and national security. ORNL partners with the state of Tennessee, universities and industries to solve challenges in energy, advanced materials, manufacturing, security and physics. The laboratory is home to several of the world’s top supercomputers including the world’s second most powerful supercomputer ranked by the TOP500, Titan and is a leading neutron science and nuclear energy research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor. ORNL hosts the Titan supercomputer; the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the BioEnergy Science Center, and the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors.
    Links: Top Ten Supercomputers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak_Ridge_National_Laboratory,
  5. Dulce, New Mexico, USA???
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           Dulce Base is an alleged secret alien underground facility under Archuleta Mesa on the Colorado-New Mexico border near the town of Dulce, New Mexico in the United States. Claims of alien activity there first arose from Albuquerque businessman Paul Bennewitz.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulce_Base,
  6. Groom Lake (Area 51, S4, Dreamland), Nevada, USA
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    Area 51, also officially known as Groom Lake or Homey Airport is a remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base. According to the CIA, the correct names for the Area 51 facility are the Nevada Test and Training Range and Groom Lake, though the name Area 51 has been used in official CIA documentation. Other names used for the facility include Dreamland, Paradise Ranch, Home Base, Watertown Strip, and most recently Homey Airport. It is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western US, 83 miles (133 km) north-northwest of Las Vegas. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of Groom Lake, is a large military airfield. The base’s current primary purpose is officially undetermined; however, based on historical evidence, it most likely supports development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems. The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component to unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore. Although the base has never been declared a secret base, all research and occurings in Area 51 are Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI). In July 2013, following a FOIA request filed in 2005, the CIA publicly acknowledged the existence of the base for the first time by declassifying documents detailing the history and purpose of Area 51.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_51,
  7. Academy of Military Sciences (AMS), Bejing, China

    The Academy of Military Science(s) (AMS) is the highest-level research institute of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of the People’s Republic of China, headquartered in Beijing, China. Its current standing director and Deputy Secretary General is Lt.General Liu Chengjun.
    Links: Top Ten Chinese Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_of_Military_Science_(People’s_Republic_of_China),
  8. Sandia, New Mexico, USA
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    The Sandia National Laboratories, managed and operated by the Sandia Corporation (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), are two major US Department of Energy research and development national laboratories. Their primary mission is to develop, engineer, and test the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons. The primary campus is located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico and the other is in Livermore, California, next to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Sandia is a National Nuclear Security Administration laboratory. Sandia’s primary mission involves nuclear weapon programs, but it also conducts research and development in energy and environmental programs, as well as the surety of critical national infrastructures. In addition, Sandia is home to a wide variety of research including computational biology, mathematics (through its Computer Science Research Institute), materials science, alternative energy, psychology, MEMS, and cognitive science initiatives. Sandia formerly hosted ASCI Red, one of the world’s fastest supercomputers until its recent decommission, and now hosts ASCI Red Storm, originally known as Thor’s Hammer. Sandia is also home to the Z Machine. The Z Machine is the largest X-ray generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure. It is operated by Sandia National Laboratories to gather data to aid in computer modeling of nuclear weapons.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandia_National_Laboratories,
  9. Skunk Works, California, USA
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    Skunk Works is an official alias for Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Development Programs (ADP), formerly called Lockheed Advanced Development Projects. Skunk Works is responsible for a number of famous aircraft designs, including the U-2, the SR-71 Blackbird, the F-117 Nighthawk, and the F-22 Raptor. Currently its largest officially known project is the F-35 Lightning II, which will be used in the air forces of several countries. Production is expected to last for up to four decades. The name “Skunk Works” was taken from the moonshine factory in the comic strip “L’il Abner.” The designation “skunk works,” or “skunkworks,” is widely used in business, engineering, and technical fields to describe a group within an organization given a high degree of autonomy and unhampered by bureaucracy, tasked with working on advanced or secret projects.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skunk_works,
  10. CERN, Switzerland
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    The European Organization for Nuclear Research is an international organization whose purpose is to operate the world’s largest particle physics laboratory, which is situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border. Established in 1954, the organization has 20 European member states. The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory itself, which employs just under 2,400 full-time employees/workers, as well as some 7,931 scientists and engineers representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities. CERN’s main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. It is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer center containing very powerful data-processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis and, because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been a major wide area networking hub. The CERN sites, as an international facility, are officially under neither Swiss nor French jurisdiction. Member states’ contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totaled CHF 1 billion (approximately € 664 million).
    Links: Top Ten Swiss Attractions, Top Ten French Attractions, Top 100 Statues, Top 100 Asian Sculptures,
  11. Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy
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    The COBRA experiment is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), which is the largest underground laboratory in the world for experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and nuclear astrophysics. Located in the middle of Central Italy’s largest massif, the extensive underground facilities are shielded with 1,400 m of rock and thus the cosmic ray flux is reduced by a factor of 106. Due to the smallness of the Uranium and Thorium content of the dolomite rocks of the mountain, the neutron flux is thousand times less than on surface. LNGS is located about 120 km from Rome, between the towns of L’Aquila and Teramo. The surface portion of LNGS houses support facilities, offices, conference rooms and a canteen. The underground facilities are located on a side of the 10 km long freeway tunnel crossing the Gran Sasso Mountain and are therefore easily accessible. In total 15 experiments are located in three large experimental halls, each about 100 m long, 20 m wide and 18 m high with a total volume of about 180,000 cubic metres. Besides neutrinoless double beta decay, main research topics are currently neutrino oscillations (OPERA, BOREXINO, ICARUS), dark matter (DAMA, CRESST, XENON) and proton decay (ICARUS).
    Links: Top Ten Italian Attractions, Mountains, Top Ten European Mountains,  http://www.cobra-experiment.org/the_cobra_experiment/location/,
  12. Fermilab, Illinois, USA

           Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. As of January 1st, 2007, Fermilab is operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago and the Universities Research Association. Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor. Fermilab’s Tevatron is a landmark particle accelerator; at 3.9 miles (6.3 km) in circumference, it is the world’s 2nd largest energy particle accelerator, behind CERN’s Hadron Collider at 27 km in circumference. In 1995, both the CDF and DØ (detectors which utilize the Tevatron) experiments announced the discovery of the top quark. In addition to high energy collider physics, Fermilab is also host to a number of smaller fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MiniBooNE (Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment), SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The MiniBooNE detector is a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere which contains 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 individual phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events are recorded each year. SciBooNE is the newest neutrino experiment at Fermilab; it sits in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but has fine-grained tracking capabilities. The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. In the public realm, Fermilab is host to many cultural events, not only public science lectures and symposia, but classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. Currently the site is open to all visitors from dawn to dusk who present valid photo identification. A small herd of American bison, started at the lab’s founding, lives on the grounds symbolizing Fermilab’s presence on the frontier of physics and its connection to the American prairie. Some fearful locals believed at first that the bison were introduced in order to serve as an alarm if and when radiation at the laboratory reached dangerous levels, but they were assured by Fermilab that this claim had no merit. Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Links: Top Ten Asteroids,
  13. Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA
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    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a US national laboratory located in Upton, New York on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former US Army base. Its name stems from its location in the greater area of the Town of Brookhaven. Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, its mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now: Nuclear and high-energy physics, Physics and chemistry of materials, Environmental and energy research, Nonproliferation, Neurosciences and medical imaging, and Structural biology.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brookhaven_National_Laboratory,
  14. University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

    East China University of Science and Technology, originally named East China Institute of Chemical Technology, was founded in 1952. It was the first single-subject institute in China, consolidated by the chemistry departments of National Chiaotung University, Université d’Aurora, Utopia University, Soochow University, and Yangtze University. It was designated as a national key university by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party in 1960 and renamed to its current name in 1993. With the effort of half a century, the university has developed itself into a national key university with technology as the major subject, distinct characteristics of each subject and a coordinated development of subjects including technology, science, economics, administration, humanities and law. In May of 2012, Juan Yin, along with his team at the University of Science and Technology of China in Shanghai claims to have sent photons between two stations over a lake, separated by 97 km. To pull off this feat, Yun and friends used a 1.3 Watt laser, and a clever optic steering technique to keep the beam precisely on target. With this setup, they were able to teleport more than 1,100 photons in four hours, over a distance of 97 km.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_China_University_of_Science_and_Technology,
  15. RIKEN, Japan
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    RIKEN is a large natural sciences research institute in Japan. Founded in 1917, it now has approximately 3,000 scientists on seven campuses across Japan, the main one in Wako, just outside Tokyo. RIKEN is an Independent Administrative Institution whose formal name in Japanese is Rikagaku Kenkyūjo and in English is the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. RIKEN conducts research in many areas of science, including physics, chemistry, biology, medical science, engineering and computational science, and ranging from basic research to practical applications. It is almost entirely funded by the Japanese government, and its annual budget is approximately ¥88 billion (US$760 million).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RIKEN,
  16. Cavendish Laboratories, England

    The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the university’s School of Physical Sciences. It was opened in 1874 as a teaching laboratory. The Department is named to commemorate British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish for contributions to science and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as Chancellor of the University and donated money for the construction of the laboratory. Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the lab and became the first Cavendish Professor of Physics. The Duke of Devonshire had given to Maxwell, as Head of the Laboratory, the manuscripts of Henry Cavendish’s unpublished Electrical Works. The editing and publishing of these was Maxwell’s main scientific work while he was at the laboratory. Cavendish’s work aroused Maxwell’s intense admiration and he decided to call the Laboratory (formerly known as the Devonshire Laboratory) the Cavendish Laboratory and thus to commemorate both the Duke and Henry Cavendish. As of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavendish_Laboratory,
  17. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the University of Zurich, Switzerland

    The University of Zurich, located in the city of Zurich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, law, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy. Currently, the university has faculties of arts, economics, law, medicine, science, theology and veterinary medicine. The university claims to offer the widest range of subjects and courses at any Swiss higher education institution.
    Links: Emerging Technologies, Top Ten Robots, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Zurich,
  18. Sarov, Russia

    Founded in 1946 at Arzamas-16 (currently Sarov), VNIIEF was the Soviet Union’s primary nuclear weapons research and development center. Originally called KB No. 11, the Institute developed the first Soviet atomic bomb (RDS-1) in 1949. Its weapons designs also include the RDS-6S hydrogen bomb, the RDS-37 two-stage hydrogen bomb, and the AN602 Tsar Bomba. In the 1950’s, VNIIEF’s work expanded to include research on warheads for ballistic missiles, torpedoes, and strategic cruise missiles. The Institute’s weapons-related activities were carried out within its divisions dealing with theory, computations, design, and experiments. Today, VNIIEF conducts nuclear warhead design and provides stockpile support to the Russian nuclear arsenal. Its facilities are home to Russia’s most advanced supercomputers, and included among its research tools are the ISKRA laser-based inertial confinement fusion device and the BIGR pulsed reactor. The Institute also has a critical assembly and 5 operational research reactors; all of these are pulsed reactors used in weapons research that are powered by highly-enriched uranium (HEU). The Institute has a history of cooperation with foreign partners. Beginning in 1995, VNIIEF participated in the US Department of Energy’s MPC&A program, and served as the demonstration facility for DOE’s Lab-to-Lab program. Today, it conducts research projects in cooperation with laboratories in the United States (Los Alamos, Livermore, Sandia, and Oak Ridge); France (CEA/DAM); and Germany (Dresden and Karlsruhe). The Institute’s personnel are actively involved in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centers, in the European Organization for Nuclear Research, and in the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
    Links: http://www.nti.org/facilities/925/,
  19. Kapustin Yar (Капустин Яр), Russia
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    Kapustin Yar (Капустин Яр) is a Russian rocket launch and development site in Astrakhan Oblast, between Volgograd and Astrakhan. Known today as Znamensk, it was established 13 May 1946 and in the beginning used technology, material and scientific support from defeated Germany, similar to what the US did in Project Paperclip. Numerous launches of test rockets for the Russian military were carried out at the site, as well as satellite and sounding rocket launches. The 4th Missile Test Range “Kapustin Yar” was established by a decree of the Soviet Government “On Questions of Jet Propelled Weapons” on 13 May 1946. The test range was created under the supervision of General-lieutenant Vasily Voznyuk (commander in chief of the test range 1946-1973) in the desert north end of the Astrakhan region. The first rocket was launched from the site on 18 October 1947; it was one of eleven German A-4s that had been captured. The State R&D Test Range No 8 (GNIIP-8, “test range S”) was established at Kapustin Yar in June 1951. Five atmospheric nuclear tests of small power (10-40 kt) were performed over the site in 1957-1961. With the further growth and development, the site became a cosmodrome, serving in this function since 1966 (with interruption in 1988-1998). The town of Znamensk was established to support the scientists working on the facilities, their families and supporting personnel. Initially this was a secret city, not to be found on maps and inaccessible to outsiders. Evidence of the importance of Kapustin Yar was obtained by Western intelligence through debriefing of returning German scientists and spy flights. The first such flight reportedly took place in mid-1953 using a high flying Canberra aircraft of the RAF. Numerous circumstantial reports suggest this flight took place, using either a Canberra B2 or a PR3, but the UK Government has never admitted such a flight took place nor have any of the supposed participants provided direct evidence. Due to its role as a development site for new technology, Kapustin Yar is also the site of numerous Soviet-era UFO sightings and has been called “Russia’s Roswell.”
    Links: Top Ten Russian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kapustin_Yar,
  20. Google X, California, USA
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    Google X is a secret facility run by Google located about a half mile from the corporate headquarters Googleplex in Mountain View, California. Work at the lab is overseen by Sergey Brin, one of Google’s co-founders. Reportedly worked on at the lab is a list of 100 projects pertaining to future technologies such as a self-driving car, augmented reality glasses, internet service via balloons in the stratosphere, a neural network that uses semi-supervised learning, enabling speech recognition and extraction of objects from video, for instance detecting if a cat is in a frame of video, and the Web of Things. A number of articles have speculated as to the types of projects that are encompassed by Google X Lab as well as the motivations for such projects. Google has repeatedly denied working on a space elevator, despite repeated press claims originating with what appeared to be speculation by a third party in The New York Times in 2011. On 23 May 2013 Google X acquired Makani Power, a US company which develops tethered wings/kites with mounted wind turbines for low cost renewable energy generation.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_x,
  21. Boeing Phantom Works, USA

    The Phantom Works division is the advanced prototyping arm of the Defense and Security side of The Boeing Company. Its primary focus is developing advanced military products and technologies, many of them highly classified. Founded by McDonnell Douglas, the research and development group continued after Boeing acquired the company. Its logo was derived from the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom combat jet.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_Phantom_Works,
  22. National Institute of Advanced Science and Tecnology, Japan
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    The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, or AIST, is a Japanese research facility headquartered in Tokyo, and most of the workforce is located in Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, and in several cities throughout Japan. The institute is managed to integrate scientific and engineering knowledge to address socio-economic needs. It became a newly designed legal body of independent administrative institution in 2001, remaining under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Institute_of_Advanced_Industrial_Science_and_Technology,
  23. Honda’s Wako Fundamental Technical Research Center, Japan
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    ASIMO, an acronym for Advanced Step in Innovative MObility, is a humanoid robot designed and developed by Honda. Introduced on 21 October 2000, ASIMO was designed to be a multi-functional mobile assistant. With aspirations of helping those who lack full mobility, ASIMO is frequently used in demonstrations across the world to encourage the study of science and mathematics. At 130 cm (4 feet, 3 inches) tall and 54 kg (119 lbs), ASIMO was designed to operate in real-world environments, with the ability to walk or run on two feet at speeds of up to 6 km per hour (3.7 mph). In the USA, ASIMO is part of the Innoventions attraction at Disneyland and has been featured in a 15-minute show called “Say ‘Hello’ to Honda’s ASIMO” since June 2005. The robot has made public appearances around the world, including the Consumer Electronics Show (CES), the Miraikan Museum and Honda Collection Hall in Japan, and the Ars Electronica festival in Austria.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASIMO,
  24. CSETI (Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence), USA
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    The Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CSETI) is an international scientific research and education organization dedicated to the furtherance of our understanding of extraterrestrial intelligence. CSETI was founded in 1990 by Dr. Steven M. Greer, who is the International Director. CSETI’s projects include the CE-5 Initiative and the Disclosure Project.
    Links: Extraterrestrials, Extraterrestrial Civilization, Top Ten Advocates of Extraterrestrial Contact, http://www.cseti.org/,
  25. Tesla’s Laboratory in Colorado Springs, USA
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           On 17 May 1899, Nikola Tesla moved to Colorado Springs, where he would have room for his high-voltage, high-frequency experiments. He chose the location because the polyphase alternating current power distribution system had been introduced there and he had associates who were willing to give him all the power he needed without charging for it. Tesla investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. Reproductions of Tesla’s receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity: distributed high-Q helical resonators, radio frequency feedback, crude heterodyne effects, and regeneration techniques. He researched ways to transmit energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves, to a lesser extent, and, more readily, longitudinal waves). Tesla sent electrostatic forces through natural media across a conductor situated in the changing magnetic flux and transferred electrical energy to a wireless receiver. At his lab, Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor and discovered that the resonant frequency of the earth was approximately 8 hertz (Hz). He produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts and up to 135 feet long). Thunder from the released energy was heard 15 miles away in Cripple Creek, Colorado. People walking along the street observed sparks jumping between their feet and the ground. In another experiment, Tesla observed unusual signals from his receiver, which he later believed could have been extraterrestrial communications. The signals were substantially different from the signals that he had noted from storms and the earth. He later recalled that the signals appeared in groups of one, two, three, and four clicks together. Tesla had mentioned that he thought his inventions could be used to talk with other planets, though was highly criticized upon revealing his findings.
    Links: Top Ten Nikola Tesla Inventions
  26. DuPont Experimental Station, Delaware, USA

    The DuPont Experimental Station is the largest research and development facility of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Located on the banks of the Brandywine Creek in Wilmington, Delaware, it is home to some of the most important discoveries of the modern chemical industry. The Experimental Station is a more recent part of the DuPont legacy and is located on the DuPont Historic Corridor.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DuPont_Experimental_Station,
  27. Sandoz and Novartis Laboratories, Europe and North America
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           Founded in 1886, Sandoz is a subsidiary of Novartis, a multinational pharmaceutical company. The company develops, manufactures and markets generic drugs as well as pharmaceutical and biotechnological active ingredients, well known for creating the LSD compound. As of 2011, Sandoz was the world’s second largest generic drug company. Its global headquarters are in Holzkirchen, Germany, just south of Munich. Its biggest sites are Boucherville, Quebec, Broomfield, Colorado, Cambé, Kalwa, Kundl, Ljubljana, Gebze, Magdeburg, Stryków, Princeton, New Jersey, and Wilson, North Carolina. Novartis was created in 1996 from the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz Laboratories, both Swiss companies with long histories.
    Links: Top Ten Chemists, Top Ten Drug Chemists, Psychedelics, Top Ten Psychedelic Drugs, Alex Grey Paintings, Top Ten Works of LSD Art, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandoz,
  28. Links: Science, Top 100 Scientists

Science

Science

Scientists

Emerging Technologies

Emerging Technologies

Top Ten Robots

Top Ten Robots

       What can be said about robots that haven’t already been portrayed in countless science fiction movies? Will they create an unlimited supply of workers to take the load off human labor, or will we ultimately create an artificial intelligence even greater than our own, which will ultimately turn humans into robot’s slaves? I guess we will have to watch and find out. Here are some of the most interesting forays into the robotic industry.

  1. Bipedal Robot

    Japanese researchers have developed advanced robot software enabling “bipedal robots to stay on their feet no matter how much they’re pushed and kicked.”
    Links:
  2. Honda ASIMO
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    ASIMO is a humanoid robot created by Honda. Standing at 130 cm (4 feet 3 inches) and weighing 54 kilograms (114 pounds), the robot resembles a small astronaut wearing a backpack and can walk or run on two feet at speeds up to 6 km/h (4.3 mph), matching EMIEW. ASIMO was created at Honda’s Research & Development Wako Fundamental Technical Research Center in Japan. It is the current model in a line of twelve that began in 1986 with E0. ASIMO resembles a child in size and is the most human-like robot HONDA has made so far. The robot has 7 DOF (Degrees of freedom) in each arm, two joints of 3 DOF, shoulder and wrist, giving “Six degrees of freedom” and 1 DOF at the elbow; 6 DOF in each leg, 3 DOF at the crotch, 2 DOF at the ankle and 1 DOF at the knee; and 3 DOF in the neck joint. The hands have 2 DOF, 1 DOF in each thumb and 1 in each finger. This gives a total of 34 DOF in all joints. The name is an acronym for “Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility.” The online magazine, The Future Of Things (TFOT), states that Honda did not name the robot in reference to science fiction writer and inventor of the Three Laws of Robotics, Isaac Asimov.
    Links: Top Ten South Park Episodes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASIMO,
  3. REEM

    REEM-A and REEM-B are the first and second prototypes of humanoid robots created by PAL Robotics. REEM-B can recognize and grasp objects, lift heavy weights and go around by itself inside building complex, avoiding obstacles (Simultaneous localization and mapping). The robot accepts voice commands and recognize faces.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REEM-B,
  4. HUBO

    HUBO is a walking humanoid robot, head mounted on a life-size walking bipedal frame, developed by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and released on January 6, 2005. Hubo is short form for “humanoid robot.” Hubo has voice recognition and synthesis faculties, as well as sophisticated vision in which its two eyes move independently of one another.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HUBO,
  5. Robonaut

    Robonaut is a humanoid robotic development project run from the Dextrous Robotics Laboratory at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The core idea behind the Robonaut series of robots is to have a humanoid machine to work along-side astronauts. Its form factor and dexterity are designed such that Robonaut can use space tools and work in similar environments to suited astronauts. Robonaut is a different class of robot than other current space faring robots. While most current space robotic systems focus on moving large objects, similar to a crane, or rovers for exploration, Robonaut’s focus is on tasks which require more dexterity. The first series of Robonauts (R1A and R1B) had many partners including DARPA. The second Robonaut series (R2A and R2B) was a joint effort between NASA and General Motors. R2 is going to be delivered to the ISS to be tested “in-doors” on STS-133 (current stated launch date November 1).
    Links: Top Ten Astronauts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robonaut,
  6. HRP-3 PROMET Mk-II

    Manufactured by Kawada Industries, designed by Yutaka Izubuchi.
    Links:
  7. HRP-4C

    The HRP-4C is a humanoid robot created by Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and publicly demonstrated on March 16, 2009. It is 158cm (5 feet 2 inches) tall and weighs 43kg (95 pounds) including battery. Its shape and joints are based on the 1997–1998 Japanese body dimension database. It is capable of the recognition of ambient sounds, and also can sing by the speech synthesis Vocaloid.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HRP-4C,
  8. iCub

    iCub is a 1 meter high humanoid robot testbed for research into human cognition and artificial intelligence. It was designed by the RobotCub Consortium, of several European universities and is now supported by other projects such as ITALK. The robot is open-source, with the hardware design, software and documentation all released under the GPL license. The name is a partial acronym, cub standing for Cognitive Universal Body. Initial funding for the project was €8.5 million from Unit E5, Cognitive Systems and Robotics, of the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Program, and this ran for 5 years from 1 September 2004 until 1 September 2010. The motivation behind the strongly humanoid design is the embodied cognition hypothesis, that human-like manipulation plays a vital role in the development of human cognition. A baby learns many cognitive skills by interacting with its environment and other humans using its limbs and senses, and consequently its internal model of the world is largely determined by the form of the human body. The robot was designed to test this hypothesis by allowing cognitive learning scenarios to be acted out by an accurate reproduction of the perceptual system and articulation of a small child so that it could interact with the world in the same way that such a child does.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICub,
  9. TWENDY-ONE

    TWENDY-ONE is a domestic help robot and was developed by Waseda University.
    Links:
  10. TOSY TOPIO

    TOPIO (“TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot”) is a bipedal humanoid robot designed to play table tennis against a human being. It has been developed since 2005 by TOSY, a robotics firm in Vietnam. It was publicly demonstrated at the Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) on November 28, 2007. TOPIO 3.0 (the latest version of TOPIO) stands approximately 1.88 m tall and weighs 120 kg. Every TOPIO uses an advanced artificial intelligence system to learn and continuously improve its skill level while playing.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOPIO,
  11. Toyota Partner Robot

    The Toyota Partner Robots are a series of humanoid robots developed by Toyota to enrich and assist the lives of Japan’s aging population. They debuted at the 2005 World EXPO in Aichi, Japan where they played music on drums and trumpets at. There are 5 robots in all, most of which have different movement systems. The 5 robots are: Version 1 (bipedal robot), Version 2 (segway-like wheels), Version 3 (segway-like wheels), Version 4 (unique wire system) and the i-Foot (mountable with 2 legs). In July 2009, Toyota released a video of the running and standing skills of their partner robot. The robot reaches 7 km/hour, however walking and running can only be achieved on flat surfaces.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Partner_Robot,
  12. Mitsubishi Wakamaru

    Wakamaru is a Japanese domestic robot made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, primarily intended to provide companionship to elderly and disabled people. The robot is yellow, 1m tall, and weighs 30 kilograms. It has two arms and its flat, circular base has a diameter of 45 cm. The first hundred went on sale in September, 2005, for USD $14,000. Wakamaru runs a Linux operating system on multiple microprocessors. It can connect to the Internet, and has limited speech (in both male and female voices) and speech recognition abilities. Functions include reminding the user to take medicine on time, and calling for help if it suspects something is wrong.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wakamaru,
  13. Hitachi EMIEW

    EMIEW is a robot developed by Hitachi. Another version has also been made called EMIEW 2. EMIEW stands for Excellent Mobility and Interactive Existence as Workmate. Two EMIEW’s have been made, called Pal and Chum. Hitachi stated that Pal and Chum, have a vocabulary of about 100 words, and Pal exhibited these skills by telling reporters: “I want to be able to walk about in places like Shinjuku and Shibuya in the future without bumping into people and cars.” Both EMIEW’s have a top speed of 6 km/h (matching ASIMO) and can avoid obstacles.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMIEW,
  14. Bonus: Actroid

    An Actroid is a humanoid robot and android with strong visual human-likeness developed by Osaka University and manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd. (the animatronics division of Sanrio). It was first unveiled at the 2003 International Robot Exhibition in Tokyo, Japan. Several different versions of the product have been produced since then. In most cases, the robot’s appearance has been modeled after an average young woman of Japanese descent. The Actroid woman is a pioneer example of a real machine similar to imagined machines called by the science fiction terms android or gynoid, so far used only for fictional robots. It can mimic such lifelike functions as blinking, speaking, and breathing. The “Repliee” models are interactive robots with the ability to recognise and process speech and respond in kind.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actroid,
  15. Bonus: Robotic Exoskeleton

    Description:
    Links:
  16. Bonus: Honda E-Series

    The E-series was a collection of successive humanoid robots created by the Honda Motor Company between the years of 1986 and 1993. These robots were only experimental, but later evolved into the Honda P series, with Honda eventually amassing the knowledge and experience necessary to create Honda’s advanced humanoid robot: ASIMO. The fact that Honda had been developing the robots was kept secret from the public until the announcement of the Honda P2 in 1996. E0, developed in 1986, was the very first robot. It walked in a straight line on two feet, in a manner resembling human locomotion, taking around 5 seconds to complete a single step. Quickly engineers realized that in order to walk up slopes, the robot would need to travel faster. The model has 6 degrees of freedom: 1 in each groin, 1 in each knee and 1 in each ankle.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_E0,
  17. Bonus: P-Series

    The P-series is a chronological progression of prototype humanoid robots as developed by Honda. The research conducted allowed the eventual creation of ASIMO.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_P_series,
  18. Links: Top Ten Science Fiction Films, Top Ten Futurama Episodes,

Gnosis Recommended Products

Top Ten Personal Aircrafts/Watercraft

Top Ten Personal Aircrafts/Watercraft

  

  1. Rocket Belt

    Description:
    Links:
  2. Martin Jetpack

    The Martin Jetpack is a personal helicopter. Its tradename calls it a “jet pack,” but is not jet- or rocket-powered. It has been developed by the Martin Aircraft Company of New Zealand, and was unveiled on July 29, 2008 at the Experimental Aircraft Association’s 2008 AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. It is classified by the Federal Aviation Administration as an experimental ultralight airplane. Unlike earlier devices called “jetpacks,” the Martin Jetpack is the first to be considered a practical device. It has been under development for over 27 years and uses a gasoline (premium) engine with two ducted fans to provide lift. Theoretically it can reach a speed of 60 miles per hour, an altitude of 8,000 feet, and fly for about 30 minutes on a full fuel tank. It costs $86,000. Martin Aircraft plans to deliver the first jetpacks to ten customers in early 2010.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Jetpack,
  3. Manned Maneuvering Unit

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) is a propulsion backpack which was used by NASA astronauts on three space shuttle missions in 1984. The MMU allowed the astronauts to perform untethered EVA spacewalks at a distance from the shuttle. The MMU was used in practice to retrieve a pair of faulty communications satellites, Westar VI and Palapa B2. Following the third mission the unit was retired from use. A smaller successor, the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), was first flown in 1994, and is intended for emergency use only.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manned_Maneuvering_Unit,
  4. Hoverbike

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Motorcycles,
  5. Prosthetic Gills

    Artificial gills are a device to let a human take in oxygen from surrounding water. This technology does not exist yet or is in early stage of being developed.
    Links: Top 100 GadgetsTop Ten Emerging Transportation Technologies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_gills_(human),
  6. Links: Top Ten Emerging Technologies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_air_vehicle, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_personal_aircraft,

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