Top Ten Hubble Photographs

Top Ten Hubble Photographs

       The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a space shuttle in April 1990. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well-known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency and is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. Hubble was funded in the 1970’s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope’s capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble’s orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble’s Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe’s most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe. Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. Four servicing missions were performed from 1993–2002, but the 5th was canceled on safety grounds following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved one final servicing mission, completed in 2009. The telescope is now expected to function until at least 2014, when its ‘successor,’ the James Webb Space Telescope, is due to be launched.

  1. The Sombrero Galaxy
    Sombrero GalaxySombrero Galaxy1Sombrero Galaxy2
           The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as M 104 or NGC 4594 ) is an unbarred spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It has a bright nucleus, an unusually large central bulge, and a prominent dust lane in its inclined disk. The dark dust lane and the bulge give this galaxy the appearance of a sombrero. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of +9.0, making it easily visible with amateur telescopes. The large bulge, the central super massive black hole, and the dust lane all attract the attention of professional astronomers.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sombrero_Galaxy,
  2. Ant Nebula
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           Menzel 3 is a young bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Norma that is composed of a bright core and four distinct high-velocity outflows that have been named lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. These nebulosities are described as: two spherical bipolar lobes, two outer large filamentary hour-glass shaped columns, two cone shaped rays, and a planar radially expanding, elliptically shaped chakram. Mz 3 is a complex system composed of three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and an equatorial ellipse. Its lobes all share the same axis of symmetry but each have very different morphologies and opening angles. It is an unusual PN in that it is believed, by some researchers, to contain a symbiotic binary at its center. Study suggests that the dense nebular gas at its center may have originated from a source different than that of its extended lobes. The working model to explain this hypothesizes that this PN is composed of a giant companion that caused a central dense gas region to form, and a white dwarf that provides ionizing photons for the PN.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_Nebula,
  3. Hourglass Nebula
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           The Engraved Hourglass Nebula (also known as MyCn 18) is a young planetary nebula situated in the southern constellation Musca about 8,000 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by Annie Jump Cannon and Margaret W. Mayall during their work on an extended Henry Draper Catalogue (1918-1924). At the time, it was designated simply as a small faint planetary nebula. Much improved telescopes and imaging techniques allowed the hourglass shape of the nebula to be discovered by Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on January 18, 1996. It is conjectured that MyCn 18’s hourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is denser near its equator than its poles. The formation of the shape of the inner “eye” is not yet fully understood. The Hourglass Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. A less-famous “Hourglass Nebula” is located inside the Lagoon Nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hourglass_Nebula,
  4. UFO in the Rings of Saturn
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    Pictures taken by Voyager 1 in 1980, as well as images taken by the Hubble Telescope, apparently show a very large craft in the rings of Saturn. A book entitled “The Ringmakers of Saturn, by Ames National Laboratory Research Scientist, Norman Bergrun, attempts to address what is going on in the rings. To watch the very insightful interview with Norman Bergrun, click on the link below.
    Watch Interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHmgZymhJL8,
    Links:
  5. Cartwheel Galaxy

    The Cartwheel Galaxy (also known as ESO 350-40) is a lenticular galaxy and ring galaxy about 500 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. It is an estimated 150,000 light-years across, has a mass of about 2.9–4.8 × 109 solar masses, and rotates at 217 km/s. It was discovered by Fritz Zwicky in 1941. Zwicky considered his discovery to be “one of the most complicated structures awaiting its explanation on the basis of stellar dynamics.” An estimation of the galaxy’s span resulted in a conclusion of 150,000 light years, which is slightly larger than the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartwheel_Galaxy,
  6. The Antennae Galaxy

           The Antennae Galaxies (also known as NGC 4038/NGC 4039) are a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Corvus. They were both discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel in 1785. Located in the NGC 4038 group with five other galaxies, these two galaxies are known as the ‘Antennae’ because the two long tails of stars, gas and dust thrown out of the galaxies as a result of the collision resemble the antennae of an insect. This is likely the future of our Milky Way when it collides with the Andromeda Galaxy in some two billion years. Two supernovae have been discovered in the galaxy: SN 2004GT and SN 2007sr. A recent study finds that these interacting galaxies are closer to the Milky Way than previously thought, at 45 million light-years instead of 65 million light-years.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antennae_Galaxies,
  7. Cat’s Eye Nebula
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           The Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543, Caldwell 6) is a planetary nebula in the constellation of Draco. Structurally, it is one of the most complex nebulae known, with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations revealing remarkable structures such as knots, jets, bubbles and sinewy arc-like features. In the center of the Cat’s Eye there is a bright and hot star; around 1,000 years ago this star lost its outer envelope, producing the nebula. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 15th, 1786, and was the first planetary nebula whose spectrum was investigated by the English amateur astronomer William Huggins in 1864. The results of the latter investigation demonstrated for the first time that planetary nebulae consist of hot gases, but not stars. Currently the nebula has been observed across the full electromagnetic spectrum, from far-infrared to X-rays. Modern studies reveal several mysteries. The intricacy of the structure may be caused in part by material ejected from a binary central star, but as yet, there is no direct evidence that the central star has a companion. Also, measurements of chemical abundances reveal a large discrepancy between measurements done by two different methods, the cause of which is uncertain. Hubble Telescope observations revealed a number of faint rings around the Eye, which are spherical shells ejected by the central star in the distant past. The exact mechanism of those ejections, however, is unclear.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat%27s_Eye_Nebula,
  8. Eskimo Nebula

    The Eskimo Nebula, also known as the Clownface Nebula or Caldwell 39, is a bipolar double-shell planetary nebula. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel in 1787. The formation resembles a person’s head surrounded by a parka hood. It is surrounded by gas that composed the outer layers of a Sun-like star. The visible inner filaments are ejected by a strong wind of particles from the central star. The outer disk contains unusual light-year long filaments. NGC 2392 lies more than 2,870 light-years away and is visible with a small telescope (but more preferably with a larger telescope) in the constellation of Gemini.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eskimo_nebula,
  9. Crab Nebula
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           The Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant and pulsar wind nebula in the constellation of Taurus. Corresponding to a bright supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054, the nebula was observed later by English astronomer John Bevis in 1731. At an apparent magnitude of 8.4, comparable to that of the largest moon of Saturn, it is not visible to the naked eye but can be made out using binoculars under favorable conditions. At X-ray and gamma ray energies above 30 keV, the Crab is generally the strongest persistent source in the sky, with measured flux extending to above 10 TeV. Located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years (2 kpc) from Earth, the nebula has a diameter of 11 light years (3.4 pc, corresponding to an apparent diameter of some 7 arc minutes) and expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second (0.5% c). It is part of the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star 28–30 km across with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves. The nebula was the first astronomical object identified with a historical supernova explosion. The nebula acts as a source of radiation for studying celestial bodies that occult it. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, the Sun’s corona was mapped from observations of the Crab’s radio waves passing through it, and in 2003, the thickness of the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan was measured as it blocked out X-rays from the nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_nebula,
  10. God’s Eye Nebula (Helix Nebula)
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           The Helix Nebula, also known as The Helix, NGC 7293, is a large planetary nebula (PN) located in the constellation Aquarius. Discovered by Karl Ludwig Harding, probably before 1824, this object is one of the closest to the Earth of all the bright planetary nebulae. The estimated distance is about 215 parsecs or 700 light-years. It is similar in appearance to the Cat’s Eye Nebula and the Ring Nebula, whose size, age, and physical characteristics are similar to the Dumbbell Nebula, varying only in its relative proximity and the appearance from the equatorial viewing angle. The Helix Nebula has sometimes been referred to as the “Eye of God” in pop culture.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helix_Nebula,
  11. Eagle Nebula
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           The Eagle Nebula, also known as the Star Queen Nebula, is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape that is thought to resemble an eagle. It contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, including the famous “Pillars of Creation,” photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_nebula,
  12. Egg Nebula
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           The Egg Nebula is a bipolar protoplanetary nebula approximately 3,000 light-years away from Earth. Its peculiar properties were first described in 1975 using data from the 11 µm survey obtained with sounding rocket by Air Force Geophysical Laboratory in 1971 to 1974. Before this, the object was catalogued by Fritz Zwicky as a pair of galaxies. The Egg Nebula’s defining feature is the series of bright arcs and circles surrounding the central star. A dense layer of gas and dusts enshrouds the central star, blocking its direct light from our view. However, the light from the central star penetrates the thinner regions of this dusty enclosure, illuminating the outer layers of gas to create the arcs. The dusty enclosure around the central star is very likely a disc. The bipolar outflows in the image indicate that the system has angular momentum, which is very likely generated by an accretion disc. In addition, a disc geometry would account for the varying thickness of the enclosure that allows light to escape along the disc’s axis and illuminate the outer layers of gas, but still blocks it from our direct view along the disc edge. Although dusty discs have been confirmed around several post-AGB objects (S. De Ruyter et al., 2006), a disc around the Egg Nebula is yet to be confirmed. The Egg Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The Egg Nebula emits polarized light which can also be detected visually by a medium-sized telescope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_Nebula,
  13. NGC 604
    Processed with MaxIm DL32
           NGC 604 is a H II region inside the Triangulum Galaxy. It was discovered by William Herschel on September 11, 1784. It is one of the largest H II regions in the Local Group of galaxies; at the galaxy’s estimated distance of 2.7 million light-years its longest diameter is roughly 1,500 light years (460 parsecs), over 40 times the size of the visible portion of the Orion Nebula. It is over 6,300 times more luminous than the Orion Nebula, and if it were at the same distance it would outshine Venus. Like all emission nebulae, its gas is ionized by a cluster of massive stars at its center, with 200 stars of spectral type O and WR, a mass of 105 solar masses, and an age of 3.5 million years; however, unlike the Large Magellanic Cloud’s Tarantula Nebula central cluster (R136), NGC 604’s one is much less compact and more similar to a large stellar association, being considered the prototypical example of a Scaled OB Association (SOBA).
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_604,
  14. Great Nebula in Carina
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           The Great Carina Nebula is a large bright nebula that has within its boundaries several related open clusters of stars. Some papers generally refer to this as the Carina Nebula, mostly because of differentiating the many paper published on this object, but the historical precedence as determined by southern observers like James Dunlop and John Herschel, who have both termed it the Eta Argus Nebula or Eta Carinae Nebula. John Herschel also describes “The star η Argus, with the Great nebula about it.” with many of his subsequent published papers supporting this. Eta Carinae and HD 93129A, two of the most massive and luminous stars in our Milky Way galaxy, are among them. The nebula lies at an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light years from Earth. It appears in the constellation of Carina, and is located in the Carina–Sagittarius Arm. The nebula contains multiple O-type stars. The nebula is one of the largest diffuse nebulae in our skies. Although it is some four times as large and even brighter than the famous Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is much less well known, due to its location in the southern sky. It was discovered by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1751–52 from the Cape of Good Hope.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carina_Nebula,
  15. Jellyfish Nebula
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           IC 443 (also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sharpless 248 (Sh2-248)) is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Gemini. On the plan of the sky, it is located near the star Eta Geminorum. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth. IC 443 may be the remains of a supernova that occurred 3,000 – 30,000 years ago. The same supernova event likely created the neutron star CXOU J061705.3+222127, the collapsed remnant of the stellar core. IC 443 is one of the best-studied cases of supernova remnants interacting with surrounding molecular clouds.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish_nebula,
  16. Tarantula Nebula
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           The Tarantula Nebula is an H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was originally thought to be a star, but in 1751 Nicolas Louis de Lacaille recognized its nebular nature. The Tarantula Nebula has an apparent magnitude of 8. Considering its distance of about 49 kpc (160,000 light years), this is an extremely luminous non-stellar object. Its luminosity is so great that if it were as close to Earth as the Orion Nebula, the Tarantula Nebula would cast shadows. In fact, it is the most active starburst region known in the Local Group of galaxies. It is also one of the largest such region in the Local Group with an estimated diameter of 200 pc. The nebula resides on the leading edge of the LMC, where ram pressure stripping, and the compression of the interstellar medium likely resulting from this, is at a maximum. At its core lies the compact star cluster R136 (approximate diameter 35 light years) that produces most of the energy that makes the nebula visible. The estimated mass of the cluster is 450,000 solar masses, suggesting it will likely become a globular cluster in the future. In addition to R136, the Tarantula Nebula also contains an older star cluster – catalogued as Hodge 301 – with an age of 20–25 million years. The most massive stars of this cluster have already exploded in supernovae. The closest supernova observed since the invention of the telescope, Supernova 1987A, occurred in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarantula_nebula,
  17. Mayall’s Object (Pac-Man Galaxy)

    Mayall’s Object (also classified under the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 148) is the result of two colliding galaxies located 500 million light years away within the constellation of Ursa Major. It was discovered by Nicholas U. Mayall of the Lick Observatory on 13 March 1940, using the Crossley reflector. When first discovered, Mayall’s Object was described as a peculiar nebula, shaped like a question mark. Originally theorized to represent a galaxy reacting with the intergalactic medium, it is now thought to represent the collision of the two original galaxies has resulted in a new object consisting of a ring-shaped galaxy with a tail emerging from it. It is thought that the original collision between the two original galaxies created a shockwave that initially drew matter into the center which then formed the ring.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, Top Ten Arcade Gameshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayall%27s_Object,
  18. IOK-1 (Most Remote Galaxy)
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           IOK-1, probably one of the oldest and most distant galaxies yet found, seen as it was 12.88 billion years ago, was discovered in April 2006 by Masanori Iye at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan using the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. Its emission of Lyman alpha radiation has a redshift of 6.96, corresponding to just 750 million years after the Big Bang. While some scientists have claimed other objects (such as Abell 1835 IR1916) to be even older, the IOK-1’s age and composition have been more reliably established. “IOK” stands for the observers’ names Iye, Ota, and Kashikawa.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOK-1,
  19. NGC 2207 and IC 2163
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    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 are a pair of colliding spiral galaxies about 80 million light-years away in the constellation Canis Major. Both galaxies were discovered by John Herschel in 1835. So far four supernovae have been observed in NGC 2207 (type Ia SN 1975a in January 1975, type Ib SN 1999ec in October 1999, type Ib SN 2003H—discovered halfway between the two galaxies and type II supernova SN 2013ai in March 2013. NGC 2207 is in the process of tidally stripping IC 2163. NGC 2207 is in the process of colliding and merging with IC 2163. But unlike the Antennae or the Mice Galaxies, they are still two separate spiral galaxies. They are only in the first step of colliding and merging. Soon they will collide, probably looking a bit more like the Mice Galaxies. In about a billion years time they are expected to merge and become an elliptical galaxy.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies,
  20. “Starry Night” Image (Star in the Milky Way Surrounded by a Halo of Light)

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Stars,
  21. Omega Nebula
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           The Omega Nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, Checkmark Nebula, Lobster Nebula, and the Horseshoe Nebula (catalogued as Messier 17 or M17 and as NGC 6618) is an H II region in the constellation Sagittarius. It was discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux in 1745. Charles Messier catalogued it in 1764. It is located in the rich starfields of the Sagittarius area of the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Nebulas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan_nebula,
  22. Mesier 51, Grand Design Spiral Galaxy
    Mesier 51Mesier 511Mesier 512
           The Whirlpool Galaxy (also known as Messier 51a, M51a, or NGC 5194) is an interacting grand-design spiral galaxy located at a distance of approximately 23 million light-years in the constellation Canes Venatici. It is one of the most famous galaxies in the sky. The galaxy and its companion (NGC 5195) are easily observed by amateur astronomers, and the two galaxies may even be seen with binoculars. The Whirlpool Galaxy is also a popular target for professional astronomers, who study it to further understand galaxy structure (particularly structure associated with the spiral arms) and galaxy interactions. A grand design spiral galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy with prominent and well-defined spiral arms, as opposed to multi-arm and flocculent spirals which have subtler structural features. The spiral arms of a grand design galaxy extend clearly around the galaxy through many radians and can be observed over a large fraction of the galaxy’s radius. Approximately ten percent of spiral galaxies are classified as grand design type spirals, including M81, M51 and M74. Density wave theory is the preferred explanation for the well-defined structure of grand design spirals. According to this theory, the spiral arms are created inside density waves that turn around the galaxy at different speeds from the stars in the galaxy’s disk. Stars are clumped in these dense regions due to gravitational attraction towards the dense material, though their location in the spiral arm may not be permanent. When they come close to the spiral arm, they are pulled towards the dense material by the force of gravity; and as they travel through the arm, they are slowed from exiting by the same gravitational pull. This causes material to clump in the dense regions.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whirlpool_Galaxy,
  23. Centaurus A
    Centaurus A
           Centaurus A (also known as NGC 5128) is a lenticular galaxy about 11 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. It is one of the closest radio galaxies to Earth, so its active galactic nucleus has been extensively studied by professional astronomers. The galaxy is also the 5th brightest in the sky, making it an ideal amateur astronomy target, although the galaxy is only visible from low northern latitudes and the southern hemisphere. A relativistic jet which extracts energy from the vicinity of what is believed to be a super massive black hole at the center of the galaxy is responsible for emissions in the X-ray and radio wavelengths. By taking radio observations of the jet separated by a decade, astronomers have determined that the inner parts of the jet are moving at about one half of the speed of light. X-rays are produced farther out as the jet collides with surrounding gases resulting in the creation of highly energetic particles. As observed in other starburst galaxies, a collision is responsible for the intense burst of star formation. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope scientists confirm that Centaurus A is going through a galaxy collision by devouring a spiral galaxy.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A,
  24. ISOHDFS 27

           ISOHDFS 27 is the most massive spiral galaxy known so far. It is approximately 6 billion light years from Earth. It has a mass of 1.04 × 1012 solar masses (M), about four times as massive as the Milky Way.
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISOHDFS_27,
  25. Galaxies

    Des:
    Links: Top Ten Galaxies, 
  26. Links: Photography, Top 100 Photographs, Top Ten Modern Wonders of the World, Top Ten Telescopes,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Telescope,

Top Ten Nebulas

Top Ten Nebulas

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       A nebula (from Latin: “cloud”) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a general name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way (some examples of the older usage survive; for example, the Andromeda Galaxy was referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before galaxies were discovered by Edwin Hubble). Nebulae are often star-forming regions, such as in the Eagle Nebula. This nebula is depicted in one of NASA’s most famous images, the “Pillars of Creation.” In these regions the formations of gas, dust, and other materials “clump” together to form larger masses, which attract further matter, and eventually will become massive enough to form stars. The remaining materials are then believed to form planets and other planetary system objects.

  1. Ant Nebula
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    Menzel 3 is a young bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Norma that is composed of a bright core and four distinct high-velocity outflows that have been named lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. These nebulosities are described as: two spherical bipolar lobes, two outer large filamentary hour-glass shaped columns, two cone shaped rays, and a planar radially expanding, elliptically shaped chakram. Mz 3 is a complex system composed of three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and an equatorial ellipse. Its lobes all share the same axis of symmetry but each have very different morphologies and opening angles. It is an unusual PN in that it is believed, by some researchers, to contain a symbiotic binary at its center. Study suggests that the dense nebular gas at its center may have originated from a source different than that of its extended lobes. The working model to explain this hypothesizes that this PN is composed of a giant companion that caused a central dense gas region to form, and a white dwarf that provides ionizing photons for the PN.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_Nebula,
  2. Hourglass Nebula
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    The Engraved Hourglass Nebula (also known as MyCn 18) is a young planetary nebula situated in the southern constellation Musca about 8,000 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by Annie Jump Cannon and Margaret W. Mayall during their work on an extended Henry Draper Catalogue (1918-1924). At the time, it was designated simply as a small faint planetary nebula. Much improved telescopes and imaging techniques allowed the hourglass shape of the nebula to be discovered by Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on January 18, 1996. It is conjectured that MyCn 18’s hourglass shape is produced by the expansion of a fast stellar wind within a slowly expanding cloud which is denser near its equator than its poles. The formation of the shape of the inner “eye” is not yet fully understood. The Hourglass Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. A less-famous “Hourglass Nebula” is located inside the Lagoon Nebula.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hourglass_Nebula,
  3. Cat’s Eye Nebula
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           The Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543, Caldwell 6) is a planetary nebula in the constellation of Draco. Structurally, it is one of the most complex nebulae known, with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations revealing remarkable structures such as knots, jets, bubbles and sinewy arc-like features. In the center of the Cat’s Eye there is a bright and hot star; around 1,000 years ago this star lost its outer envelope, producing the nebula. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 15th, 1786, and was the first planetary nebula whose spectrum was investigated by the English amateur astronomer William Huggins in 1864. The results of the latter investigation demonstrated for the first time that planetary nebulae consist of hot gases, but not stars. Currently the nebula has been observed across the full electromagnetic spectrum, from far-infrared to X-rays. Modern studies reveal several mysteries. The intricacy of the structure may be caused in part by material ejected from a binary central star, but as yet, there is no direct evidence that the central star has a companion. Also, measurements of chemical abundances reveal a large discrepancy between measurements done by two different methods, the cause of which is uncertain. Hubble Telescope observations revealed a number of faint rings around the Eye, which are spherical shells ejected by the central star in the distant past. The exact mechanism of those ejections, however, is unclear.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat%27s_Eye_Nebula,
  4. Eskimo Nebula

    The Eskimo Nebula, also known as the Clownface Nebula or Caldwell 39, is a bipolar double-shell planetary nebula. It was discovered by astronomer William Herschel in 1787. The formation resembles a person’s head surrounded by a parka hood. It is surrounded by gas that composed the outer layers of a Sun-like star. The visible inner filaments are ejected by a strong wind of particles from the central star. The outer disk contains unusual light-year long filaments. NGC 2392 lies more than 2,870 light-years away and is visible with a small telescope (but more preferably with a larger telescope) in the constellation of Gemini.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eskimo_nebula,
  5. Crab Nebula
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    The Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant and pulsar wind nebula in the constellation of Taurus. Corresponding to a bright supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054, the nebula was observed later by English astronomer John Bevis in 1731. At an apparent magnitude of 8.4, comparable to that of the largest moon of Saturn, it is not visible to the naked eye but can be made out using binoculars under favorable conditions. At X-ray and gamma ray energies above 30 keV, the Crab is generally the strongest persistent source in the sky, with measured flux extending to above 10 TeV. Located at a distance of about 6,500 light-years (2 kpc) from Earth, the nebula has a diameter of 11 light years (3.4 pc, corresponding to an apparent diameter of some 7 arc minutes) and expands at a rate of about 1,500 kilometers per second (0.5% c). It is part of the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar, a neutron star 28–30 km across with a spin rate of 30.2 times per second, which emits pulses of radiation from gamma rays to radio waves. The nebula was the first astronomical object identified with a historical supernova explosion. The nebula acts as a source of radiation for studying celestial bodies that occult it. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, the Sun’s corona was mapped from observations of the Crab’s radio waves passing through it, and in 2003, the thickness of the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan was measured as it blocked out X-rays from the nebula.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crab_nebula,
  6. God’s Eye Nebula (Helix Nebula)
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    The Helix Nebula, also known as The Helix, NGC 7293, is a large planetary nebula (PN) located in the constellation Aquarius. Discovered by Karl Ludwig Harding, probably before 1824, this object is one of the closest to the Earth of all the bright planetary nebulae. The estimated distance is about 215 parsecs or 700 light-years. It is similar in appearance to the Cat’s Eye Nebula and the Ring Nebula, whose size, age, and physical characteristics are similar to the Dumbbell Nebula, varying only in its relative proximity and the appearance from the equatorial viewing angle. The Helix Nebula has sometimes been referred to as the “Eye of God” in pop culture.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helix_Nebula,
  7. Eagle Nebula
    4535.1345
           The Eagle Nebula, also known as the Star Queen Nebula, is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in 1745-46. Its name derives from its shape that is thought to resemble an eagle. It contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, including the famous “Pillars of Creation,” photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eagle_nebula,
  8. Egg Nebula
    34Processed with MaxIm DL
           The Egg Nebula is a bipolar protoplanetary nebula approximately 3,000 light-years away from Earth. Its peculiar properties were first described in 1975 using data from the 11 µm survey obtained with sounding rocket by Air Force Geophysical Laboratory in 1971 to 1974. Before this, the object was catalogued by Fritz Zwicky as a pair of galaxies. The Egg Nebula’s defining feature is the series of bright arcs and circles surrounding the central star. A dense layer of gas and dusts enshrouds the central star, blocking its direct light from our view. However, the light from the central star penetrates the thinner regions of this dusty enclosure, illuminating the outer layers of gas to create the arcs. The dusty enclosure around the central star is very likely a disc. The bipolar outflows in the image indicate that the system has angular momentum, which is very likely generated by an accretion disc. In addition, a disc geometry would account for the varying thickness of the enclosure that allows light to escape along the disc’s axis and illuminate the outer layers of gas, but still blocks it from our direct view along the disc edge. Although dusty discs have been confirmed around several post-AGB objects (S. De Ruyter et al., 2006), a disc around the Egg Nebula is yet to be confirmed. The Egg Nebula was photographed by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The Egg Nebula emits polarized light which can also be detected visually by a medium-sized telescope.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egg_Nebula,
  9. NGC 604
    Processed with MaxIm DL32
    NGC 604 is a H II region inside the Triangulum Galaxy. It was discovered by William Herschel on September 11, 1784. It is one of the largest H II regions in the Local Group of galaxies; at the galaxy’s estimated distance of 2.7 million light-years its longest diameter is roughly 1,500 light years (460 parsecs), over 40 times the size of the visible portion of the Orion Nebula. It is over 6,300 times more luminous than the Orion Nebula, and if it were at the same distance it would outshine Venus. Like all emission nebulae, its gas is ionized by a cluster of massive stars at its center, with 200 stars of spectral type O and WR, a mass of 105 solar masses, and an age of 3.5 million years; however, unlike the Large Magellanic Cloud’s Tarantula Nebula central cluster (R136), NGC 604’s one is much less compact and more similar to a large stellar association, being considered the prototypical example of a Scaled OB Association (SOBA).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_604,
  10. Great Nebula in Carina
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    The Great Carina Nebula is a large bright nebula that has within its boundaries several related open clusters of stars. Some papers generally refer to this as the Carina Nebula, mostly because of differentiating the many paper published on this object, but the historical precedence as determined by southern observers like James Dunlop and John Herschel, who have both termed it the Eta Argus Nebula or Eta Carinae Nebula. John Herschel also describes “The star η Argus, with the Great nebula about it.” with many of his subsequent published papers supporting this. Eta Carinae and HD 93129A, two of the most massive and luminous stars in our Milky Way galaxy, are among them. The nebula lies at an estimated distance between 6,500 and 10,000 light years from Earth. It appears in the constellation of Carina, and is located in the Carina–Sagittarius Arm. The nebula contains multiple O-type stars. The nebula is one of the largest diffuse nebulae in our skies. Although it is some four times as large and even brighter than the famous Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is much less well known, due to its location in the southern sky. It was discovered by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1751–52 from the Cape of Good Hope.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carina_Nebula,
  11. Jellyfish Nebula
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    IC 443 (also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sharpless 248 (Sh2-248)) is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Gemini. On the plan of the sky, it is located near the star Eta Geminorum. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth. IC 443 may be the remains of a supernova that occurred 3,000 – 30,000 years ago. The same supernova event likely created the neutron star CXOU J061705.3+222127, the collapsed remnant of the stellar core. IC 443 is one of the best-studied cases of supernova remnants interacting with surrounding molecular clouds.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish_nebula,
  12. Tarantula Nebula
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    The Tarantula Nebula is an H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was originally thought to be a star, but in 1751 Nicolas Louis de Lacaille recognized its nebular nature. The Tarantula Nebula has an apparent magnitude of 8. Considering its distance of about 49 kpc (160,000 light years), this is an extremely luminous non-stellar object. Its luminosity is so great that if it were as close to Earth as the Orion Nebula, the Tarantula Nebula would cast shadows. In fact, it is the most active starburst region known in the Local Group of galaxies. It is also one of the largest such region in the Local Group with an estimated diameter of 200 pc. The nebula resides on the leading edge of the LMC, where ram pressure stripping, and the compression of the interstellar medium likely resulting from this, is at a maximum. At its core lies the compact star cluster R136 (approximate diameter 35 light years) that produces most of the energy that makes the nebula visible. The estimated mass of the cluster is 450,000 solar masses, suggesting it will likely become a globular cluster in the future. In addition to R136, the Tarantula Nebula also contains an older star cluster – catalogued as Hodge 301 – with an age of 20–25 million years. The most massive stars of this cluster have already exploded in supernovae. The closest supernova observed since the invention of the telescope, Supernova 1987A, occurred in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarantula_nebula,
  13. Omega Nebula
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    The Omega Nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, Checkmark Nebula, Lobster Nebula, and the Horseshoe Nebula (catalogued as Messier 17 or M17 and as NGC 6618) is an H II region in the constellation Sagittarius. It was discovered by Philippe Loys de Chéseaux in 1745. Charles Messier catalogued it in 1764. It is located in the rich starfields of the Sagittarius area of the Milky Way.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan_nebula,
  14. Stingray Nebula

    The Stingray Nebula (Hen 3-1357) is the youngest known planetary nebula, (Bobrowsky 1994) located in the direction of the southern constellation Ara (the Altar), 18,000 light-years away. Although it is some 130 times the size of our solar system, the Stingray Nebula is only about 1/10 the size of most other known planetary nebulae. Forty years ago it was still a protoplanetary nebula in which the gas had not yet become hot and ionized. In a Nature article, Bobrowsky et al. described how the Hubble observations revealed a 17th-magnitude companion to the Stingray’s 15th-magnitude central star. The image of the Stingray Nebula shown here shows how the outer shells of gas are collimating the continuing outflow of gas from the central star — an important observation, as the process of how these outflows become collimated has not been well understood.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stingray_nebula,
  15. Butterfly Nebulas (Planetary Nebula M2-9 and NGC 6302)
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           Minkowski 2-9, also known as Minkowski’s Butterfly and Twin Jet Nebula, is a planetary nebula that was discovered by Rudolph Minkowski in 1947. It is located about 2,100 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Ophiuchus. This bipolar nebula takes the peculiar form of twin lobes of material that emanate from a central star. Astronomers have dubbed this object as the Twin Jet Nebula because of the polar jets believed to cause the shape of the lobes. The nebula was imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope in the 1990’s. M2-9 represents the spectacular “last gasp” of a binary star system at the nebula’s center. The primary component of this binary is the hot core of a star that reached the end of its main-sequence life cycle, ejected most of its outer layers and became a red giant, and is now contracting into a white dwarf. It is believed to have been a sun-like star early in its life. The second, smaller star of the binary orbits very closely and may even have been engulfed by the other’s expanding stellar atmosphere with the resulting interaction creating the nebula. Astronomers theorize that the gravity of one star pulls some of the gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk extending into space. The nebula has inflated dramatically due to a fast stellar wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk and inflating the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. Similiarly, NGC 6302 is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius. The structure in the nebula is among the most complex ever observed in planetary nebulae. The spectrum of NGC 6302 shows that its central star is one of the hottest stars in the galaxy, with a surface temperature in excess of 200,000 K, implying that the star from which it formed must have been very large (cf. PG 1159 star). The central star, a white dwarf, was only recently discovered (Szyszka et al. 2009), using the upgraded Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The star has a current mass of around 0.64 solar masses. It is surrounded by a particularly dense equatorial disc composed of gas and dust. This dense disc is postulated to have caused the star’s outflows to form a bipolar structure (Gurzadyan 1997) similar to an hour-glass. This bipolar structure shows many interesting features seen in planetary nebulae such as ionization walls, knots and sharp edges to the lobes.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_Nebula_M2-9, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_6302,
  16. Witch Head Nebula

    IC 2118 (also known as Witch Head Nebula due to its shape), is an extremely faint reflection nebula believed to be an ancient supernova remnant or gas cloud illuminated by nearby supergiant star Rigel in Orion. It lies in the Eridanus constellation, about 900 light-years from Earth. The nature of the dust particles, reflecting blue light better than red, is a factor in giving the Witch Head its blue color. Radio observations show substantial carbon monoxide emission throughout parts of IC 2118 an indicator of the presence of molecular clouds and star formation in the nebula. In fact candidates for pre-main sequence stars and some classic T-Tauri stars have been found deep within the nebula. The molecular clouds of IC 2118 are probably juxtaposed to the outer boundaries of the vast Orion-Eridanus bubble, a giant supershell of molecular hydrogen blown by the high mass stars of the Orion OB1 association. As the supershell expands into the interstellar medium, favorable circumstances for star formation occur. IC 2118 is located in one such area. The windblown appearance and cometary shape of the bright reflection nebula is highly suggestive of a strong association with the high mass luminous stars of Orion OB1. The fact that the heads of the cometary clouds of IC2118 point northeast towards the association is strong support of that relationship.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witch_Head_Nebula,
  17. Hand of God Nebula
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    Description:
    Links:
  18. Calabash Nebula

           The Calabash Nebula, also known as the Rotten Egg Nebula or by its technical name OH 231.84 +4.22, is a protoplanetary nebula (PPN) 1.4 light years (13 Pm) long and located some 5,000 light years (47 Em) from Earth in the constellation Puppis. Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula because it contains a relatively large amount of sulfur. The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million km per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star’s original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures. A team of Spanish and US astronomers used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gases. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and structure of such shocks for some time, previous observations have not been able to prove the theory. This new Hubble image used filters that only let through light from ionized hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. Astronomers were able to distinguish the warmest parts of the gas heated by the violent shocks and found that they form a complex double-bubble shape. The bright yellow-orange colors in the picture show how dense, high-speed gas is flowing from the star, like supersonic speeding bullets ripping through a medium in opposite directions. The central star itself is hidden in the dusty band at the center. Much of the gas flow observed today seems to stem from a sudden acceleration that took place only about 800 years ago. The astronomers believe that 1,000 years from now, the Calabash Nebula will become a fully developed planetary nebula, like a butterfly emerging from its chrysalis.
    Links: Top Ten Butterflies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calabash_Nebula,
  19. Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (Horse Head and Flame Nebulas)
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    The Horsehead Nebula is a dark nebula in the constellation Orion. It is located just to the south of the star Alnitak, which is farthest east on Orion’s Belt, and is part of the much larger Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. The nebula was first recorded in 1888 by Scottish astronomer Williamina Fleming at the Harvard College Observatory. The Horsehead Nebula is approximately 1,500 light years from Earth. It is one of the most identifiable nebulae because of the shape of its swirling cloud of dark dust and gases, which bears some resemblance to a horse’s head when viewed from Earth. The red or pinkish glow originates from hydrogen gas predominantly behind the nebula, ionized by the nearby bright star Sigma Orionis. The darkness of the Horsehead is caused mostly by thick dust, although the lower part of the Horsehead’s neck casts a shadow to the left. Streams of gas leaving the nebula are funnelled by a strong magnetic field. Bright spots in the Horsehead Nebula’s base are young stars just in the process of forming. The nebula exhibits a noticeable change in the density of the stars which indicates that a red ribbon of radiant red hydrogen gas at the precipice of a sizable dark cloud. The underside of the horse’s visible ‘neck’ reflects this concept of shade and density because it casts a great shadow across the field of view just below the horse’s ‘muzzle.’ The visible heart of the nebula emerges from the gaseous complex to serve as an active site of the formation of “low-mass” stars. A glowing strip of hydrogen gas marks the edge of the massive cloud and noticeable densities of stars are present on either side. The dark cloud of dust and gas is a region in the Orion Nebula where star formation is taking place right now. A complex housing forming stars, known as a stellar nursery, can contain over 100 known organic and inorganic gases as well as dust consisting of large and complex organic molecules. The region of the Orion Nebula containing the Horsehead is a stellar nursery. The darkness of the massive nebula is not explained by this dust and gas, but by the complex blocking the light of stars behind it.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_head_nebula,
  20. Cone Nebula
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    The Cone Nebula is an H II region in the constellation of Monoceros. It was discovered by William Herschel on December 26, 1785, at which time he designated it H V.27. The nebula is located about 830 parsecs or 2,700 light-years away from Earth. The Cone Nebula forms part of the nebulosity surrounding the Christmas Tree Cluster. It is in the northern part of Monoceros, just north of the midpoint of a line from Procyon to Betelgeuse. The cone’s shape comes from a dark absorption nebula consisting of cold molecular hydrogen and dust in front of a faint emission nebula containing hydrogen ionized by S Monocerotis, the brightest star of NGC 2264. The faint nebula is approximately 7 light-years long (with an apparent length of 10 arcminutes), and is 2,700 light-years away from Earth. The nebula is part of a much larger star-forming complex. The nebula is sometimes referred to as the Jesus Christ Nebula because of its resemblance to Jesus with his hands in a prayer position.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone_nebula,
  21. Blinking Nebula
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    NGC 6826 (also known as Caldwell 15) is a planetary nebula located in the constellation Cygnus. It is commonly referred to as the “blinking planetary,” although many other nebulae exhibit such “blinking.” When viewed through a small telescope, the brightness of the central star overwhelms the eye when viewed directly, obscuring the surrounding nebula. However, it can be viewed well in the peripheral vision (averted vision), which causes it to “blink” in and out of view as the observer’s eye wanders. A distinctive feature of this nebula are the two bright patches on either side, which are known as FLIERs, or Fast Low-Ionization Emission Regions. They appear to be relatively young, moving outwards at supersonic speeds. According to Bruce Balick (University of Washington), “some of their observed characteristics suggest that they are like sparks flung outward from the central star late in the very recent past (a thousand years ago). Yet their shapes … seem to suggest that they are stationary, and that material ejected from the star flows past them, scraping gas from their surfaces. Future Hubble observations will monitor any changes in the positions of FLIERs to resolve this issue. In either case, the formation of FLIERs cannot be easily explained by any models of stellar evolution.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blinking_Nebula,
  22. Orion Nebula
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    The Orion Nebula is a diffuse nebula situated south of Orion’s Belt in the constellation of Orion. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. M42 is located at a distance of 1,344 ± 20 light years and is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. The M42 nebula is estimated to be 24 light years across. It has a mass of about 2,000 times the mass of the Sun. The Orion Nebula is one of the most scrutinized and photographed objects in the night sky, and is among the most intensely studied celestial features. The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust. Astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs, intense and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizing effects of massive nearby stars in the nebula.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Nebula,
  23. Owl Nebula
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    The Owl Nebula is a planetary nebula located approximately 2,030 light years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It was discovered by French astronomer Pierre Méchain on February 16, 1781. When William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse observed the nebula in 1848, his hand-drawn illustration resembled an owl’s head and it has been known as such ever since. This 8,000 year old planetary nebula is essentially circular in cross-section with a “relatively bland internal structure.” It was formed from the outflow of material from the stellar wind of the central star as it evolved along the asymptotic giant branch. The nebula is arranged in three concentric shells, with the outermost shell being about 20–30% larger than the inner shell. The owl-like appearance of the nebula is the result of an inner shell that is not circularly symmetric, but instead forms a barrel-like structure aligned at an angle of 45° to the line of sight. The nebula holds about 0.13 times the mass of the Sun worth of matter, including hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; all with a density of less than 100 particles per cubic centimeter. Its outer radius is around 0.91 ly (0.28 pc) and it is expanding with velocities in the range of 27–39 km/s into the surrounding interstellar medium. The 14th magnitude central star has since reached the turning point of its evolution where it condenses to form a white dwarf. It has 55–60% of the Sun’s mass, 41–148 times the brightness of the Sun, and an effective temperature of 123,000 K. The star has been successfully resolved by the Spitzer Space Telescope as a point source that does not show the infrared excess characteristic of a circumstellar disk.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owl_nebula,
  24. Red Rectangle
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    The Red Rectangle Nebula, so called because of its red color and unique rectangular shape, is a protoplanetary nebula in the Monoceros constellation. Also known as HD 44179, the nebula was discovered in 1973 during a rocket flight associated with the AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey called Hi Star. The binary system at the center of the nebula was first discovered by Robert Grant Aitken in 1915.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Rectangle_Nebula,
  25. Boomerang Nebula *Coolest Natural Place in the Known Universe
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    The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. The nebula’s temperature is measured at 1 K (−272.15 °C; −457.87 °F) making it the coolest natural place currently known in the Universe. The Boomerang Nebula is believed to be a stellar system evolving toward the planetary nebula phase. It continues to form and develop due to the outflow of gas from its core where a star in its late stage life sheds mass and emits starlight illuminating dust in the nebula. The outflowing gas is moving outwards at a speed of about 164 km/s and expanding rapidly as it moves out into space; this gas expansion results in the nebula’s unusually low temperature. Keith Taylor and Mike Scarrott called it the ‘Boomerang Nebula’ in 1980 after observing it with the Anglo-Australian telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory. Unable to view it with great clarity, the astronomers saw merely a slight asymmetry in the nebula’s lobes suggesting a curved shape like a boomerang. The nebula was photographed in detail by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1998 revealing a more symmetric hourglass shape. In 1995, using the 15-metre Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope in Chile, astronomers revealed that it is the coldest place in the Universe found so far, besides laboratory-created temperatures. With a temperature of −272 °C, it is only 1 °C warmer than absolute zero (the lowest limit for all temperatures). Even the −270 °C background glow from the Big Bang is warmer than the nebula. Aside from the CMB cold spot, it is the only object found so far that has a temperature lower than the background radiation. In 2013, observations of the ALMA radio interferometer revealed other features of the Boomerang Nebula. The visible double lobe of the Boomerang Nebula was observed to be surrounded by a larger spherical volume of cold gas seen only in sub-millimeter radio wavelengths. The nebula’s outer fringes appear to be gradually warming.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boomerang_nebula,
  26. Medusa Nebula
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    The Medusa Nebula is a large planetary nebula in the constellation of Gemini on the Canis Minor border. It also known as Abell 21 and Sharpless 274. It was originally discovered in 1955 by UCLA astronomer George O. Abell, who classified it as an old planetary nebula. The braided serpentine filaments of glowing gas suggests the serpent hair of Medusa found in ancient Greek mythology. Until the early 1970’s, the Medusa was thought to be a supernova remnant. With the computation of expansion velocities and the thermal character of the radio emission, Soviet astronomers in 1971 concluded that it was most likely a planetary nebula. As the nebula is so big, its surface brightness is very low, with surface magnitudes of between +15.99 and +25 reported. Because of this most websites recommend at least an 8-inch (200 mm) telescope with an [O III] filter to find this object although probably possible to image with smaller apertures.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medusa_Nebula,
  27. Links: The Universe, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebula,

Noteworthy UFO/ET Videos

Noteworthy UFO/ET Videos

“Do not blindly believe what others say. See for yourself what brings contentment, clarity and peace. That is the path for you to follow.” – Buddha

  • NASA UFO Footage Compilation

    Here is some footage from NASA that has finally been revealed to the public.
    Links:
  • Russian Cosmonaut Exposes UFO Truth

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Crop Circles,
  • Turkish UFO

    This footage is believed to be genuine and is one of the greatest evidence of not only an anti-gravity craft, but quite possibly one from extraterrestrial origins.
    Links:
  • The Message of Gramaha of Ashtar Galactic Command

    Links:
  • Scientist Robert Lazar Explains S-4 Experience

    Highly recommend watching all four parts of this interview.
    Links:
  • UFO Crash in New Mexico, USA

    This footage shows a disk (possibly human, but perhaps extraterrestrial), crashing into the New Mexican Desert.
    Links:
  • Larry King Live CNN Segment

    Description:
    Links:
  • Dome of the Rock UFO Sighting, Jerusalem (2011)

           This amazing event occurred in Jerusalem above the Dome of the Rock. A ball of light hovered in the sky and then descended to a point right above the dome of the rock. It then preceded to quickly rise back into the sky, which turned into a circular light show, ending in the object flasing and blinking out of sight. Watch the video by clicking on the link below.
    Links:
  • Supposed KGB ET Footage

    Hard to say if it’s real or not, but interesting no the less.
    Links:
  • 2007 Kolkata UFO sighting

    This bizarre craft appeared over Kolkata, India. In the background you can here someone chanting to the Hindu deity Krishna.
    Links:
  • Pilot Films Flying Disk Over Costa Rico

    Links:
  • Kaikoura Lights

    Links:
  • Mariana Incident

    Links:
  • Links:

Crashed/Recovered ET Spacecraft

Crashed/Recovered ET Spacecraft

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       Most physical evidence of these crashes have been confiscated by the various governments; however, not all evidence is in their possession. In the past, the US government’s central archive of UFO wreckage was Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. It has been reported that the majority of the ET bodies have been sent to Great Britain for storage and examination. The following accounts are of UFO’s, therefore some may be extraterrestrial in origin, while others may be military craft retrievals.

  1. Roswell Crash, New Mexico, USA (1947 and 1949)
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           The Roswell UFO incident took place in the US in June or July 1947, when an airborne object crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico. Explanations of what took place are based on both official and unofficial communications. Although the crash is attributed to a secret US military Air Force surveillance balloon by the US government, the most famous explanation of what occurred is that the object was a spacecraft containing extraterrestrial life. Since the late 1970’s, the Roswell incident has been the subject of much controversy, and conspiracy theories have arisen about the event. Roswell has become the most publicized of all alleged UFO incidents. On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) public information officer Walter Haut, issued a press release stating that personnel from the field’s 509th Operations Group had recovered a “flying disk,” which had crashed on a ranch near Roswell. Later that day, the press reported that Commanding General of the Eighth Air Force Roger Ramey had stated that a weather balloon was recovered by the RAAF personnel. In 1978, physicist and ufologist Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Major Jesse Marcel who was involved with the original recovery of the debris in 1947. Marcel expressed his belief that the military covered up the recovery of an ET spacecraft. His story spread through UFO circles, being featured in some UFO documentaries at the time. In February 1980, the National Enquirer ran its own interview with Marcel, garnering national and worldwide attention for the Roswell incident. Additional witnesses added significant new details, including claims of a large-scale military operation dedicated to recovering alien craft and aliens themselves, at as many as 11 crash sites, and alleged witness intimidation. In 1989, former mortician Glenn Dennis put forth a detailed personal account, wherein he claimed alien autopsies were carried out at the Roswell base.
    Links: Top Ten Military Bases, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roswell_UFO_incident,
  2. STS-48 Incident (1991)

           Although this craft did not crash, it is believed that had it been hit by the Brilliant Pebbles weapon, which is basically a satellite laser system, it may have crashed. This craft is traveling in a straight line, and after a misfire by the laser shot, upon recognizing the threat, darts off in a 144 degree turn. It serves as evidence that certain group(s) on Earth are intentionally trying to shoot down spacecraft. A video taken during mission STS-48 of Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit on September 15, 1991 shows a flash of light and several objects that appear to be flying in an artificial or controlled fashion. NASA explained the objects as ice particles reacting to engine jets, while James Oberg claimed that the flash was from a thruster firing. Dr. Jack Kasher analyzed the movement of the objects in 1996, and found five arguments that the footage could not depict ice particles. However, Lan Fleming found discrepancies in the timestamps in a later version of the video first released by the NASA FOIA office in 1999, leaving some conclusions indeterminate. Lan Fleming analyzed the movements of the objects and the flash of light that preceded the abrupt change in the course of the objects, and concluded that the exhaust plume from one of the shuttle’s reaction control system rockets could not have produced the flash of light. Mark J. Carlotto came to the conclusion that relatively brief firings of shuttle thruster rockets acting on nearby debris particles could not explain the prolonged periods of acceleration indicated by the curved paths of the unidentified objects. Carlotto also noted that at the end of the event, the shuttle’s camera panned down, showing a number of objects moving below the shuttle, and one of the objects appeared to consist of three lobes arranged in a triangular pattern.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UFO_sightings_in_outer_space#1991,
  3. Shag Harbour UFO Incident (1967)
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           The Shag Harbour UFO incident was the reported impact of an unknown large object into waters near Shag Harbour, a tiny fishing village in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia on October 4, 1967. The impact was investigated by various civilian (Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Canadian Coast Guard) and military (Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force) agencies of the Government of Canada. The RCN conducted at least one underwater search to attempt to locate the remains of any associated objects. The Government of Canada declared that no known aircraft was involved and the source of the impact remains unknown to this day. It is one of very few cases where government agency documents have formally declared an unidentified flying object was involved. Several military witnesses that were interviewed, including a RCN diver involved in the search, have claimed an extraterrestrial spacecraft was responsible. It was also claimed by several of the witnesses that units of the US armed forces were involved in the search. The case was also briefly investigated by the US Condon Committee UFO study, which offered no explanation.
    Links: Top Ten Crashed/Recovered ET Spacecraft, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shag_Harbour_UFO_incident,
  4. New Mexico UFO Crashes (1950-1974)
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    According to ufologists, throughout the years 1950-1974, there seem to be a number of UFO crashes in the New Mexico area. The earliest case occurred on September 10, 1950 when a craft was recovered which contained the bodies of what are believed to be three extraterrestrial life forms. Seven years later in 1957, reports surfaced that an intact craft had crashed and that four extraterrestrial bodies were recovered. A few years later in 1962 and 1963 five more extraterrestrial bodies were reportedly recovered from crash sites in the area and taken to top secret military installations nearby.  Numerous more reports indicate that in 1974, the US Air Force recovered a sixty foot metallic craft outside of the town of Chili.
    Links:
  5. Russian Crash (1969) *Military Craft???
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    The above pictured craft is believed to have crashed in Russia in 1969. It bears a close resemblance to a US Airforce project, which was attempting to create a disk like flying craft. The Cold War-era plan was discovered by the National Declassification Center in College Park, Maryland, when a group of researchers found a discarded cardboard box containing a 114-page document from 1956. Entitled ‘Project 1794,’ the document described in great detail the method of building and flying a spherical aircraft that that would reach speeds of Mach 4 at heights of 100,000 ft. and a range of 1,000 nautical miles.’
    Links: Top Ten Extraterrestrial Government Projects/Operations/Research, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2219836/Newly-uncovered-government-report-reveals-Air-Force-plan-flying-saucer.html,
  6. Siberian Crash (1989)
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    According to the reports, on August 10, 1989 at 1:00 AM, outside Prohlandnyi, Soviet military radar picked up a UFO. An attempt was made to contact the craft, without success, which led to the object being classified as “hostile.” Russian defenses were put on alert, and Mig-25s were put in the air to find and identify the UFO. When the UFO refused to answer hails, the Migs fired, hitting the UFO. It soon ditched over the Caucasian Mountains, and a search and retrieval team was dispatched. A crew aboard an M1-8 located the disc-shaped UFO outside of Nizhnizy Chegem. The area was completely cordoned off to everyone except military personnel. According to reports, the object was about 20 feet long and 10 feet tall, shaped like a long cigar. There was obvious damage to the exterior of the craft and a retrieval team, wearing protective outer wear, moved to the site. There was a small amount of radiation, and some members of the team were effected. The craft was transported to Mozdok Air Base, which is believed to store nuclear weapons, and long range bombers. There were many items found, including instrument panels, electronic switches and monitors, as well as three ET bodies-two dead, one barely alive. A team of doctors and other medical personnel made every effort to keep the ET alive, but failed. All three of the beings were about 3 1/2 to 4 feet tall, with gray outer wear. Underneath, their skin was a blue-green color with a reptilian texture. They had no hair, large black eyes covered with a protective lid, and web fingers ended their long, slender arms. According to reports, the alien bodies were being kept in glass containers in a top-secret facility. The crashed UFO was taken to the Kapustin Yar range. The information contained in this report originated from three Russian investigators-Anton Anfalov, Lenura Azizova and Alexander Mosolov.
    Links: http://www.ufocasebook.com/russiancrash1989.html,
  7. Siberia Crash (1986)

    After witnesses saw a craft crash into a hill, a team led by Valeir Dvushilny visited the site, which revealed much surrounding damage. A week later, two yellow globes were observed circling the area, and over a year later, 33 UFO’s were seen visiting the same area.
    Links:
  8. Spitsbergen UFO Crash, Norway (1936-49 and 1952)
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    According to researchers, military forces of Norway recovered a crashed disk on the island of Spitsbergen. The craft was bluish in appearance and nearly 50 meters in diameter. The military forces of Norway reportedly recovered a UFO in very good condition after spying a glittering, bluish disc approximately 50 meters in diameter resting on the ice and snow of the island. Some believe that they recovered a V7 prototype Nazi craft, while others, an ET craft.
    Links:
  9. Kalahari Desert, Botswana, 1989

    Researchers claim that an object was detected by South African Radar, which led to fighter jets intercepting the craft. A possible firefight took place, at which point the object emitted a flash of light before crashing to Earth. Investigators reported finding a large crater, which emitted high levels of radioactivity and electromagnetic energy. According to some sources, it is believed that in the first crash, two ET’s survived, while in the second, two craft were successfully recovered intact. Perhaps the second craft was attempting to rescue the survivors of the first crash, while the South African military was intentionally trying to take down the craft to investigate the technology used.
    Links:
  10. Gdynia, Poland (1959)

    According to recently released reports, observers saw a UFO fall into a harbor in Gdynia, Poland. Divers eventually retrieved pieces of the mettalic craft, which were analyzed by the Polytechnic Institute of the Polish Navy. A body was later examined by USSR medics.
    Links:
  11. Kingman Crash, Arizona (1953)

    According to an April 1976 issue of UFO Magazine a UFO crashed south of Kingman, Arizona on May 20, 1953. According to the article, Arthur G. Stancil, who worked as a mechanical engineer for the military, was taken to a crashed disk site and asked to determine how fast the object had been traveling when it impacted the ground. Arthur also reorted that he saw the inside of the craft, which included chairs and a control room, and that a few ET bodies, wearing a silver suit, were taken to Wright-Patterson AFB. A number of other witnesses, some on their deathdeb, have come forward to support Arthur Stancil’s story.
    Links:
  12. Carlsbad Crash, New Mexico (1957)

    Reports abound that a disk crashed outside Carlsbad on July 18th, 1957. Four ET bodies were reportedly taken for further study.
    Links:
  13. Utah Desert Crash, USA (1953-1958)

    In an area south of Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah, there is a land formation that appears to have been created by a very large object crashing. As a result of measurements taken at the site, researchers believe that the craft was a few hundred feet in diameter. The area remains t this day as a highly restricted military area. Due to different reports, it appears that the craft was too large to be extracted at the time of the crash, but was later removed to be investigated. Interestingly enough, an X-Files movie touched on this idea when they built a building over a craft that could not be removed from its crash site. According to researchers, four bodies were recovered.
    Links:
  14. Laredo Crash, Texas, (1948 and 1953) and Brady/Dutton Crashes, Montana (1953)

    According to Mr. Tienney, who was driving to Conrad from Great Falls on June, 19, 1953, a bright oval object with white balls of fire falling from it. Later that day he received a call from a high-ranking officer at Malmstrom AFB asking him to come to the base to sign a statement of secrecy.It is believed by researchers that four ET bodies were recovered from the craft.
    Links:
  15. Ottawa, Canada (2009)

    According to the Welland Tribune, dozens of people witnessed a bright light craft, which changed courcse a number of times before crashing into a nearby river. Search teams took sonar readings and even underwater cameras, and eventually came across a strong object, which did not resemble any known conventional aircraft. Video footage of the craft disappeared and some believe that the government kept the incident a secret.
    Links:
  16. Milton Torres UFO Encounter (1957) and the Del Rio UFO Crash (1955)
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           The Milton Torres 1957 UFO Encounter is a case reported by a former jet pilot in the US Air Force, Milton John Torres, of Miami, Florida. On May 20, 1957, the 25-year-old Torres was ordered on a mission to intercept and shoot down a large UFO that had been picked up by radar in the skies over East Anglia, UK. Torres, flying a North American Aviation F-86D Sabre jet approached the object and prepared to fire upon it. As he locked on his weapons, the UFO suddenly zoomed away at a high rate of speed. The details of this case were first made public in a release of UFO-related case files by the British government in October 2008. This case shares some similarities with the Del Rio, Texas UFO Crash of 1955, which also involved an aerial encounter between an F-86 Sabre and a UFO.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Torres_1957_UFO_Encounter,
  17. Columbus, Ohio (1952)
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    According to Vivian Walton, in employment for the Army Signal Corps, she deciphered a top secret message that described a recovery attempt of a crashed disk near Colombus, Ohio. She reported that the craft was 30 ft in diameter and was taken to Wright-Patterson AFB for further analysis. This report seems to mirror many other as the size of the disk, as well as it being taken to Wright Patterson AFB is very similiar to many other cases.
    Links:
  18. Cape Girardeau, Missouri UFO
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    The Cape Girardeau UFO crash is alleged to have taken place in April of 1941 near Cape Girardeau, Missouri. According to UFO researcher Leonard H. Stringfield, Charlette Mann, granddaughter of Reverend William Huffman of the Red Star Baptist Church, told Stringfield that Huffman was taken to a crash site 10 to 15 miles from the town of Cape Girardeau, and asked to perform last rites over the bodies of three non-human creatures whose bodies were scattered around near a crashed space ship. Huffman and the other witnesses (police, firefighters and local residents) were reportedly warned not to talk about what they had seen by military personnel who arrived and took control of the crash site.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Girardeau_UFO_crash,
  19. 5 Crashes in the Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio Area, USA (1966-1968)
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    There exist numerous reports that up to 5 UFO crashes occurred in the Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio area between 1966 and 1968.
    Links:
  20. Crash in Northwestern Arizona, USA (27 Oct 1966)
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    According to a Marine PFC with a Alpha Red Top Secret Crypto Clearance, a 30 foot metallic disk with a domed top and no windows was believed to be recovered near Northwestern, Arizona in 1966.
    Links:
  21. Albuquerque Crash, New Mexico (1950 and 1960)

    According to videotapes by Budd Hopkins, witnesses state that a ET spacecraft crashed in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 3 ET bodies were recovered by State Police, hospital and ambulance personnel who closely examined the bodies. Soon after the sighting, Air Force personnel confiscated all evidence and swore all of the witnesses to secrecy.
    Links:
  22. UFO Crashes of the Coast of San Diego (1941)
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    The first US crash/retrieval of an ET craft occurred during 1941 in the ocean west of San Diego. Retrieved by the navy, dead Zeta Reticulans, alias the ‘Greys,’ were found inside. Craft and bodies were taken to the Foreign Technology Section at Wright-Patterson Airforce base in Dayton, Ohio, and studied by the Retfours Special Studies Group. After dismantling the craft parts were sent to S4 and Indian Springs in Nevada. This craft crashed due to the recently invented pulse radar being tested on the nearby Tinian island, located three miles south/south west of Saipan.
    Links:
  23. Mexico City UFO Crash (1950)
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    According to witness Ray Dimmick, a UFO crashed outside Mexico City and a 23 inch tall being was recovered diseased from the wreckage.
    Links:
  24. Kecksburg UFO (1965) *Military Craft?
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    The Kecksburg UFO incident occurred on December 9, 1965, at Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, USA. A large, brilliant fireball was seen by thousands in at least six US states and Ontario, Canada. It streaked over the Detroit, Michigan/Windsor, Ontario area, reportedly dropped hot metal debris over Michigan and northern Ohio, starting some grass fires and caused sonic booms in Western Pennsylvania. It was generally assumed and reported by the press to be a meteor after authorities discounted other proposed explanations such as a plane crash, errant missile test, or reentering satellite debris. However, eyewitnesses in the small village of Kecksburg, about 30 miles southeast of Pittsburgh, claimed something crashed in the woods. A boy said he saw the object land; his mother saw a wisp of blue smoke arising from the woods and alerted authorities. Another reported feeling a vibration and “a thump” about the time the object reportedly landed. Others from Kecksburg, including local volunteer fire department members, reported finding an object in the shape of an acorn and about as large as a Volkswagen Beetle. Writing resembling Egyptian hieroglyphics was also said to be in a band around the base of the object. Witnesses further reported that intense military presence, most notably the US Army, secured the area, ordered civilians out, and then removed the object on a flatbed truck. At the time, however, the military claimed they searched the woods and found “absolutely nothing.” The Tribune-Review from nearby Greensburg had a reporter at the scene; the headline in the newspaper the next morning was “Unidentified Flying Object Falls near Kecksburg — Army Ropes off Area.” The article continued with, “The area where the object landed was immediately sealed off on the order of US Army and State Police officials, reportedly in anticipation of a ‘close inspection’ of whatever may have fallen… State Police officials there ordered the area roped off to await the expected arrival of both US Army engineers and possibly, civilian scientists.” However, a later edition of the newspaper stated that nothing reportedly had been found after authorities searched the area. Speculation as to the identity of the Kecksburg object, also range from it being an alien craft to a secret military craft to debris from Cosmos 96, a Soviet Space Probe Intended for Venus but never left the atmosphere.
    Links:
  25. 1561 Celestial Phenomenon over Nuremberg, Germany and 1566 Event over Basle, Switzerland
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    The 1561 celestial phenomenon over Nuremberg was a mass sighting of celestial phenomena or unidentified flying objects (UFO) above Nuremberg, Germany. The phenomenon has been interpreted by some modern UFO enthusiasts as an aerial battle, possibly of extraterrestrial origin. It also appears from the drawings that some of the crafts may have actually been shot down and crashed in Nuremberg. This may be an important link to how the Nazis obtained some of their knowledge about anti-gravity, later leading to the Die Glocke expeiments (Bell Experiments), which attempted to manipulate spacetime.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1561_celestial_phenomenon_over_Nuremberg,
  26. Indian Ocean Crash (1862)

    According to he May 2, 1897 issue of The Houston Daily Post, Dutch sailors in the Indian Ocean reported reported witnessing an “airship” that crashed into a nearby island. They recorded that the ship had “4 huge wings” and was as large as a battleship. Upon further investigation, the men reported finding the bodies of several large (12 feet tall) men in strange clothes and sporting silky beards with skin the color of bronze. A few men went mad from the event and only a few survived to speak about the incident.
    Links:
  27. Brighton Crash, England (1955)
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    On May 1955, a UFO crashed off the coast of Brighton, England and 4 bodies were reportedly recovered by the British Navy.
    Links:
  28. St Geniez, France (1972)
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    According to Leo Stringfield in his research entitles “Satus Reports,” 40 acres of brush were burnt after witnesses saw a “disc-shaped object” crash into the rocky slopes of St. Geniez, France in 1972.
    Links:
  29. El Yunque Rain Forest Crash (1984)
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    Another report by Leo Stringfield and Jorge Martin, states that a craft is believed to have crashed in the El Yunque Rain Forest. Residents witnessed military and NASA investigators closing off the area, while sealed wooden crates were seen being taken from the site.
    Links:
  30. Chuhuahua Crash, Mexico (1974)

           It is believed that bodies and disk were recovered intact.
    Links:
  31. Arizona Crashes (1953 and 1978)

    Five bodies were reportedly recovered.
    Links:
  32. North Carolina Crash? (1941 and 1942)
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    According to Leo Sringfield, a UFO crashed “north of Georgia,” as indicated by a mother of a military man, as well as various second hand sources. The craft was reported to be a disk shaped mettalic object, which was 15 ft wide and 10 ft high, with a control room and four seats. According to reports all the ET beings died upon the crash.
    Links:
  33. South Haven Park, Long Island Crash, NY (1992)
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    In November of 1992, witnesses near South Haven Park saw a bright light falling from the sky followed by a huge explosion, which knocked out power to houses in the near vicinity. Interestingly South Haven Park is near very close to Brookhaven National Laboratory, where top secret energy projects take place. Some believe this may have been a surveillance craft of unknown origin that was possibly shot down. Video exits of parts of the retrieval, but appears to be fairly inconclusive about the true nature of what occurred.
    Links:
  34. Bolivian UFO Crash (May 1978)
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    On May 6, 1978, at about 4:15 p.m., something crashed into a mountain near El Taire on the Bermejo River, the border between the Bolivian province of Tarija and Argentina. Thousands of people saw this happening and later described the object as being cylindrical in shape with a flaming tail. It had caused a supersonic bang that was heard up to 150 miles away.
    Links: http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case635.htm,
  35. Holloman AFB Crash,New Mexico, USA (1962) * Two Bodies Recovered
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    Description:
    Links:
  36. Paradise Valley and Cave Creek Crash, Arizona (1948)

    It is believed that a craft crashed in Arizona in 1948, with reports being that two ET bodies were recovered. Some believe that the Dreamy Draw dam was built to hide the crashed ET craft site.
    Links:
  37. Australian Desert Crash (1976)
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    Pine Gap is a top secret facility located in the center of Australia, which has drawn similarities to the Area 51 base in Nevada. A craft supposedly crashed in the Australian Desert, where is was mst likely taken back to the Pine Gap facility. 4 bodies were reportedly recovered.
    Links:
  38. Whitewater Lake Crash, Indiana (1965)
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    According to sources, a man with initials RM met with a Colonel at Wright Patterson AFB and was told that a craft had crashed in Indiana. It is believed that the ET craft had been damaged be an electrical storm.
    Links:
  39. Fort Riley Crash, Kansas (1964)
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    According to various accounts, a guard on duty by the name of Aaron Kaback reported that he was asked to guard a strange oval object that had crashed near Fort Riley, Kansas.
    Links:
  40. Timmensdorfer Crash, Germany (1961) * 12 Bodies Recovered???
  41. Tabasco Mexico Crash (17 August 1977) *2 Bodies Recovered ???
  42. Afghanistan Crash (November 1988) *7 Bodies Recovered ???
  43. 1972 Morroco Sahara Desert Crash (1972) *3 Bodies???
  44. Johannesburg South Africa (1953) *5 Bodies Recovered???
  45. Links: The Secret to Spaceflight Exposed, http://fierycelt.tripod.com/xposeufotruth/crashes01.html,

Top 100 UFO Sightings

Top 100 UFO Sightings

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“Truth is the property of no individual but is the treasure of all men.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson

“The very word “secrecy” is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers, which are cited to justify it.” – President John F. Kennedy

“Once a government is committed to the principle of silencing the voice of opposition, it has only one way to go, and that is down the path of increasingly repressive measures, until it becomes a source of terror to all its citizens and creates a country where everyone lives in fear.” — President Harry S. Truman

  1. Roswell Crash, New Mexico, USA (1947)
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    The Roswell UFO incident took place in the US in June or July 1947, when an airborne object crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico. Explanations of what took place are based on both official and unofficial communications. Although the crash is attributed to a secret US military Air Force surveillance balloon by the US government, the most famous explanation of what occurred is that the object was a spacecraft containing extraterrestrial life. Since the late 1970’s, the Roswell incident has been the subject of much controversy, and conspiracy theories have arisen about the event. Roswell has become the most publicized of all alleged UFO incidents. On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) public information officer Walter Haut, issued a press release stating that personnel from the field’s 509th Operations Group had recovered a “flying disk,” which had crashed on a ranch near Roswell. Later that day, the press reported that Commanding General of the Eighth Air Force Roger Ramey had stated that a weather balloon was recovered by the RAAF personnel. In 1978, physicist and ufologist Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Major Jesse Marcel who was involved with the original recovery of the debris in 1947. Marcel expressed his belief that the military covered up the recovery of an ET spacecraft. His story spread through UFO circles, being featured in some UFO documentaries at the time. In February 1980, the National Enquirer ran its own interview with Marcel, garnering national and worldwide attention for the Roswell incident. Additional witnesses added significant new details, including claims of a large-scale military operation dedicated to recovering alien craft and aliens themselves, at as many as 11 crash sites, and alleged witness intimidation. In 1989, former mortician Glenn Dennis put forth a detailed personal account, wherein he claimed alien autopsies were carried out at the Roswell base.
    Links: Top Ten Military Bases, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roswell_UFO_incident,
  2. Lights Over DC (1952)
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    The 1952 Washington, D.C. UFO incident, also known as the Washington flap or the Washington National Airport Sightings, was a series of unidentified flying object reports from July 12 to July 29, 1952, over Washington, D.C. The most publicized sightings took place on consecutive weekends, July 19–20 and July 26–27.

    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1952_Washington,_D.C._UFO_incident,
  3. Rendlesham Forest Incident (1980)
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    The Rendlesham Forest incident is the name given to a series of reported sightings of unexplained lights and the alleged landing of a craft or multiple craft of unknown origin in Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk, England, in late December 1980, just outside RAF Woodbridge, used at the time by the US Air Force. Dozens of USAF personnel were eyewitnesses to various events over a two- or three-day period. It is the most famous UFO event to have happened in Britain, ranking amongst the best-known UFO events worldwide. Along with the Berwyn Mountain UFO incident, it has been compared to the Roswell UFO incident in the US, and is sometimes referred to as “Britain’s Roswell.” The Ministry of Defence denied the event posed any threat to national security, and stated that it was therefore never investigated as a security matter. Later evidence indicated that there was a substantial MoD file on the subject, which led to claims of a cover-up; some interpreted this as part of a larger pattern of information suppression concerning the true nature of unidentified flying objects, by both the US and British governments. One person to take this view was eyewitness and Deputy Base Commander Colonel Charles Halt. Another was former NATO head and UK Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Peter Hill-Norton, who stated whatever happened at this USAF base was necessarily of national security interest. However, when the file was released in 2001 it turned out to consist mostly of internal correspondence and responses to inquiries from the public.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rendlesham_Forest_incident,
  4. Trans-en-Provence Case (1981)
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    The Trans-en-Provence Case is one of the rare cases where an unidentified flying object is claimed to have left physical evidence, in the form of burnt residue from a field. The event took place on January 8, 1981, outside the town of Trans-en-Provence in the French département of Var. It was described in Popular Mechanics as “perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-en-Provence_Case,
  5. Sun Craft?
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    This mysterious object was filmed interacting with the sun in a very strange way.
    Links: Top Ten Suns, Top Ten Stars,
  6. UFO in the Rings of Saturn
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    Pictures taken by Voyager 1 in 1980 apparently show a very large craft in the rings of Saturn. A book entitled “The Ringmakers of Saturn, by Ames National Laboratory Research Scientist, Norman Bergrun, attempts to address what is going on in the rings. To watch the very insightful interview with Norman Bergrun, click on the link below.
    Watch Interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHmgZymhJL8,
    Links:
  7. Turkish UFO Sighting? (2008)
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    The 2008 Turkey UFO sightings were a series of videotaped and documented UFO sightings by the 42-year-old Yalcin Yalman, a night guard in Turkey. He claims they occurred between May and September 2008, mostly while the sky was dark (between 8:00pm and 5:00am), though some of the video is taken at dawn, out over the Sea of Marmara. Many witnesses confirmed the two and a half hours’ worth of video, leading the Sirius UFO Space Science Research Center to dub it the “most important images of a UFO ever filmed.”
    Links: Top Ten Turkish Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Turkey_UFO_sightings,
  8. NASA Craft Photos
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    This is a copy of a NASA photo, owned by Japan’s Space Program, of two massive objects and a Mothership. The Cigar-shaped mothership appears to have two circular objects either entering or exiting the larger craft.
    Links:
  9. Chicago O’Hare Airport UFO Sighting (2006)
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    The Chicago O’Hare UFO sighting occurred on November 7, 2006, when witnesses reported seeing a saucer or disc-shaped UFO. At approximately 16:15 CST federal authorities at Chicago O’Hare International Airport received a report that a group of twelve airport employees were witnessing a metallic, saucer-shaped craft hovering over Gate C-17. The object was first spotted by a ramp employee who was pushing back United Airlines Flight 446, which was departing Chicago for Charlotte, North Carolina. The employee apprised Flight 446’s crew of the object above their aircraft. It is believed that both the pilot and co-pilot also witnessed the object. Several independent witnesses outside of the airport also saw the object. One described a “blatant” disc shaped craft hovering over the airport which was “obviously not clouds.” According to this witness, nearby observers gasped as the object shot through the clouds at high velocity, leaving a clear blue hole in the cloud layer. According to the Chicago Tribune’s Jon Hilkevitch, “The disc was visible for approximately two minutes and was seen by close to a dozen United Airlines employees, ranging from pilots to supervisors, who heard chatter on the radio and raced out to view it.” Both United Airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) first denied that they had any information on the O’Hare UFO sighting until the Chicago Tribune, which was investigating the report, filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. The FAA then ordered an internal review of air-traffic communications tapes to comply with the Tribune FOIA request which subsequently uncovered a call by the United supervisor to an FAA manager in the airport tower concerning the UFO sighting. The FAA official stance was that the sighting was caused by a ‘weather’ phenomenon and that the agency would not be investigating the incident. Many witnesses interviewed by the Tribune were very “upset” and alarmed that federal officials declined to further investigate the matter.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_O%27Hare_International_Airport_UFO_sighting,
  10. Green Fireballs (1940’s)
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    Green fireballs are a type of unidentified flying object which have been sighted in the sky since the late 1940’s. Early sightings primarily occurred in the southwestern US, particularly in New Mexico. They were once of notable concern to the US government because they were often clustered around sensitive research and military installations, such as Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratory, then Sandia base. Furthermore, the strange green balls of light appeared suddenly and were reported many times per month near such New Mexico installations, but hardly anywhere else. Meteor expert Dr. Lincoln LaPaz headed much of the investigation into the fireballs on behalf of the military. LaPaz’s conclusion was that the objects displayed too many anomalous characteristics to be a type of meteor and instead were artificial, perhaps secret Russian spy devices. The green fireballs were seen by many people of high repute including LaPaz, distinguished Los Alamos scientists, Kirtland AFB intelligence officers and Air Command Defense personnel. A February 1949 Los Alamos conference attended by aforementioned sighters, Project Sign, world renowned upper atmosphere physicist Dr. Joseph Kaplan, H-bomb scientist Dr. Edward Teller, other scientists and military brass concluded, though far from unanimously, that green fireballs were natural phenomena. To the conference attendees, only the green fire ball source was unknown, their existence was unquestioned. Secret conferences were convened at Los Alamos to study the phenomenon and in Washington by the US Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. In December 1949 Project Twinkle, a network of green fireball observation and photographic stations, was established but never fully implemented. It was discontinued two years later, with the official conclusion that the phenomenon was probably natural in origin. Green fireballs have been given natural, man-made, and extraterrestrial origins and have become associated with both the Cold War and ufology. Because of the extensive government paper trail on the phenomenon, many ufologists consider the green fireballs to be among the best documented examples of unidentified flying objects (UFOs).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_fireballs,
  11. Foo Fighters (1944)
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    The term foo fighter was used by Allied aircraft pilots in WWII to describe various UFO’s or mysterious aerial phenomena seen in the skies over both the European and Pacific Theater of Operations. Though “foo fighter” initially described a type of UFO reported and named by the U.S. 415th Night Fighter Squadron, the term was also commonly used to mean any UFO sighting from that period. Formally reported from November 1944 onwards, witnesses often assumed that the foo fighters were secret weapons employed by the enemy. Career US Air Force pilot Duane Adams often related that he had witnessed two occurrences of a bright light which paced his aircraft for about half an hour and then rapidly ascended into the sky. Both incidents occurred at night, both over the South Pacific, and both were witnessed by the entire aircraft crew. The first sighting occurred shortly after the end of WWII while Adams piloted a B-25 bomber. The second sighting occurred in the early 1960’s when Adams was piloting a KC-135 tanker.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foo_fighter,
  12. Gorman Dogfight, Fargo, North Dakota (1948)
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    The Gorman UFO dogfight was a widely publicized UFO incident. It occurred on October 1, 1948, in the skies over Fargo, North Dakota, and involved George F. Gorman, a pilot with the North Dakota National Guard. In 1956, USAF Captain Edward J. Ruppelt wrote in his bestselling and influential The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects that the Gorman Dogfight was one of three “classic” UFO incidents in 1948 that “proved to [Air Force] intelligence specialists that UFO’s were real.” However, in 1949 the US Air Force labeled the Gorman Dogfight as being caused by a lighted weather balloon.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorman_dogfight,
  13. Milton Torres UFO Encounter (1957) and the Del Rio UFO Crash (1955)
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    The Milton Torres 1957 UFO Encounter is a case reported by a former jet pilot in the US Air Force, Milton John Torres, of Miami, Florida. On May 20, 1957, the 25-year-old Torres was ordered on a mission to intercept and shoot down a large UFO that had been picked up by radar in the skies over East Anglia, UK. Torres, flying a North American Aviation F-86D Sabre jet approached the object and prepared to fire upon it. As he locked on his weapons, the UFO suddenly zoomed away at a high rate of speed. The details of this case were first made public in a release of UFO-related case files by the British government in October 2008. This case shares some similarities with the Del Rio, Texas UFO Crash of 1955, which also involved an aerial encounter between an F-86 Sabre and a UFO.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Torres_1957_UFO_Encounter,
  14. RAF Bentwater UFO Encounter (1980)
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    Larry Warren was a security officer at Bentwaters Air Force Base in the UK. He was present during an event in 1980 when an extraterrestrial vehicle landed, hovered, and interacted with Air Force personnel on the base. Afterwards, the many personnel who had witnessed the events were intimidated, debriefed and forced to sign documents telling a false version of the story. Warren’s testimony is corroborated by multiple other military witnesses who have been identified. Click on the link below to watch the interview about his experience.
    Watch Interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYU_tr5K5ws,
    Links: http://www.educatinghumanity.com/2013/10/bentwater-ufo-incident-security-officer-interview.html,
  15. Warren Air Force Base UFO
    b23
    “In Washington last September, six former Air Force officers and a former enlisted man stepped forward to say that they’d seen or had been directly involved with UFO sightings at nuclear missile sites. These sightings began at the dawn of the Cold War and continued through the 1970’s. At this press conference, organized by UFO researcher Robert Hastings, these men told the media that they were encouraged not to speak of these sightings by their superiors, and in some cases, were required to sign secrecy oaths. Now, Hastings is saying three more witnesses are speaking to him about a more recent UFO sighting — and it revolves around a serious communications scare at F. E. Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming last October, when the military acknowledged that it had lost contact with 50 of its nuclear Minuteman III missiles. “We’ve never had something as big as this happen,” said a military officer who had been briefed on the event, according to the The Atlantic. “We can deal with maybe 5, 6 or 7 at a time, but we’ve never lost complete command and control and functionality of 50 ICBMs.”” – Huffington Post
    Links: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/07/ufos-at-nuclear-missile-site-eyewitnesses-afraid-to-talk_n_881802.html,
  16. UFO Shoots Down Missile
    abc
    According to retired Air Force member Robert Jacobs, on one occasion he was witness to a UFO disarming a missile in mid flight by shooting it with a beam of light. He was later told by his superiors that he was never to speak about the event again.
    Links:
  17. Kaikoura Lights (1978)
    bd
    The Kaikoura lights is a name given by the New Zealand media to a series of sightings that occurred in December 1978, over the skies above the Kaikoura mountain ranges of the northeastern South Island of New Zealand. The first sightings were made on 21 December when the crew of a Safe Air Ltd cargo aircraft began observing a series of strange lights around their Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy aircraft, which tracked along with their aircraft for several minutes before disappearing and then reappearing elsewhere, the ufo was very large and had five white flashing lights that were visible on the space ship. Some people say that they could see some little disks drop from the space ship and then disappear (they were never found). The pilots described some of the lights to be the size of a house and others small but flashing brilliantly. These objects appeared on the air traffic controller radar in Wellington and also on the aircraft’s on-board radar. On 30 December 1978, a television crew from Australia recorded background film for a network show on interviews about the sightings. For many minutes at a time on the flight to Christchurch, unidentified lights were observed by five people on the flight deck, were tracked by Wellington Air Traffic Controllers, and filmed in color by the television crew. One object reportedly followed the aircraft almost until landing. The cargo plane then took off again with the television crew still on board, heading for Blenheim. When the aircraft reached about 2000 feet, it encountered a gigantic lighted orb which fell into station off the wing tip and tracked along with the cargo aircraft for almost quarter of an hour, while being filmed, watched, tracked on the aircraft radar and described on a tape recording made by the TV film crew. A spate of sightings followed the initial report and an Air Force Skyhawk was put on stand-by to investigate any positive sightings.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikoura_lights,
  18. Kenneth Arnold UFO Sighting, Mount Ranier, Washington (1947)
    efg123abcd
    The Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting occurred on June 24, 1947, when private pilot Kenneth Arnold spotted a string of nine, shiny unidentified flying objects flying past Mount Rainier at then unheard of supersonic speeds that Arnold clocked at a minimum of 1,200 miles an hour (1,932 km/hr). This was the first post-War sighting in the US that garnered nationwide news coverage and is credited with being the first of the modern era of UFO sightings, including numerous reported sightings over the next two to three weeks. Arnold’s description of the objects also led to the press quickly coining the terms flying saucer and flying disc as popular descriptive terms for UFOs.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_Arnold_UFO_sighting,
  19. Mantell UFO Incident (1948)
    123
    The Mantell UFO incident was among the most publicized early UFO reports. The incident resulted in the crash and death of 25-year-old Kentucky Air National Guard pilot, Captain Thomas F. Mantell, on 7 January 1948, while in pursuit of a UFO. Historian David Michael Jacobs argues the Mantell case marked a sharp shift in both public and governmental perceptions of UFOs. Previously, mass media often treated UFO reports with a whimsical or glib attitude reserved for silly season news. Following Mantell’s death, however, Jacobs notes “the fact that a person had died in an encounter with an alleged flying saucer dramatically increased public concern about the phenomenon. Now a dramatic new prospect entered thought about UFOs: they might be not only extraterrestrial but potentially hostile as well.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantell_UFO_incident,
  20. Chiles-Whitted UFO Encounter (1948)
    acb
    The Chiles-Whitted UFO encounter occurred on July 24, 1948 when two American commercial pilots reported that their Douglas DC-3 had nearly collided with a strange torpedo shaped object flying near them. It was an important UFO sighting for several reasons: it was perhaps the first that occurred at close distance (allegedly within a few hundred feet); and it was reported by two very experienced pilots, Clarence Chiles and John Whitted. Both pilots had been decorated for their service as airmen during WWII, and both were regarded as valuable, respectable employees of Eastern Air Lines. Chiles, in particular, was highly esteemed by his peers and by his employer. It was a pivotal case for the personnel of the US Air Force’s Project Sign, and was a main reason they championed the extraterrestrial hypothesis as the best explanation for UFO’s.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiles-Whitted_UFO_encounter,
  21. Tehran, Iran UFO Incident (1976)
    abc
    The 1976 Tehran UFO Incident was a radar and visual sighting of an unidentified flying object (UFO) over Tehran, the capital of Iran, during the early morning hours of 19 September 1976. During the incident, two F-4 Phantom II jet interceptors supposedly lost instrumentation and communications as they approached, only to have them restored upon withdrawal; one of the aircraft also supposedly suffered temporary weapons systems failure, while preparing to open fire. The incident, recorded in a four-page US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) report distributed to at least the White House, Secretary of State, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Agency (NSA) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), remains one of the most well-documented military encounters with anomalous phenomena in history, and various senior Iranian military officers directly involved with the events have gone on public record stating their belief that the object was not of terrestrial origin.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976_Tehran_UFO_incident,
  22. Gordon Cooper (1951 and 1957)
    abc
    Gordon Cooper, an American test pilot, aeronautical engineer and astronaut, claimed to have seen his first UFO while flying over West Germany in 1951, although he denied reports he had seen a UFO during his Mercury flight. In 1957, when Cooper was 30 and a Captain, he was assigned as a test pilot and project manager to Fighter Section of the Experimental Flight Test Engineering Division at Edwards AFB in California. On May 3 of that year, he had a crew (Jmaes Bittick and Jack Gettys) setting up an Askania Cinetheodolite precision landing system on a dry lake bed. This cinetheodolite system would take pictures at one frame per second as an aircraft landed. According to his accounts, later that morning they returned to report to Cooper that they saw a “strange-looking saucer” like aircraft that did not make a sound either on landing or take-off. According to his accounts, Cooper realized that these men, who on a regular basis have seen experimental aircraft flying and landing around them as part of their job of filming those aircraft, were clearly worked up and unnerved. They explained how the saucer hovered over them, landed 50 yards away from them using three extended landing gears and then took off as they approached for a closer look. Being photographers with cameras in hand, they of course shot images with 35mm and 4×5 still cameras as well as motion picture film. There was a special Pentagon number to call to report incidents like this. He called and it immediately went up the chain of command until he was instructed by a general to have the film developed (but to make no prints of it) and send it right away in a locked courier pouch. As he had not been instructed to not look at the negatives before sending them, he did. He said the quality of the photography was excellent as would be expected from the experienced photographers who took them. What he saw was exactly what they had described to him. He did not see the movie film before everything was sent away. He expected that there would be a follow up investigation since an aircraft of unknown origin had landed in a highly classified military installation, but nothing was ever said of the incident again. He was never able to track down what happened to those photos. He assumed that they ended up going to the Air Force’s official UFO investigation, Project Blue Book, which was based at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He held claim until his death that the US government is indeed covering up information about UFOs. He gave the example of President Harry Truman who said on April 4, 1950, “I can assure you that flying saucers, given that they exist, are not constructed by any power on Earth.” He also pointed out that there were hundreds of reports made by his fellow pilots, many coming from military jet pilots sent to respond to radar or visual sightings from the ground. In his memoirs, Cooper wrote he had seen other unexplained aircraft several times during his career, and also said hundreds of similar reports had been made. He further claimed these sightings had been “swept under the rug” by the US government. Throughout his later life Cooper expressed repeatedly in interviews he had seen UFOs and described his recollections for the documentary Out of the Blue.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Cooper#UFO_sightings,
  23. Shag Harbour UFO Incident (1967)
    fcbade
    The Shag Harbour UFO incident was the reported impact of an unknown large object into waters near Shag Harbour, a tiny fishing village in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia on October 4, 1967. The impact was investigated by various civilian (Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Canadian Coast Guard) and military (Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force) agencies of the Government of Canada. The RCN conducted at least one underwater search to attempt to locate the remains of any associated objects. The Government of Canada declared that no known aircraft was involved and the source of the impact remains unknown to this day. It is one of very few cases where government agency documents have formally declared an unidentified flying object was involved. Several military witnesses that were interviewed, including a RCN diver involved in the search, have claimed an extraterrestrial spacecraft was responsible. It was also claimed by several of the witnesses that units of the US armed forces were involved in the search. The case was also briefly investigated by the US Condon Committee UFO study, which offered no explanation.
    Links: Top Ten Crashed/Recovered ET Spacecraft, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shag_Harbour_UFO_incident,
  24. Manises UFO (1979)
    UFO sightingbcd
    The Manises UFO incident took place on 11 November 1979, forcing a commercial flight to make an emergency landing at the Manises’ airport in Valencia, Spain. A TAE’s (former airline) Supercaravelle was the first aircraft involved in the incident. Flight JK-297 had taken off from Salzburg (Austria) with 109 passengers on board, and had made a refueling stop on the island Mallorca before setting course towards Las Palmas. Halfway through the flight, Pilot Francisco Javier Lerdo de Tejada and his crew noticed a set of red lights that were fast approaching the aircraft. These lights appeared to be on a collision course with the aircraft. The captain requested information about the inexplicable lights, but neither the military radar of Torrejón de Ardoz (Madrid) nor the flight control center in Barcelona could provide any explanation for this phenomenon. In order to avoid a possible collision, the captain changed altitude. However, the lights mirrored the new course and stayed about half a kilometer away from the plane. Since the object was violating all elementary safety rules and an evasive maneuver was deemed impossible by the crew, the captain decided on going off-course and made an emergency landing in Manises’ airport. This was the first time in history in which a commercial flight was forced to make an emergency landing because of a UFO. The flight crew reported the lights abandoning the pursuit just before the landing took place. However, three new UFO signals were detected by the radar, each one with an estimated diameter of 200 meters. The objects were seen by several witnesses.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manises_UFO_incident,
  25. Brazilian Air Force Intercepts UFO (1986)
    cba
    Brazilian Air Force allegedly detect and intercept UFOs in southeastern Brazil.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  26. Eglin Air Force Base Sighting (1973)

    An unidentified object was tracked by a Duke Field radar unit during the same time period, and within the same area, that 10 to 15 people observed four strange objects flying in formation between Milton, Florida, and Crestview, Florida, along Interstate 10, according to Eglin officials. Reports from the base indicated that a bright glowing ball of light could be seen travelling parallel with an Air Force C-130 aircraft but at a much higher altitude.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  27. Canary Islands UFO Sightings (1976)
    cab
    The 1976 Canary Islands UFO sighting was a UFO incident that occurred over the Canary Islands on 22 June 1976. The sighting is notable for several reasons: Duration; the encounter lasted over 40+ minutes; Multiple Locations; The UFO was observed in Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, Gran Canaria and by a ship at sea.; Multiple Witnesses; The UFO was witnessed by several hundred people, including both civilian and military personnel; and Detail; It is one of the few accounts to include details of the occupants inside the craft. The official report on the incident, by the Spanish air force, was declassified in June 1994, but much of its content had already been released to the public in 1977, after journalist J Benitez obtained a number of military files and used them as the basis of a book on UFO cases.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976_Canary_Island_UFO_sighting,
  28. Cash-Landrum Incident/Piney Woods Incident (1980)
    abcd
           The Cash-Landrum Incident was a reported Unidentified Flying Object sighting from the US in 1980, which witnesses insist was responsible for damage to their health. It is one of very few UFO cases to result in civil court proceedings. It can be classified as a Close Encounter of the Second Kind, due to its reported physical effects on the witnesses and their automobile. Skeptical ufologist Peter Brookesmith wrote: “To ufologists, the case is perhaps the most baffling and frustrating of modern times, for what started with solid evidence for a notoriously elusive phenomenon petered out in a maze of dead ends, denials, and perhaps even official deviousness.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash-Landrum_incident,
  29. Japan Air Lines 1628 UFO Incident (1986)
    adfbe
    Japan Air Lines flight 1628 was a UFO incident that occurred on November 17, 1986 involving a Japanese Boeing 747 cargo aircraft. The aircraft was en route from Paris to Narita, Tokyo with a cargo of Beaujolais wine. On the Reykjavík to Anchorage section of the flight, at 5:11 PM over eastern Alaska, the crew first witnessed two unidentified objects to their left. These abruptly rose from below and closed in to escort their aircraft. Each had two rectangular arrays of what appeared to be glowing nozzles or thrusters, though their bodies remained obscured by darkness. When closest, the aircraft’s cabin was lit up and the captain could feel their heat in his face. These two craft departed before a third, much larger disk-shaped object started trailing them, causing the pilots to request a change of course. Anchorage Air Traffic Control obliged and requested an oncoming United Airlines flight to confirm the unidentified traffic, but when it and a military craft sighted JAL 1628 at about 5:51 PM, no other craft could be distinguished. The sighting of 50 minutes ended in the vicinity of Mt. McKinley.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Air_Lines_flight_1628_incident,
  30. STS-48 Incident (1991)

    A video taken during mission STS-48 of Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit on September 15, 1991 shows a flash of light and several objects that appear to be flying in an artificial or controlled fashion. NASA explained the objects as ice particles reacting to engine jets, while James Oberg claimed that the flash was from a thruster firing. Dr. Jack Kasher analyzed the movement of the objects in 1996, and found five arguments that the footage could not depict ice particles. However, Lan Fleming found discrepancies in the timestamps in a later version of the video first released by the NASA FOIA office in 1999, leaving some conclusions indeterminate. Lan Fleming analyzed the movements of the objects and the flash of light that preceded the abrupt change in the course of the objects, and concluded that the exhaust plume from one of the shuttle’s reaction control system rockets could not have produced the flash of light. Mark J. Carlotto came to the conclusion that relatively brief firings of shuttle thruster rockets acting on nearby debris particles could not explain the prolonged periods of acceleration indicated by the curved paths of the unidentified objects. Carlotto also noted that at the end of the event, the shuttle’s camera panned down, showing a number of objects moving below the shuttle, and one of the objects appeared to consist of three lobes arranged in a triangular pattern.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UFO_sightings_in_outer_space#1991,
  31. STS-102 The Washington Sequence (2001)
    123
    A video broadcast during mission STS-102 of Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit allegedly recorded on March 19, 2001 by Jeff Challender shows a flash of light and three objects which performed movements which included starting, stopping, accelerating, and making sudden angled turns. Lan Fleming compared the timing of the flash of light and a course change of one of the objects to the timing of shuttle thruster firings and concluded that the flash and the movement of the object could not have been caused by thruster firings.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UFO_sightings_in_outer_space#1991,
  32. America West Airlines Flight 564 (1995)
    213
    A 300–400 foot long cigar-shaped UFO with rotating strobe light followed an America West Boeing 757.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  33. Alderney UFO Sighting (2007)
    abc
    On April 23, 2007, captain Ray Bowyer was flying a routine passenger flight for the civilian airliner Aurigny Air Services, when he and his passengers gained progressively clearer views of two UFOs during a 12 to 15 minute period. Bowyer had 18 years of flying experience, and the 45-minute flight was one that he had completed every working day for more than 8 years. Their 80 mi (130 km) journey of 45 minutes took them from Southampton on the southern coast of England, southwestwards to Alderney, being 10 miles (16 km) from France, and the northernmost of the Channel Islands. Their particular flight path had them converging on two enormous, seemingly stationary and identical airborne craft, which emanated brilliant yellow light. A pilot of a plane near Sark, some 25 mi (40 km) to the south, confirmed the presence, general position and altitude of the first object from the opposite direction. Radar traces also seemed to register the presence of an object, which Ray Bowyer believed to be correlated with the position and time of the sighting. A study by David Clarke however, could not establish a definite link, as the radar reflections of passenger ferries may have affected at least some of the readings.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Alderney_UFO_sighting,
  34. Dome of the Rock UFO Sighting, Jersulaem (2011)
    abc
    This amazing event occurred in Jerusalem above the Dome of the Rock. A ball of light hovered in the sky and then descended to a point right above the dome of the rock. It then preceded to quickly rise back into the sky, which turned into a circular light show, ending in the object flasing and blinking out of sight. Watch the video by clicking on the link below.
    Watch Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsRd7xWj_Tg,
    Links:
  35. Mexican UFO Incident (2004)
    abc
    On May 13, 2004 Jaime Maussan released his interview of Mexican Air Force pilots showing an infrared video footage from a military air patrol on March 5, 2004 to search for drug-running planes, that shows at least 11 very hot “spheres” moving irregularly with apparent great speed. The objects could not be seen with the naked eye, neither the crew on board nor ground personnel confirmed any radar contact with the objects in question.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Mexican_UFO_incident,
  36. Kolkata UFO Sighting (2007)

    A fast moving object was spotted at 30° in the eastern horizon between 3:30AM and 6:30AM and filmed on handycam. Its shape shifted from a sphere to a triangle and then to a straight line. The object emitted a bright light forming a halo and radiated a range of colors. It was spotted by many people and hundreds gathered along the E.M. Bypass to catch a glimpse of the UFO, triggering a frenzy. The video footage was released on a TV News channel and later shown to Dr. D.P. Duari, the director of MP Birla Planetarium, Kolkata, who found it to be “extremely interesting and strange.”
    Watch Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OteuXKafljY,
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  37. Norway Spiral Anomaly (2009) *Possible Failed Missile or Natural Phenomena
    abc
    The Norwegian spiral anomaly of 2009 appeared in the night sky over Norway on 9 December 2009. It was visible from, and photographed from, northern Norway and Sweden. The spiral consisted of a blue beam of light with a greyish spiral emanating from one end of it. The light could be seen in all of Trøndelag to the south and all across the three northern counties which compose Northern Norway, as well as from Northern Sweden and it lasted for 2–3 minutes. According to sources, it looked like a blue light coming from behind a mountain, stopping in mid-air, and starting to spiral outwards. A similar, though less spectacular event had also occurred in Norway the month before. Both events had the expected visual features of failed flights of Russian SLBM RSM-56 Bulava missiles, and the Russian Defense Ministry acknowledged shortly after that such an event had taken place on 9 December.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_Norwegian_spiral_anomaly,
  38. Varginha UFO Incident (1996)
    12
    The Varginha UFO incident was an incident in Varginha, Brazil, in 1996 involving reports of unidentified flying objects and strange creatures (allegedly extraterrestrials) which were supposedly captured by Brazilian officials.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westendorff_UFO_sighting#1996,
  39. Lonnie Zamora Incident (1964)
    123
    The Lonnie Zamora incident was a UFO close encounter of the third kind which occurred on Friday, April 24, 1964, at about 5:50 p.m., on the southern outskirts of Socorro, New Mexico. Several primary witnesses emerged to report stages and aspects of the event, which included the craft’s approach, din, conspicuous flame and physical evidence left behind immediately afterward. It was however Lonnie Zamora, a Socorro police officer who was on duty at the time, who came closest to the object and provided the most prolonged and comprehensive account. Some physical trace evidence left behind–burned vegetation and soil, ground landing impressions, and metal scrapings on a broken rock in one of the impressions–was subsequently observed and analyzed by investigators for the military, law enforcement, and civilian UFO groups. The event and its body of evidence is sometimes deemed one of the best documented, yet most perplexing UFO reports. It was immediately investigated by the US Army, US Air Force, and FBI, and received considerable coverage in the mass media. It was one of the cases that helped persuade astronomer J. Allen Hynek, one of the primary investigators for the Air Force, that some UFO reports represented an intriguing mystery. After extensive investigation, the AF’s Project Blue Book was unable to come up with a conventional explanation and listed the case as an “unknown.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonnie_Zamora_incident,
  40. Valensole UFO Incident (1965)
    abc
           The Valensole UFO incident took place on July 1, 1965, in a lavender field next to Valensole in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. The witness was Maurice Masse, a farmer who, according to researchers, would have no reason to fabricate his account of the incident. On the day in question, Masse was doing routine work around his property. When he stopped to rest, he heard a sharp noise, and looked around to see what had caused it. He found a large spherical object the size of a compact automobile. He then saw two small beings near the object, crouching and observing some plants, and wondered what two “children” would be doing in his field. As he came closer, one of the beings saw him and both of them stood. One of them pointed a strange object towards Masse, who was immediately paralyzed, although his senses kept working. The being put down the object it had used to incapacitate Masse, and turning to its companion, began a discussion in an unknown language. This allowed Masse to observe the beings in more detail. They were just above one meter high, with smooth, pale skin. Their heads were large with almost no necks. Their eyes were human-looking, despite the absence of eyelids. They wore dark blue clothing. While the beings conferred, Maurice says he felt somewhat tranquilized. The beings then entered the object, and through a transparent cupola Maurice could see both of them sitting near its controls. The object climbed a meter, flew towards some hills and then suddenly accelerated and disappeared. Maurice remained paralyzed for about 15 minutes, then recovered. He looked at the place where the UFO had landed. It was very humid, and there was a small indentation in the ground. Days later, the lavender within 5-6 meters of this place inexplicably began to die. Masse said that he slept 12 to 15 hours a night for several months after the incident.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valensole_UFO_incident,
  41. Lubbock Lights (1951)
    abcd
    The Lubbock Lights were an unusual formation of lights seen over the city of Lubbock, Texas, from August–September 1951. The Lubbock Lights incident received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great UFO cases in the US.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lubbock_Lights,
  42. Exeter Incident (1965)
    7456
    The Exeter incident was a highly publicized UFO sighting that occurred on September 3, 1965 approximately 5 miles from Exeter, New Hampshire, in the neighboring community of Kensington. Although several separate sightings had been made by numerous witnesses in the weeks leading up to September 3, the specific incident, eventually to become by far the most famous, involved a local teenager and two police officers. The Exeter incident remains listed as unexplained by the US Air Force. The November/December 2011 edition of Skeptical Inquirer presents an explanation of the incident, based on details reported by the eyewitnesses.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exeter_incident,
  43. Phoenix Sightings (1997)
    bAmerican Paranormal aka Mystery 360:  UFOs Over Phoenix Episode Code 4570 IBMS: 028707
    The Phoenix Lights were a series of widely sighted unidentified flying objects observed in the skies over Arizona, Nevada in the US, and Sonora, Mexico on Thursday, March 13, 1997. Lights of varying descriptions were seen by thousands of people between 19:30 and 22:30 MST, in a space of about 300 miles (480 km), from the Nevada line, through Phoenix, to the edge of Tucson. There were allegedly two distinct events involved in the incident: a triangular formation of lights seen to pass over the state, and a series of stationary lights seen in the Phoenix area. The United States Air Force identified the second group of lights as flares dropped by A-10 Warthog aircraft that were on training exercises at the Barry Goldwater Range in southwest Arizona. Witnesses claim to have observed a huge carpenter’s square-shaped UFO, containing five spherical lights or possibly light-emitting engines. Fife Symington, the governor at the time, was one witness to this incident; he later called the object “otherworldly.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_Lights,
  44. Stephenville, Texas Mass UFO Sightings (2008)
    123
    On January 8, 2008, Stephenville gained national media attention when dozens of residents reported observations of UFO’s. Several residents described the crafts as the size of a football field, while others said they were nearly a mile long, similar to the historic Arizona mass sighting of March 13, 1997. Some observers reported military aircraft pursuing the objects. CNN’s Larry King covered the news story in the days following the incident, and according to Steve Allen, a private pilot who witnessed the UFO, the object was travelling at a high rate of speed which supposedly reached 3,000 feet in the air. Allen said it was “About a half a mile wide and about a mile long. It was humongous, whatever it was.” The History Channel show UFO Hunters did an investigation on the UFO sightings. On January 23, after initially denying that any aircraft were operating in the area for operations security purposes, the US Air Force said that it was conducting training flights in the Stephenville area that involved 10 fighter jets. The Air Force said they were merely F-16 Fighting Falcon jets conducting night flights from NAS JRB Fort Worth. Former Stephenville Empire-Tribune staff writer Angelia Joiner, who during this period was the reporter covering the story, resigned from the paper when they ceased covering the topic. MUFON has released reports about the UFO incident here. The report was based on radar data obtained from the FAA. Using the FAA radar information the detailed report tracked the F16 flight paths as well as an unknown object in the same area and time as seen by multiple witnesses. Stephenville lights radar data was obtained by the authors via FOIA requests and with the help of a British programmer Rob Jeffs has been recreated. Inquiries made about the UFO incident have been stonewalled by the USAF.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephenville,_Texas_UFO_sightings#UFO_sightings,
  45. Westall UFO Encounter (1966)
    bcad
    The Westall UFO encounter is an event that occurred on 6 April 1966 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Around 11.00 am, for about 20 minutes, more than 200 students and teachers at two Victorian state schools allegedly witnessed an unexplained flying object which descended into a nearby open wild grass field. The paddock was adjacent to a grove of pine trees in an area known as The Grange (now a nature reserve). According to reports, the object then ascended in a north-westerly direction over the suburb of Clayton South, Victoria, Australia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westall_UFO,
  46. Levelland UFO Case (1957)
    1423
    The Levelland UFO Case occurred on November 2–3, 1957 in and around the small town of Levelland, Texas. Levelland, which in 1957 had a population of about 10,000, is located west of Lubbock on the flat prairie of the Texas panhandle. The case is considered by ufologists to be one of the most impressive in UFO history, mainly because of the large number of witnesses involved over a relatively short period of time. However, both the US Air Force and UFO skeptics have labeled the incident as being caused by either ball lightning or a severe electrical storm.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levelland_UFO_Case,
  47. Wurtsmith AFB UFO Incident
    abc
    USAF security personnel reported an unidentified craft flying within exceptionally-secure Strategic Air Command airspace over a B-52 base housing nuclear weapons and delivery systems. An incoming KC-135 tanker was later ordered to commence pursuit over Lake Huron. The object or objects, last seen back over the base’s weapons storage area, were never identified.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  48. Grangemouth, Scotland UFO (1991)
    cd
    The photograph shows the underside of a disk-shaped UFO, with a noticeable luminous “corona discharge” at the bottom and outer rim. Some UFO investigators speculated that the neon-light-like glowing areas at its base reveal the position of its 3 propulsion units, placed at exactly 120° apart, to direct the thrust (“thrust-vector control”).
    Links: http://www.hyper.net/ufo-old.html,
  49. Gulf Breeze UFO Sightings (1987)
    abc
    The Gulf Breeze UFO incident is a famous series of UFO sightings that occurred beginning on November 11, 1987. Gulf Breeze was a small city in Florida of approximately 6,000 at the time of a wave of UFO sightings that began in late 1987. News of high-quality UFO photos spread rapidly and worldwide and became the subject of newspaper and magazine articles, television talk shows and feature programs. The “Gulf Breeze UFO Incident” most definitive evidence is a series of photographs and contact claims made by Ed Walters that began, for him, on November 11, 1987. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks. The photographs of the craft were unusually clear and initially Walters’ claims generated great excitement. Research by Jerry Black in the early 1990s revealed a trail of suspicious money leading to Walters, giving the initial indications that the case was a hoax. Over subsequent years, new evidence including the discovery of a model in a house once owned by Walters, similar to the UFOs in his photographs, shifted majority opinion to believe that Walters’ photos of the 1987 sightings were faked. The model was found by Robert Menzer, who was quoted stating, “The model was 9 inches long across the top and 5 inches deep. Made of “two nine-inch foam plates attached to two six-inch foam plates; a six inch square blue-color gel (plastic film) and on six inch round orange paper ring, a 3.5 inch long tube, and a 2 inch wide paper ring between the 2 nine-inch plates. There were windows drawn on the model which was covered with drafting paper.” Although Ed Walters was the nexus of the Gulf Breeze sightings, he was not the only person to claim a sighting. According to ufocasebook.com, an estimated 200+ others came forward with sightings, videos and/or photographs during a three-year period. On December 2, 2010, the Syfy series Fact or Faked investigated another UFO video shot in 2009 where the object in the video is similar to the one(s) Ed Walters caught on camera.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Breeze_UFO_incident,
  50. Westendorff UFO Sighting (1996)
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    In Saragonha Island, at Patos Lagoon, Haroldo Westendorff witnessed a cone-shaped UFO, 50 to 60 m tall, with a base as big as a soccer stadium. He flew around the object for some 15 minutes, keeping 100 m of distance. The object was spinning around itself and heading towards the sea. The object was spotted at the radar of Infraero’s room at Pelotas’ airport. The object was not detected by Cindacta II in Curitiba, Paraná, which was responsible for watching the skies of southern Brazil. Westendorff also reported a smaller object coming out of the top of the big UFO, which climbed into the skies at a very fast speed, with the larger UFO following shortly afterwards. The Ministério da Aeronáutica (Aeronautic Ministry) kept a secret investigation of the object seen by Westendorff.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westendorff_UFO_sighting#1996,
  51. Wales UFO Sightings (2008)
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    The Wales UFO sightings were unexplained UFO sightings across South Wales, UK in June 2008.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales_UFO_sightings,
  52. Erasmuskloof Sighting (1996)

    A glowing disc was sighted by Sergeant Becker near the Adriaan Vlok police station, Erasmuskloof, Pretoria. The pulsating light contained a red triangle and emitted bright green tentacles, while a radar operator at Johannesburg International confirmed its presence. A chase ensued involving some 200 policemen and a police helicopter. The helicopter chase was given up at 10,000 ft near Bronkhorstspruit, when the object made a vertical ascent.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  53. Ariel School UFO Sighting (1994)
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    62 children saw a landed round aircraft and a small man next to it near their school.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  54. UFO sightings in the eastern Cape of South Africa (1972)

    The eastern Cape region of South Africa was the scene of UFO activity during the year 1972, when some 25 incidents were claimed, some of which involved multiple witnesses. Two observations of landed craft attracted media attention, while another remained obscure.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_UFO_sightings_in_the_eastern_Cape,
  55. STS-80 (1996)
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            A video taken during mission STS-80 of Space Shuttle Columbia while in orbit as analyzed by Mark J. Carlotto show three different unusual phenomena on December 2, 1996: Two slow moving circular objects; a strange rapidly moving burst of light near the earth’s surface; and a number of fast moving objects in space near the shuttle. The first two can be explained as shuttle debris and an unusual atmospheric phenomenon, respectively. The fast moving objects in space near the shuttle appear as bright streaks, and analysis of their speeds and directions indicates that they are probably not shuttle debris or meteors. An analysis done in 1999 by former Mission Control specialist James Oberg concluded that all the objects were nearby sunlit debris. The report was subsequently endorsed by crewmembers Story Musgrave and Tom Jones. Oberg’s comments on a video of the event reiterate this viewpoint.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UFO_sightings_in_outer_space#1996,
  56. Mariana Incident (1950)
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    The Mariana UFO Incident occurred in August 1950 in Great Falls, Montana. The film footage of the sighting is believed to be among the first ever taken of what came to be called an unidentified flying object, and was investigated by the US Air Force.
    Watch Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogQUnT_ROBQ,
    Links: Top Ten UFO/ET Videos, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariana_UFO_incident,
  57. Craft Landing in Pretoria, South Africa (1965)
    1234
    Police constables Lockem and de Klerk observed a landed, copper-colored craft on the Pretoria–Bronkhorstspruit freeway. It was described as being 30 feet (9.1 m) wide and left a 6 feet (1.8 m) wide imprint on the asphalt after a rapid, fiery ascent. The incident was confirmed in a press release by Lt. Colonel J.B. Brits, district commandant for Pretoria North.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  58. Copely Woods Encounter (1983)

    Hundreds of Basketball-Sized ball of lights were sighted around a neighborhood, leaving unusually obvious marks behind. Budd Hopkins wrote his book “Intruders” about the case.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  59. Belgian UFO Wave (1989-1990) *Human Craft???
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    The Belgian UFO wave refers to a series of sightings of triangular UFOs in Belgium, which lasted from 29 November 1989 to April 1990.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_UFO_wave,
  60. Hudson Valley Sightings (1981) *Human Craft???
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    A wave of reported UFO sightings in the Hudson Valley.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  61. Dudley Dorito Sightings (2007) *Human Craft???
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    The Dudley Dorito UFO sightings concerns multiple sightings of a Black Triangle (UFO) over the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom which began in November 2007. The phrase was coined by the local press after hearing witness descriptions of the object.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dudley_Dorito,
  62. Tinley Park Lights (2005)
    234
           The Tinley Park Lights is a reference to a series of five mass UFO sightings which occurred on August 21, 2004, two months later on October 31, 2004, again on October 1 of 2005, and again on October 31, 2006, in Tinley Park and Oak Forest, Illinois, suburbs of Chicago. Witnesses to each event reported seeing three silent, self-luminescent objects which were red or red-orange in color and spherical in shape, hanging in the night sky and moving slowly about in “formation” for a duration of approximately 30 minutes in each occurrence. The objects in each event were at low to intermediate altitude, and were visible from the ground for approximately 10 miles in any direction.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinley_Park_Lights,
  63. Greifswald Lights (1990) *Human Craft???
    ab
    At 8:30 p.m. a group of people saw 7 luminous spheres in the sky. The spheres took the form of a Y and were witnessed for about 30 minutes.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  64. Middelburg Witbank Sighting, South Africa (2009)

    Two formations of high-flying, orange-red objects, were seen by many witnesses, and video-recorded by some, as they traveled between the towns of Middelburg and Witbank, 25 km (16 mi) apart. The first formation of 7 objects were seen at 21:51 on 27 February, as they flew westwards from Middelburg towards Witbank, South Africa. Due to their altitude they eventually disappeared behind clouds. At 20:00 on 6 March, they were noted again high in the sky, but this time greater in number, 23, and traveling in the opposite direction.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  65. Baviaanspoort Sighting (1991) * Human Craft???
    123
    A hovering triangular craft with red central light, and white star-like lights on each extremity, was observed by a family at Baviaanspoort, Pretoria. A similar craft was sighted in the nearby Eersterust township on the evenings of 8 and 9 April, either stationary or moving.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  66. Graaff Reniet Sighting (1998) *Human Craft???
    2
    The Laubscher family videotaped a group of roundish triangular craft passing over the town of Graaff Reinet, at about 25,000 ft. These were changing color and sometimes circled one another, before being overtaken by a much larger, shiny, gold-colored craft. At this point all the objects departed to a cloud bank on the horizon.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  67. Battle of LA (1942)
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    The Battle of Los Angeles, also known as The Great Los Angeles Air Raid, is the name given by contemporary sources to the rumored enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late 24 February to early 25 February 1942 over Los Angeles, California. The incident occurred less than three months after the US entered WWII as a result of the Japanese Imperial Navy’s attack on Pearl Harbor, and one day after the Bombardment of Ellwood on 23 February. Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but speaking at a press conference shortly afterward, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox called the incident a “false alarm.” Newspapers of the time published a number of reports and speculations of a cover-up. Some modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft. When documenting the incident in 1983, the US Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of “war nerves” likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Los_Angeles,
  68. Cape Girardeau, Missouri UFO (1941)
    123
           The Cape Girardeau UFO crash is alleged to have taken place in April of 1941 near Cape Girardeau, Missouri. According to UFO researcher Leonard H. Stringfield, Charlette Mann, granddaughter of Reverend William Huffman of the Red Star Baptist Church, told Stringfield that Huffman was taken to a crash site 10 to 15 miles from the town of Cape Girardeau, and asked to perform last rites over the bodies of three non-human creatures whose bodies were scattered around near a crashed space ship. Huffman and the other witnesses (police, firefighters and local residents) were reportedly warned not to talk about what they had seen by military personnel who arrived and took control of the crash site.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Girardeau_UFO_crash,
  69. Uruguay Craft???

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Uruguayan Attractions,
  70. 1960’s “Alien Reproduction Vehicle (ARV)”
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    This craft, which appeared in numerous 1960’s photographs is believed to be an early US military attempt to reverse engineer an extraterrestrial craft.
    Links:
  71. Costa Rican Craft (1971)

    A large disk / shallow cone was auto-photographed in 1971 by a Costan Rican government mapping plane during an aerial mapping mission.
    Links: http://www.hyper.net/ufo-old.html,
  72. 1561 Celestial Phenomenon over Nuremberg, Germany and 1566 Event over Basle, Switzerland
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    The 1561 celestial phenomenon over Nuremberg was a mass sighting of celestial phenomena or unidentified flying objects (UFO) above Nuremberg, Germany. The phenomenon has been interpreted by some modern UFO enthusiasts as an aerial battle, possibly of extraterrestrial origin. This view is mostly dismissed by skeptics, some referencing Carl Jung’s mid-20th century writings about the subject.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1561_celestial_phenomenon_over_Nuremberg,
  73. Skylab 3 UFO Encounter (1973)
    cab
    Blurred photographs of an unknown object were taken by astronauts aboard Skylab 3. Skylab 3 (also SL-3 and SLM-2) was the second manned mission to the first American space station, Skylab. The mission began July 28, 1973, with the launch of three astronauts on the Saturn IB rocket, and lasted 59 days, 11 hours and 9 minutes. A total of 1,084.7 astronaut-utilization hours were tallied by the Skylab 3 crew performing scientific experiments in the areas of medical activities, solar observations, Earth resources and other experiments. The manned Skylab missions were officially designated Skylab 2, 3, and 4. Mis-communication about the numbering resulted in the mission emblems reading Skylab I, Skylab II, and Skylab 3 respectively.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skylab_3,
  74. Flame-like Wine Jar Appears from the Sky (74 BC)
    231
    According to Plutarch, a Roman army commanded by Lucullus was about to begin a battle with Mithridates VI of Pontus when “all on a sudden, the sky burst asunder, and a huge, flame-like body was seen to fall between the two armies. In shape, it was most like a wine-jar, and in color, like molten silver.” Plutarch reports the shape of the object as like a wine-jar (pithos). The apparently silvery object was reported by both armies.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  75. Ellsworth UFO Incident (1953)
    ab
    The Ellsworth UFO case occurred in 1953. On August 5 and August 6, 1953 the US Military investigated a UFO incident in Bismarck, North Dakota. What has become known as the Ellsworth Case is one of the most significant radar-visual cases in the annals of UFO sightings. The event was witnessed by almost forty-five agitated citizens along with military Air Defense System personnel. The object was first sighted by Miss Kellian at 8:00 P.M. on August 5. The description was of a red glowing light making long sweeping movements.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellsworth_UFO_sighting,
  76. Phantom Ships Gleaming in the Sky

    Livy, a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, records a number of portents in the winter of this year, including navium speciem de caelo adfulsisse (“that phantom ships had been seen gleaming in the sky”).
    Links: Top Ten Historians, Top 100 Busts, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  77. McMinnville UFO (1950)

    The McMinnville UFO photographs were taken on a farm near McMinnville, Oregon, in 1950. The photos were reprinted in Life magazine and in newspapers across the nation, and are often considered to be among the most famous ever taken of a UFO. The photos remain controversial, with many UFO researchers claiming they show a genuine, unidentified object in the sky, while many UFO skeptics claim that the photos are a hoax.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McMinnville_UFO_photographs,
  78. Portage County UFO Chase (1966)
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    The Portage County UFO Chase was an unidentified flying object encounter that began in Portage County, Ohio on the morning of April 17, 1966, when police officers Dale Spaur and Wilbur Neff observed a metallic, disc shaped object flying in the skies. They pursued the object for about half an hour, ending up in Pennsylvania before losing sight of the UFO. Several other police officers became involved in the chase, and several civilians reported witnessing the same object, or a similar object in about the same area, during this time. The UFO encounter earned significant mainstream publicity, and probably inspired a scene in Steven Spielberg’s Close Encounters of the Third Kind, where three Indiana police cruisers are depicted chasing several UFOs into Ohio, eastbound across state lines. After interviewing one of the police witnesses, Project Blue Book (the official UFO investigative arm of the US Air Force) determined that the witnesses had chased a communications satellite, then the planet Venus. This conclusion was rejected by the officers involved as ridiculously inadequate, and was furthermore subject to some wider criticism, contributing to the opinions of some observers that Blue Book was a failure as an investigative project. The UFO chase was one of the cases that contributed to the creation of the Condon Committee, ostensibly an independent scientific investigation of UFO’s.
    Links: Top Ten ET Encounter Films, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portage_County_UFO_chase,
  79. Sasolburg Sighting (1993)

    Residents of Sasolburg observed a craft arriving from the direction of Vereeniging. The craft departed in a flash in the direction of Parys, but returned some three minutes later. The craft, similar in appearance to a water droplet, was observed to change color and shape. With time individual lights were distinguished, and the body was determined to be cigar-shaped. While contained in a yellowish to orange glow, it emitted a downward blue light, before once again departing in a flash, upwards. A nearby town resident claimed to have found imprints of a small craft’s landing gear some two months later.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,
  80. Broad Haven UFO Sightings (1977)
    123
    In the 1970’s, Broad Haven, UK was the scene of alleged UFO sightings and nicknamed the Broad Haven Triangle in the manner of the Bermuda Triangle, from a headline in the Sun that said Spaceman Mystery of the Terror Triangle. On 4 February 1977, a yellow cigar-shaped craft is believed to have landed in a field next to Broadhaven Primary School. A group of 14 children playing football saw the craft and a silver creature. The headmaster, Ralph Llewellyn, asked the children to draw the craft and he was surprised how similar the drawings were. On 17 February 1977, the same craft was claimed to have been seen by some teachers at the school and by some dinner ladies, one of whom saw a creature make its way onto the craft. The owner of the Haven Fort Hotel in Little Haven claims to have seen an ‘upside-down saucer’ on 19 April 1977 in a neighboring field with two humanoid creatures. Billy and Pauline Coombs at Ripperston Farm saw a 7 ft. creature in a silver suit on 23 April 1977 late at night.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broad_Haven,
  81. Links: The Universe, Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Planets Believed to be Inhabited,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_UFO_sightings,

Top Ten Crop Circles

Top Ten Crop Circles

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       A crop circle is a sizable pattern created by the flattening of a crop such as wheat, barley, rye, maize, or rapeseed. The documented cases have substantially increased from the 1970’s to current times. In 1991, two hoaxers claimed authorship of many circles throughout England. 26 countries reported approximately 10,000 crop circles in the last third of the 20th century; 90% of those were located in southern England. Many of the formations appearing in that area are positioned near ancient monuments, such as Stonehenge. According to one study, nearly half of all circles found in the UK in 2003 were located within a 15 km (9.3 miles) radius of Avebury. Crop circles are believed to by created by extraterrestrials, hoaxers/artists, business organizations, as well as military groups attempting psy-ops.

  1. ‘Grey’ Extraterrestrial Message
    2
    These are probably one of the best described and best known ebe’s there is. The extraterrestrial races in this group include the ubiquitous Grays from the star system Zeta Reticulum and the Orion Constellation who are described in most of the abduction research and who figure prominently in reports of UFO crashes. Robert Dean included the Grays as one extraterrestrial described in NATO’s Assessement. Col Phillip Corso who served in the Eisenhower administration and later headed the Foreign Technology Desk at the U.S. Army’s Research and Development Department, claims to have witnessed the body of a dead ‘Gray’ retrieved from Roswell in 1947. What he saw fit the classic description of a four foot tall extraterrestrial with a large head, large black almond shaped eyes, thin torso and spindly arms and legs. Prominent UFO ‘abduction’ researchers such as Dr David Jacobs, Budd Hopkins and the late Dr Karla Turner have provided detailed case studies of the abusive aspects of UFO ‘abductions.’ These researchers found disturbing evidence of abusive treatment of individuals taken into UFO craft, of women being involuntarily subjected to a genetic program aimed at producing human-extraterrestrial hybrids, and of adult hybrids performing humiliating sexual activities on female abductees. Many researchers agree that the Grays are deeply involved in developing a hybrid human-Gray race that would be a suitable vehicle for the next step in human evolution. Researchers such as Jacobs believe this is a cause for alarm and poses a direct threat to human sovereignty. According to Col Corso, the Grays were involved in agreements with the Eisenhower administration that military officials saw as a form of ‘negotiated surrender,’ where the Grays gained permission for abducting civilians and ‘expanding’ their biological program. Clifford Stone distinguishes between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ extraterrestrials, and refers to the Grays as part of the ‘bad guys’ committing egregious abductions and that the U.S. government is unsure how to disclose this to the general public: “The good guys [ETs] are, well, I like to refer to them as being nomadic. What you’re talking about, about the non-intervention with other intelligent life forms is a universal law. The nomadics go along with that. The greys violated the universal law…. I think there is the effort for the good guys to make contact with the people within our government, but I think now what is happening is that the U.S. government learned in 1983 or thereabout that they are NOT dealing with the good guys, but really don’t know what to do about it. The Grays are very active in human abductions, genetic experiments, monitoring humans through implants, mind control/programming, cloning and creation of hybrid humans. These contribute to systemic global problems such as humans traumatized by abduction experiences, genetically modified humans, implants for monitoring humans, and an overly passive population due to hypnotic mind control/programming. It is said that the Greys do not posses pure genetics and that most of them were created as slaves for a master race. Meanwhile some say that some races of greys are not greys, but Lyrans who started out as tall blonde humans who got exposed to heavy radiation that mutated their DNA over time to the point that they ended up as hairless misshapen dwarves, and that they lost their digestive tracks and ingest nourishment through their skin. None of these seem clearly confirmed. But there are several types of Greys, in different colors shapes and sizes. As I understand, their elder race are Insectoids, often called Mantis leaders for their look resembles a gigantic praying mantis. But the different races of Greys posses different genetic mixtures: human/reptilian/insectilian. The name Greys was invented by humans, not them, they have variety of names depending on the groups or star system. In general, they are insectilian hybrids.
    Links Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Top Ten Exoplanets Rumored o be Inhabited, 
  2. All Seeing Eye Star With Toroidal Field
    3
    Description:
    Links: Sacred Geometry, Top 100 Symbols,
  3. Double Triskelion Torus, Milk Hill, England, 2001
    4
    This 780 ft crop circle is composed of 409 circles, which form a double (six-sided) triskelion. It was found in a field in Milk Hill, England in 2001.
    Links: Sacred Geometry,
  4. Energy Systems Glyphs

    These crop circles are believed to illustrate energy systems based on electromagnetic properties. The upper left shows a crop glyph of an electromagnetic fly wheel, which resembles the one used by Edward Leedskalnin to build coral castle in Homestead, Florida, USA. Coral Castle is noted for legends surrounding its creation that claim it was built single-handedly by Leedskalnin using reverse magnetism to move and carve numerous stones weighing many tons. Some of the crop glyphs in the middle right resemble electromagnetic coils, which resemble those developed by Nikola Tesla’s. The crop circle on the middle bottom is also strikingly similar to the animated picture on the bottom right, which is known as the Searl magnetic engine, which creates power via magnetic spin. Such a generator could operate anywhere, whether on earth or in space, producing electricity cheaply and safely, without fuel, pollution, friction or noise. And on top of that the device exhibits anti-gravity effects, which are long overdue for public use to transform our transportation.
    Links: Science, Top 100 Scientists, Top Ten Nikola Tesla Inventions, Top Ten Ancient Stone Monuments,   http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coral_Castle,
  5. Nobel Prize Predictions?

    Both of these crop circles appeared months before the strikingly similar inventions were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  6. Pyramidal Power

    Description:
    Links: Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  7. NASA Transmission and Crop Circle Response

    The NASA transmission included information about our radio wave communication technologies, while the crop circle response illustrated designs for the technology which a seemingly extraterrestrial civil employs to communicate over vast distances.
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  8. DNA Crop Circle

    Description:
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  9. Spiraling Spheres
    5
    Description:
    Links:
  10. Atomic Illustrations and Resonant Wave Interference Patterns

    Description:
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  11. Crop Circle Codes

    Description:
    Links: Top Ten Unsolved Codes, http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  12. Infinity Glyph

    Description:
    Links:
  13. Crescents and Spheres
    6
    Description:
    Links:
  14. Vesica Pisces Glyph
    7
    Description:
    Links: Sacred Geometry,
  15. Solar System Illustration (July 22,2008), Comet Prediction (July 2010) and Comet ISON Illustration (August 10,2013)

    Some researchers believe that this crop illustration on the left predicted the arrival of the comet Elenin five months before it was observed by astronomers on Earth.
    Links: Top Ten Comets, http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  16. More Solar System Glyphs

    Description:
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  17. Circular Mandala
    8
    Description:
    Links: Top 100 Mandalas,
  18. Solar Flare Prediction, Blatic Farm, England (September 26, 2010) and High Solar Activity (June 2011)

    This crop circle, which appeared in Baltic Farms, England, on September 26, 2010, is believed to have predicted a large solar flare, which occurred later that year on November 6, 2010.
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  19. Solar Filament Prediction

    Here is another example of a crop circle predicting solar activity. This one was created at Stanton on August 8,2010, predicting solar filament activity, which occurred two solar rotations later on October 17, 2010.
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  20. Big Bang
    9
    Description:
    Links:
  21. Opening of the Crown Chakra/Pineal Gland Crop Circles
    10
    Description:
    Links: The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and Om,
  22. Hexagram Glyph

    Description:
    Links: Sacred Geometry,
  23. Merkaba Crop Circle

    Description:
    Links: Chakras and the Human Energy System,
  24. ET Footprint?

    Description:
    Links:
  25. Crop Circles

    Description:
    Links:
  26. Trinity Yin Yang Spiral

    Description:
    Links:
  27. Fractal Vortex, Diessenhofen, Switzerland (July 2008) and ???
    11
    Description:
    Links:
  28. Triskelion
    12FSTriskel_type_Tonkedeg..svg
    A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of three interlocked spirals, or three bent human legs. Both words are Greek, meaning “three-legged.” Although it appears in many places and periods, it is especially characteristic of the Celtic art of the La Tène culture of the European Iron Age. A triskelion is the symbol of Sicily, where it is called trinacria, as well as of the Isle of Man, Brittany and the town of Füssen in Germany.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triskelion,
  29. Crescent Glyphs
    13
    Description:
    Links:
  30. Possible Oil Spill Prediction?, Hinton Downs England (July 16, 2007) and BP Logo, Martinsell Hill England (July 19, 2007)

    Description:
    Links: http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,
  31. Cannabis Leaf
    Message from above
    Description:
    Links: Cannabis, Top Ten Cannabis Strains,
  32. Snowflake Fractal Glyph and Fractal Spiral

    Description:
    Links:
  33. Links: The Universe, Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Mysteryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_circlehttp://www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/cropcircleresearch.html,

Extraterrestrial Civilizations

Extraterrestrial Civilizations

     Although I have never seen an extraterrestrial in person, the amount of reports of those claiming to have seen such beings is overwhelming and warrants a greater understanding of our current relationship with these extraterrestrial civilizations. In a 1998 interview, Clifford Stone, a retired U.S. army Sergeant  who served in the U.S. Army for 22 years and participated in covert operations to retrieve crashed extraterrestrial ships and extraterrestrial biological entities (EBE’s), revealed there were a total of 57 extraterrestrial races known to the U.S. military. The most compelling testimonies on the different extraterrestrial races comes from ‘whistleblowers’ such as Sergeant Stone who served for long periods in the military and/or corporations participating in ‘black projects’; and also ‘contactees’ who have had direct physical contact with extraterrestrials and communicated with them. Another valuable source of intel is Master Sergeant Bob Dean, who had a twenty seven year military career and at one time during his service worked in military intelligence at the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) from 1963. His distinguished service record gives him great credibility in claiming to have witnessed classified information during his military service. During his SHAPE assignment he claimed he was instructed to read a detailed study of the activities of UFOs/ETs and how they might impact on Soviet-NATO relations which was published in 1964 with the title: “An Assessment: An Evaluation of a Possible Military Threat to Allied Forces in Europe.” In an interview, Dean described four extraterrestrial races described in ‘The Assessment’ as follows: The group at the time, there were just four that they knew of for certain and the Greys were one of those groups. There was a group that looked exactly like we do. There was a human group that looked so much like us that that really drove the admirals and the generals crazy because they determined that these people, and they had seen them repeatedly, they had had contact with them, there had been abductions, there had been contacts. These people looked so much like us they could sit next to you on a plane or in a restaurant and you’d never know the difference. And being military and being primarily paranoid, that bothered the generals and the admirals a little bit. That the fact that these intelligent entities could be involved with us, walking up and down the corridors of SHAPE, walking down the corridors of the Pentagon. My God, it even dawned on a couple of them that these guys could even be in the White House! Of course, as I said, being paranoid in those years it really shook things up a little bit. Two other groups, there was a very large group, I say large, they were 6-8 maybe sometimes 9 feet tall and they were humanoid, but they were very pale, very white, didn’t have any hair on their bodies at all. And then there was another group that had sort of a reptilian quality to them. We had encountered them, military people and police officers all over the world have run into these guys. They had vertical pupils in their eyes and their skin seemed to have a quality very much like what you find on the stomach of a lizard. So those were the four they knew of in 1964. But I’ve been told by friends that are still active in military service that it’s well over a dozen by now. The following is a list of extraterrestrial groups that have been reported to have interacted with humans. The interactions include those as reported by members of all levels of military, NASA, government employees, as well as civilians.

  • Petal (The Founders)

    These are soul groups, known as the Petal. They are some of the oldest known beings in our universe, who have evolved through the different physical forms to the point where they have completed the evolutionary ladder as we know it, and thus exist in some of the highest dimensions. They are also known as the founders and have created many races through out the universe. These are also creators of our creators. They exist as high energy beings of pure spirit form, the highest dimension and everything around it’s existence is not physical like ours but is more of a high energy form, or divine energy. It is told that some people on earth are from this soul group, Petal, who have made the conscious decision to leave eternity, and fall back into the concept of time, incarnate in the physical lower 4th density in this case. The Petal originate from the Great Central Sun, which is located in the center of our universe. It is this place that is also the oldest part of the universe, where the original big bang occurred, (birth of our universe). In 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. trillion grillion gazillion megarillion years (unimaginably long time, let’s put it there) everyone and everything in this universe will be transformed into pure spirit form as well. It’s just natural evolution of universal energy, beginning to be understood by quantum mechanics.
    Links: Top 100 Scientists, Top Ten Physicists, Top Ten Quantum Physicists, Top Ten Scientific Theories,
  • Arcturians

    The Arcturians originate from a crystal blue planet orbiting the star Arcturus, which is a red super-giant located in the constellation Bootes. Arcturus is also the brightest star in that constellation and lies 36 light years from Earth. The “handle” of the big dipper points to the bright star Arcturus.  Arcturians are the most advanced 5th Dimensional beings in this galaxy. They operate under 5th density mostly. They give us an idea of what our future will be like. They are to us, spiritual, mental and emotional healers for all of humanity. They believe love is the primary element of life in the 5th density. Their ships are the most advanced in this free-will universe. We have not been hosts to a violent extraterrestrial attack here on Earth because most civilizations fear the advanced Arcturian ships. The Arcturian civilizations are governed by ‘elders’ who are the wisest and highest in the spiritual ladder. Arcturians range from 3 to 4 feet tall and are generally slim. The Arcturians have a greenish hue about their skin and have very pronounced, almond shaped eyes. They have the ability to move objects with their minds and are highly telepathic. Their hands, unlike human hands, have only 3 digits. They have brown and sometimes black eyes, but they rarely use them, they see telepathically. They can live to the age of 350 or even 400 years. They age slowly and do not fall prey to sickness, this was eradicated long, long ago. In the Arcturian civilizations, professions and life’s paths are chosen by one’s spirituality level. This is used to decide which female is suited to give birth. The birth process is unlike that of ours, it consists of a female and male mentally bonding and thus a clone of the bond is produced as a result. Arcturus evolution is based on teachings of spirituality, and thus as one evolves, one becomes more spiritual, if one fails to reach his allotted goal, that individual is then tutored more so the individual can succeed. The arcturians ingest energy instead of eating like us. They also live off little sleep, they rest only once a week. They can also ingest knowledge therefore they can intellectually advance faster than any human. They are here on Earth on a mission to educate humans and help us cross over to the 4th density. Collier describes the Arcturians as also being one of the races interacting with the Earth and that they are “trying to help.” According to the contactee ‘Adrian’, the Arcturians are the extraterrestrial race most responsible for crop circles. He argues that the crop circles are intended both to inspire humans with the possibility of extraterrestrial communications, and to warn negative extraterrestrials of the consequences of their actions to control and manipulate humanity. They think of themselves as healers. They carry a strong pride of technology in the arts of physical healing, and emotional and spiritual bodies. They have been known to intervene in the ancient past to help resolve very serious conflicts in our area of the Universe by sharing their unique ability to show others how to integrate their belief systems and feelings to resolve conflict. They can be very silent, and can and will keep very much to themselves. They as a group, have done much to help raise the overall levels of consciousness in our Universe. In her book, We, The Arcturians, Dr Norma Milanovich describes her communication with the Arcturians through a form of computer aided automatic writing. She claims the Arcturians are here to: “… assist Earth as it enters a New Age of spirituality. They cannot interfere with the free will or decision-making process of any Earthling, but are here to educate and help raise the vibrations of all who choose to journey to the new dimension the Earth is entering. The Arcturians are described as having a highly developed spiritual culture and technological sophistication that gives them great influence in the galaxy. Another individual who telepathically communicates with the Arcturians claims they have the following mission on Earth: The Arcturians are the overall guides or administrators of the contact experience. They have a desire generally to see this go well. To see you learn as much as possible by this process and to assist you in any way they can. However, their affinity is to the future of the planet as a whole and they tend to have a hands-off approach as much as possible. They will tend to do the least amount of work for the greatest effect. You’ll find them to be efficient and quite creative in this. They may be useful to you in learning how to play, how to wait for the right timing, and how to do the very few important things that you must do to succeed. The Arcturians’ main activity therefore appears to be one of integrating spiritual values with advanced technologies, in providing strategic advice in transforming planetary systems, and inspiring humanity with the possibilities of extraterrestrial contact. The global solutions the Arcturians contribute to include transparent and accountable global governance; integrating global financial, political and societal systems; helping humanity coordinate effectively with all extraterrestrial races, and diplomacy and conflict resolution.
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  • Andromedans
    AA1A2
    These are human types from constellation of Andromeda. These people are 6.5 to more than 7.5 ft tall. Their skin tone is light blue but as the people age their skin gradually turns to white. They are genuinely benevolent 5th dimensional beings. They like many civilizations on their level travel in advanced starships capable of solar system travel, as well as Dimensional and time travel. They’re more than 6,000 years ahead of us technologically and 40,000 years in spirituality. Those ET’s from Andromeda are also described by Alex Collier as having been direct descendents of the Lyrans who experienced some difficulty when first leaving the Lyran system due to predatory extraterrestrial races, but eventually settled in the Andromeda constellation in the star system ‘Zenetae.’ Collier describes the nature of the Andromedans as follows: Everything that they create technologically is used for the advancement of their race. It is for educational purposes only. But, it can be used in defense. No, they do not have a military, per se, they are scientists. What they do is send their children to school anywhere from 150 to 200 years, in our linear time. They teach their students all of the arts and sciences. They are literally masters at everything. Then, at that point, they have the choice in what it is they want to do, and they can change their minds anytime and do something else. So, they are given all the tools. Everything is for education. Nothing is for distraction. They would never conceive of creating television as a distraction. Never. Everything is to help them evolve, and their science and their technology can be used for defensive purposes — mostly the holographic stuff.  The most significant feature of the Andromedans is that they are instrumental in the Andromeda Council which is a grouping of approximately 140 star systems who deliberate upon group concerns. In a 1997 Interview, Collier described the Council’s deliberations as follows: Now, in our galaxy there are many councils. I don’t know everything about all those councils, but I do know about the Andromedan council, which is a group of beings from 139 different star systems that come together and discuss what is going on in the galaxy. It is not a political body. What they have been recently discussing is the tyranny in our future, 357 years from now, because that affects everybody. Apparently what they have done, through time travel, is that they have been able to figure out where the significant shift in energy occurred that causes the tyranny 357 years in our future. They have traced it back to our solar system, and they have been able to further track it down to Earth, Earth’s moon and Mars. Those three places. The very first meeting the Andromedan council had was to decide whether or not to directly intervene with what was going on here. According to Moraney, there were only 78 systems that met this first time. Of those 78, just short of half decided that they wanted nothing to do with us at all, regardless of the problems. I think it is really important that you know why they wanted nothing to do with us. We are talking about star systems that are hundreds of millions of light years away from us. Even some who have never met us. They just knew the vibration of the planet reflected those on it. The reasons why they wanted nothing to do with us is that from their perspective, Earth humans don’t respect themselves, each other or the planet. What possibly can be the value of Earth humans? Fortunately, the majority of the council gave the opinion that because Earth has been manipulated for over 5,700 years, that we deserved an opportunity to prove ourselves – to at least have a shot at proving the other part of the council wrong. Another contactee who mentions the Andromedans is ‘Adrian’ who was extensively interviewed by researcher Sean David Morton and found to be credible. Adrian’s testimony was supported by extensive photos, film and witness testimonies. According to ‘Adrian’, the Andromedans play an important role in forming councils that deliberate on Earth’s future thereby independently confirming Collier’s testimony. The Andromedans are one of the main extraterrestrial races most responsible for crop circles. He argues that the crop circles are intended both to inspire humans with the possibility of extraterrestrial communications, and to warn negative extraterrestrials of the consequences of their actions to control and manipulate humanity. The Andromedans’ chief activity appears to be facilitating decisions of the Galactic community in dealing with difficult problems such as the current Earth situation, innovative strategies for resolving conflict, the education of youth and inspiring humanity with the possibilities of extraterrestrial contact. The global solutions they promote include assisting the growth of psychic/crystal/rainbow children, peace education, exposing elite manipulation, promoting improved global governance, and diplomacy and conflict resolution.
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  • Neonates

    The Neonates are 2-3 ft in height. They are very quick in movements and run around like little children and work in a technical capacity. They have very high intelligence that would skyrocket off our scale. They are profiled as benevolent members of the federation and have been assisting and defending the solar system around the Grey scenario and the reptilian infiltration along side with the Andromedans, Arcturians, Pleiadians and other benevolent groups assisting us and defending the Sol system from a malevolent ET take over or destruction. It’s not clear exactly where they come from other than being from an uncharted star cluster approximately 3,700 light years from earth.
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  • Reptilian Dracos (Ciakar Royalty)


    The most controversial ‘whistleblower’/’contactee’ reports concern an off-world ‘master Reptilian race’ described as the Draco-Reptilians who are claimed to originate from the Alpha Draconis star system which is 215 light years distant and was formerly the pole star. According to Alex Collier, the Draconians or Dracos have two main castes, the first of which is a warrior caste that are in the 7-8 foot range, who are apparently feared throughout the galaxy for their fighting abilities. The second caste are a ‘royal line’ of Draco Reptilians that he describes as ‘Ciakars’ which, because of their alleged size, psychic ability and alleged wings, might be confused as the proverbial Dragon if Collier is correct. The Draconians are a very large reptilian race, otherwise known as “the Dracs.” There is royal line of the reptilian race called the Ciakar. They range from 14 to 22 feet tall and can weigh up to 1,800 pounds. They do have winged appendages and they are awesome beings. They’re extremely clairvoyant and extremely clever, and they can also be extremely sinister. Collier claims that according to the Draconian world view, they were the first intelligent species in the galaxy and seeded many worlds with their biological off-spring. The Draco Reptilians therefore see themselves as the natural rulers of Reptilian ‘controlled’ worlds such as Earth, and view humans as an inferior species. The Draconians are interested in harvesting the Earth’s resources while ensuring that these resources are efficiently exploited. There appears to be a strict hierarchy involving the Draco-Reptilians and other extraterrestrial races so far described in this group. According to Thomas Castello, Reptilians from Alpha Draconis, the ‘Dracos,’ are in command of the Earth based Reptilians. Earth based Reptilians are in turn in command of the ‘tall Grays,’ who are in command of the short Grays. Interestingly, Castello also describes the Draconian ruling caste as Ciakars who are winged and therefore could be easily confused as dragons. Jefferson Souza, a Brazilian UFO researcher confirms the existence of a hierarchy involving the Grays and a Master Reptilian race.
    Links: Top Ten Artifacts Depicting Extraterrestrials, Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts, 
  • Reptilian Draconians

    I would just like to state this this information is from an unknown source and I for one do not like to cast an entire species in a negative light without having a first hand understanding of the culture, yet the information exists and is worthy of reporting, though it should be approached with a calm and open mind. Draconians are reported to have red blue brown or blackish green scales, be tailless, stand 4-12 ft tall and to have large slanted yellow reddish eyes with vertical pupils. Draconians are a highly advanced but warlike people who originally came from another universe. They are also the oldest known reptilian race in our universe, unlike most races, their physical form doesn’t evolve and have stayed the same physically for billions of years. Because of this, they look upon themselves as gods, or a dominating species. Also because of the density they hold, they do not evolve spiritually like most races, therefore they exist in the lower 4th density like us. No one really knows where they came from, and even their own ancient history, they aren’t sure exactly where they came from. But they were dumped in Alpha Draconis, because that system gave them the highest probability for survival. From there they were able to develop space travel which allowed them to explore and collect what they needed, and even bio engineered some of the life forms they encountered, they are master geneticists and incredible builders, but they’re bullies. Their primary motive is control and manipulation of other less advanced civilizations using their technology. Their culture and religion teach that fear rules and love is weak, and the lower you rank, the worse you’re treated. They have lived on earth, some for many many millions of years, which is why some of them consider themselves “native” to earth. For that reason they consider Earth as their ancient outpost. Some of the dinosaur bones and fossils are remains of the draconian races who lived here millions of years ago. Draconians are the ring leaders of major orchestrations of the negative ET manipulations on earth, they also are responsible for children disappearance that number many tens of thousands that are used for food or experiment. The Draconians view all of their planets and living beings as resources, in a similar way a farmer looks at his cows. Besides eating children, they also feed off the emotional substance of humanity such as fear anger and guilt. They are also able to influence thoughts and decision making of people who hold high office (Bilderberg, Club of Rome, Freemason, Zionist, Jesuit, Illuminati) Reptilian agendas are controlled and guided also by these elite groups: The fallen angels/Nephilim hybrids: (World Monarch, British royal family among the world’s 13 richest families). There are estimated 1833 of these lizard people living in ancient underground caverns 100-200 miles beneath our planet, small groups of them also live in underground bases beneath the US around New York, Missouri and New Mexico, while other 100,000 live on Mars. Most of the Greys serving the vast agendas here are subservient to this Draconian master race, they also are responsible for manipulation of human society. The Draconians aren’t all one and the same, they can be broken into at least four categories: Genetic sub species: workers, scientists, commanders. Their is also believed to be a society of Draconians who are more benevolent to humanity and it is important to note that not all beings of a particular species share the moral conscious of particular leaders of certain groups.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  • Reptilian Rigelians

    These are a sub race of Draconians who’s home planet reside in the Rigelian system. They like Draconans are extremely warlike and aggressive towards other races, and are connected with the Draconan agendas of earth and in the galaxy. Some species of Greys also live among them, subservient to the reptilian type.
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  • Reptilian Booteans

    These are chameleon-like Reptilians from the ‘Bootes’ system. These reptilian entities from the ‘Draconis’ system are allegedly involved with the ‘Dulce’ scenario as well as the infiltration- implantation-control of human society on earth in anticipation of their planned takeover at some point in the future (Draconian).
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  • Reptilian Iguananoids

    Yet another sub Draconan race with an Iguana like appearance who’s home planet resides in a star system called Capella.
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  • Annunaki

    There is reported to be a race of giant humanoids who have played a role in seeding the Earth with humans, and who periodically return to the Earth to determine how effectively Earth’s resources have been utilized by humanity and those extraterrestrial races playing a role in ‘managing’ humanity. These are described by the Sumerians as the Anunnaki from the world ‘Nibiru’ in the extensive cuneiform texts translated by Zecharia Sitchin. These giant humanoids apparently form the chief ‘founding’ extraterrestrial race that were the gods described in ancient mythologies and religions. According to the accounts of the Sumerians, the Anunnaki’s chief god is Anu and the pantheon of Anunnaki as described by Sitchin form key figures in the hierarchy that secretly oversee management of humanity and the planet Nibiru which periodically returns to the vicinity of Earth. According to Alex Collier, this is how the Anunnaki or ‘Nibiruans’ originated as a species: A very long time ago, colonies on Sirius B and the Orion Group were having trouble with each other. In order to bring peace, there was a marriage between members of each group. The woman came from the Orion Group, where the hierarchy includes a queen – the matriarchal paradigm. The male was from Sirius B. Both members were considered royalty of their respective line. When these two came together in marriage, their offspring had the genetics from both lines. Because of these genetics, the new race that was created was given the name “Nibiru,” which according to an Andromedan Counselor, Moraney, in the Orion tongue means “divided amongst two.” This is who they literally are – a cross between those from Sirius B and a race from the Orion system. They formed a new “tribe” which has continued to flourish for at least hundreds of thousands of years. So, they are a tribe that has become a race. It appears that the Anunnaki’s mode of operation is to leave ‘primitive’ species such as humanity to flourish on the planet’s surface while more advanced races such as the Reptilians form a kind of ‘planetary management team’ to harvest humanity in a way that serves the long term interest of the Anunnaki who return periodically to assess their ‘human experiment.’ It therefore appears that the Anunnaki form a kind of regulatory agent to ensure that the Earth’s resources, and humanity in general, are responsibly ‘managed.’ The Anunnaki have a relationship with the Earth based Reptilians based on whatever historical agreements they reached over humanity will be managed. It is also likely that the Anunnaki have some form of agreement with the Draconians over how the latter intervene in worlds where the Anunnaki have established ‘human experiments.’ Finally, it is also likely that some members of the Anunnaki have remained secretly on Earth and therefore have played a role in the creation of elite human organizations to manage human affairs. These ‘agreements’ and/or secret control of human elite groups indirectly make the Anunnaki a part of the military-industrial-extraterrestrial complex. According to Sergeant Dean, the Anunnaki are major players in human affairs and this is likely to become more significant as their home planet, Nibiru, returns to the vicinity of Earth. It is the apparent return of the Anunnaki that appears to be a wild card that concerns national security agencies that are unaware of how this race of extraterrestrials will impact on global humanity and the military-industrial-extraterrestrial complex that has been created to manage extraterrestrial affairs. The main activities of the Anunnaki are to influence the long term human evolution through elite groups, systems and institutions, and by influencing human consciousness. They appear to be in competition with the Draconians for control of Earth. The main global problems they contribute to include elite domination, religious fundamentalism, a patriarchal global culture, and a culture of violence.
    Links: Top 100 Sumerian Artifacts,
  • Insectillian Ancient Mantas Leaders

    Their name is given because their appearance resembles a gigantic praying mantis. People are often terrified by their appearance but from most witness description they’re supposed to have a benevolent motive. Their movements are twitchy and jerky, and resemble that of a bug or bee behavior. They have been seen onboard ships working along side with some of the Greys. But unlike the Greys, these beings do not attempt to do anything against your will, or scare you and feed off your emotions, and as far as I understand they are interested in study of other life forms. They do not have mouth or digestive tracks. Due to millions of years of evolution, they have eyes covering half of their heads and they are so evolved that their entire energy source is light absorbed through their eyes. They are highly religious and have ceremonies for pretty much everything they do.
    Links: The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and Om,
  • Insectilian Worker Class

    These are a younger generation of the Mantis, they have somewhat a similar appearance, usually seen along with the Mantis elders. The worker class, are usually the ship’s operative technicians.
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  • Greys

    These are probably one of the best described and best known ebe’s there is. The extraterrestrial races in this group include the ubiquitous Grays from the star system Zeta Reticulum and the Orion Constellation who are described in most of the abduction research and who figure prominently in reports of UFO crashes. Robert Dean included the Grays as one extraterrestrial described in NATO’s Assessement. Col Phillip Corso who served in the Eisenhower administration and later headed the Foreign Technology Desk at the U.S. Army’s Research and Development Department, claims to have witnessed the body of a dead ‘Gray’ retrieved from Roswell in 1947. What he saw fit the classic description of a four foot tall extraterrestrial with a large head, large black almond shaped eyes, thin torso and spindly arms and legs. Prominent UFO ‘abduction’ researchers such as Dr David Jacobs, Budd Hopkins and the late Dr Karla Turner have provided detailed case studies of the abusive aspects of UFO ‘abductions.’ These researchers found disturbing evidence of abusive treatment of individuals taken into UFO craft, of women being involuntarily subjected to a genetic program aimed at producing human-extraterrestrial hybrids, and of adult hybrids performing humiliating sexual activities on female abductees. Many researchers agree that the Grays are deeply involved in developing a hybrid human-Gray race that would be a suitable vehicle for the next step in human evolution. Researchers such as Jacobs believe this is a cause for alarm and poses a direct threat to human sovereignty. According to Col Corso, the Grays were involved in agreements with the Eisenhower administration that military officials saw as a form of ‘negotiated surrender,’ where the Grays gained permission for abducting civilians and ‘expanding’ their biological program. Clifford Stone distinguishes between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ extraterrestrials, and refers to the Grays as part of the ‘bad guys’ committing egregious abductions and that the U.S. government is unsure how to disclose this to the general public: “The good guys [ETs] are, well, I like to refer to them as being nomadic. What you’re talking about, about the non-intervention with other intelligent life forms is a universal law. The nomadics go along with that. The greys violated the universal law…. I think there is the effort for the good guys to make contact with the people within our government, but I think now what is happening is that the U.S. government learned in 1983 or thereabout that they are NOT dealing with the good guys, but really don’t know what to do about it. The Grays are very active in human abductions, genetic experiments, monitoring humans through implants, mind control/programming, cloning and creation of hybrid humans. These contribute to systemic global problems such as humans traumatized by abduction experiences, genetically modified humans, implants for monitoring humans, and an overly passive population due to hypnotic mind control/programming. It is said that the Greys do not posses pure genetics and that most of them were created as slaves for a master race. Meanwhile some say that some races of greys are not greys, but Lyrans who started out as tall blonde humans who got exposed to heavy radiation that mutated their DNA over time to the point that they ended up as hairless misshapen dwarves, and that they lost their digestive tracks and ingest nourishment through their skin. None of these seem clearly confirmed. But there are several types of Greys, in different colors shapes and sizes. As I understand, their elder race are Insectoids, often called Mantis leaders for their look resembles a gigantic praying mantis. But the different races of Greys posses different genetic mixtures: human/reptilian/insectilian. The name Greys was invented by humans, not them, they have variety of names depending on the groups or star system. In general, they are insectilian hybrids.
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  • Orion Greys

    The second prominent race in this group of extraterrestrials are the ‘tall Grays’ described by Robert Dean as  “a very large group, I say large, they were 6-8 maybe sometimes 9 feet tall and they were humanoid, but they were very pale, very white, didn’t have any hair on their bodies at all.” Tall Grays are described to originate from the Orion constellation, and according to Dr Arthur Horn play an overseeing role vis-à-vis short Grays: “The short greys are overseen within their own ranks by the taller seven to eight foot tall greys. These greys are the ones that actually carry out “diplomatic” missions, such as secretly negotiating treaties with heads of human governments. As mentioned the greys in general, and the small three to five foot greys in particular, have been likened to mercenaries.” Support for the diplomatic role played by the ‘tall Grays’ comes from William Cooper, former Navy Intelligence Advisor, who claims he saw classified documents where the ‘tall Grays’ did negotiate agreements with the Eisenhower administration in meetings beginning in 1954. Later in 1954 the race of large nosed Gray Aliens which had been orbiting the Earth landed at Holloman Air Force Base. A basic agreement was reached. This race identified themselves as originating from a Planet around a red star in the Constellation of Orion which we called Betelgeuse. They stated that their planet was dying and that at some unknown future time they would no longer be able to survive there. The meeting at Holloman Air force base in New Mexico has reportedly been the site of subsequent extraterrestrial meetings with tall Grays. In 1972-73, for example, the producers Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler, had allegedly been offered and witnessed actual Air force film footage of a meeting involving tall Grays that occurred at Holloman Air force base in 1971. When it comes to the abduction phenomenon, Dr David Jacobs concludes from an exhaustive analysis of sixty case studies in Secret Life that the tall Grays play an overseeing role in these. The tall grays were found to be present in many abductions that Jacobs examined through hypnotic regression of abductees, and were in command of the short grays who performed most of the abductions. Recently a former U.S. Air Force serviceman published his memoirs where he disclosed extensive interactions with a variety of ‘tall Grays’ which he called ‘tall Whites’ due to their very white chalky skin and white hair. Hall was stationed at Nellis Airforce base from 1965-67 where his duty was to use weather balloons for the Air Force from the Indian Springs location on the base. He describes his interactions with ‘Tall Whites’ beginning in 1965 and how he and other servicemen coped with their disturbing presence. Hall described a catalogue of incidents where the ‘tall Whites’ terrorized other military servicemen who didn’t understand them, surprised them or threatened them in some way. Hall for example describes one ‘tall White’ who wanted to kill a military servicemen who accidentally hit her child with a stone and broke her arm. The incident led to the ‘tall White’ threatening the servicemen with death if he didn’t leave immediately and promise to never return. Other servicemen had similar negative encounters with the ‘tall Whites’ where their lives were threatened if they frightened ‘tall White’ children or didn’t follow orders to the letter. Significantly, these dire consequences were given approval by the Pentagon which monitored the tall Whites interactions with Hall and other military servicemen. Only Hall was spared this kind of intimidating treatment since he had the intelligence and courage to interact with the ‘tall Whites’ in a friendly way. Furthermore, he had apparently saved the life of a ‘tall White’ child and this led to him being befriended by the ‘tall Whites’ and incorporated him into a project to study human-tall White interaction. This is where the Tall Whites display more positive qualities such as friendship and superior technical knowledge in their interactions with Hall. Significantly, the ‘Tall Whites’ began to be seen in the Mojave desert area in 1954 indicating that they were associated with the agreement(s) reached between the ‘tall Grays’ and the Eisenhower administration in 1954. Hall further describes regularly seeing them in the presence of Airforce generals and other senior officials who recognized the ambassadorial status of the Tall White leader. The ‘tall Grays/Whites’ intimidate humans in a variety of reported interactions, and behave in an almost clinical manner reminiscent of a medical doctor conducting an experiment. The tall Grays/Whites are most involved in genetic experiments, creating a hybrid human-Gray race, mind control and diplomatic agreements with the ‘shadow government.’ Global problems that are influenced by the tall Grays/Whites include genetically modified humans, implants for monitoring humans, an overly passive population due to hypnotic mind control, influence over elite decision makers, the infiltration of national security agencies, and human rights abuses of civilians and military personnel.
    As in all situations, the actions of individual members of a species cannot be taken to reflect the intent of all members of that species.
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  • Zeta Reticuli Greys

    These beings have been best known around the abduction phenomena, the first person describing the beings and where they were from came from the Barney and Betty hill abduction stories in the 40’s. Height is 3-4 ft, body is skinny with long spindly limbs, skin is thick and leather like, with a rough surface, completely hairless, and large black eyes, they almost always use dark eye lenses due to sensitivity to light, they are also used to see infrared light, etc. They appear emotionless, and are partly robotic, biological robots. Their don’t have digestive tracks, or that they’re not working, they get their nourishment from fluids, absorbed through the skin. They do not have genitals and reproduce by cloning. Supposedly they have destroyed their genetics, largely because they have cloned so much to a point where it’s started to effect the enzymes in their DNA chain causing them to weaken with each successive cloning. They made a deal with the US government in exchange for technology they were allowed to abduct people and take genetic samples in attempt to breed it into their DNA in order to save their race from dying. They operate mostly in the dark underground facilities, their best known bases are in New Mexico.
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  • Brown/Orange Greys

    These 5-6 ft tall with an orange skin tone, and are believed to genetically closer to the reptilian genetics akin and have been spotted in isolated parts of the world, not much else is known about these types or where they’re from but they’re believed to be connected with the grey and reptilian groups in our solar system.
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  • Bellatrix Greys

    These small aliens have been the subject of tales of fairies, gnomes, elves, pixies, and other “little people.” They come from the same genetic roots as the Zeta Reticuli, but little more is known about their race. They possess the technological ability to alter the fabric of space, giving them the ability to pass through solid matter and alter the relative size of objects. They are usually between 6 and 18 inches in height.
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  • Lyrians (Elohim/Yaweh/El’s)

    It is appropriate to begin the discussion of these ‘off world’ extraterrestrial races and their main activities by focusing on a star system that has been described as the source for the spread of human civilization in the Milky War galaxy, the constellation of Lyra. One of the first ‘contactees’ to describe Lyra was Billy Meier who received much public attention as a result of his alleged visits from Pleiadians / Plejarans from 1975 to 1986 which he supported with material evidence that continues to confound those skeptical of Meier’s claims. Comprehensive investigations by a number of individuals and organizations found that Meier’s evidence was not fabricated and therefore constituted significant support for his testimony of extraterrestrial contact. Due to the amount of physical evidence he had provided over the years, Meier has gained great credibility, and the consistency and coherence of his testimonies suggest that he is indeed an important spokesperson for an extraterrestrial race. Meier was told by his Pleaidians [Plejadians] contacts of the star system of Lyra and its human inhabitants: The “Swiss” Plejadians have described their ancient ancestry, and consequently ours, as originating (before the Plejades) in a far sun-system in a star group near what we now know as the Ring Nebula of Lyra, for which we have called them Lyrians in the same manner as we refer to the human beings from what we call the Pleiades. These early Lyrians in their numerous migrations in their great Space Arks went to many other star systems and found suitable habitations, and put down colonies, such of which flourished and eventually launched their own space travelers. Meier further reported of a physical contact with a Lyran ship in 1977 where the Lyrans described their world and the other star systems with whom they cooperated. Alex Collier describes the start of the Lyran civilization as revealed to him by extraterrestrials from Andromeda: Based on the age of the Suns and the planets in our galaxy, it was decided that the human life form was to be created in the Lyran system. The human race lived there for approximately 40 million years, evolving. The orientation of the human race in Lyrae was agricultural in nature. Apparently, we were very plentiful and abundant, and lived in peace.  The Lyrans posses Nordic features and are quite possibly the ‘Elohim’ described in religious traditions both on Earth and around the galaxy. Due to the Lyrans role in the genesis of the human presence in the galaxy, the Lyrans can understandably be argued to have the most detailed understanding of human origins and galactic history. They can be described as the ‘Galactic historians’ for the human species. It can be inferred that the Lyrans help in disseminating the truth about the evolution of human races in the galaxy, and have a deep understanding of galactic human culture and of the ‘human spirit’. The Lyrans have been further described as follows: Those from Lyra have an affinity for origins and ancient histories. So they would be useful to you to understand the past in order to transform it. As you understand your past and your origins you may be able in consciousness to go back, pattern by and pattern, peel off the layers of the onion, and find your true nature. They would be excellent guides in this process, this psychological process for humanity, of understanding its motivations and its history and how it came to be. In conclusion, the Lyrans’ main activities are in disseminating the unique history of the human race in the galaxy, and assisting in understanding human motivations and potentials. The global solutions the Lyrans provide include accurate information about human history, understanding galactic history, discovery of the human essence, diplomacy and conflict resolution, and global education.
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  • Nordic Rigelians

    One of the many human space colonies spawned by the Lyrans was eventually established on planets in the Rigel solar system in the Orion Constellation. At some point in its history, Rigel with its Nordic population presumably underwent a destructive civil war and was taken over by Grays. According to George Andrews, a Nordic from the star system of Procyon, Khyla, revealed much information about the Rigelians, Procyons and Grays to a human contactee whose information was consistent with other sources and Andrews concluded was credible. The contactee described Khyla as follows: Khyla looked like a tall handsome human, slender but muscular, masculine yet ethereal. He appeared either naturally or artificially to have black around his eyes, almost like kohl [coal]. His face was close to exquisite, but definitely masculine. He had a gaunt face with high cheekbones and piercing cobalt-blue eyes. He had fine blond hair that was almost shoulder-length. He had a muscular neck. His skin was pale flesh color, with a whitish overtone. It is hard to gauge his exact height because of the circumstances under which our encounter occurred, but it was somewhere between six and seven feet. Andrews writes about the history of Rigel as revealed by Khyla to the contactee: The ancestors of the short Grays were once tall Blonds. The Great War took place…. Before the great war, Rigel was a vast empire, which had been the source of most galactic seeding. All Rigelians were tall Blonds. A colony had already been established on Procyon. The Great War was a civil war of Rigelians versus Rigelians, and lasted the equivalent of three Earth centuries. A group of Rigelians who realized that the Great War was about to break out took off for the Procyon colony in crude, clandestinely built ships. They were the only Rigelians to escape the cataclysmic devastation. All those who had remained on Rigel were transformed into short Grays. It appears that Rigel underwent a planet wide nuclear war and environmental collapse that led to life in underground shelters. It is very unlikely that the transformation of Nordic Rigelians involved them becoming ‘short Grays’ whose genetic material is generally accepted as inferior to human races such as the Nordics. The genetic mutation process would have taken much longer than the three centuries mentioned. It is more likely that the surviving Rigelian Nordics were incorporated into a planet wide genetic hybridization program by ‘short Grays’ from a star system such as Zeta Reticulum who had covertly infiltrated and undermined Rigel prior to and/or during the Great War on Rigel. The short Grays most likely succeeded in genetically engineering the ‘Tall Grays’ using genetic material from the Nordic survivors who were to weak to resist the Gray hybridization agenda. These Rigelian ‘tall Grays’ subsequently play a key role in diplomatic initiatives by the Grays and serving as a genetic model for new human-Gray hybrid races that allegedly represent the best of both species.
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  • Procyons

    Most of the Rigelians who fled their planet traveled to the star system of Procyon to restart their civilization. Procyon is a binary star system about 11.4 light years from Earth, and it was apparently the fourth planet in this system that the Rigelians established their new colony. According to Andrews, the colony of Procyon flourished until it became embroiled in sinister effort by the Grays that now populated Rigel to subvert Procyon. Khyla described the process adopted by the Grays in their subversion of Procyon: The Grays began to visit us, first a few as ambassadors, then as specialists in various domains where their expertise could be useful to us, as participants in different programs that involved mutual collaboration, and finally as tourists. What had begun as a trickle became a flood, as they came in ever-increasing numbers, slowly but surely infiltrating our society at all levels, penetrating even the most secret of our elite power groups. Just as on your planet they began by unobtrusively gaining control over key members of the CIA and KGB through techniques unknown to them, such as telepathic hypnosis that manipulates the reptilian levels of the brain, so on Procyon through the same techniques they established a kind of telepathic hypnotic control over our leaders. Over our leaders and over almost all of us, because it was as if we were under a spell that was leading us to our doom, as if we were being programmed by a type of ritual black magic that we did not realize existed. Khyla went on to describe the eventual takeover of Procyon by the Grays and the enslavement of most Procyons that did not escape. Using advanced time travel technology which involved ‘multidimensional consciousness,’ something which the Grays apparently could not duplicate due to their degraded genetic bodies, a significant number of Procyons were able to escape and began a liberation war from the ‘remote corridors of time.’ Significantly, the Procyons describe how some of their resistance techniques would be relevant to the situation on Earth: it would be suicidal to attempt to fight the Grays directly with the weapons now at your disposal. One must be rational in attempting to fight back, and understand the proper way to proceed. Your own consciousness is the most potent weapon that is available to you at the present time. The most effective way to fight the Grays is to change the level of your consciousness from linear thinking to multi-dimensional awareness. They have the technology to throw your planet out of orbit, but there is one key ability that you have and they do not have: the ability to hold in mind imagery that inspires an individual to realize his or her direct personal connection to the source of all that is. That is your key to victory. According to Alex Collier, the Procyons have recently liberated their world from Gray influence and he describes the Procyons as currently “gung ho” when it comes to dealing with the Grays. They have been associated with earth’s most ancient history, including a war with Draconian reptilians for territorial control more than 300,000 years ago. The war went on in and around earth’s orbit that took an end when the reptilians lost. In order to justify their attempt, the Draconians exploded a gravity bomb on earth resulting in mass devastation of the planet, causing global climate change, which eventually killed off the remaining survivors of the dinosaurs. In conclusion, the Procyons main activity is in effectively resisting the extraterrestrial subversion by developing a ‘multidimensional consciousness,’ using mind imagery to protect oneself from extraterrestrial mind control, and monitoring unfriendly extraterrestrial activity. The global solutions that the Procyons can assist in include exposing extraterrestrial subversion, helping end global secrecy of the extraterrestrial presence, promoting multidimensional consciousness, deprogramming mind control, promoting universal human rights, and developing the internet and global communication.
  • Vegans
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    According to Billy Meier, another race of extraterrestrials that physically contacted him were from the Vega star system within the constellation of Lyra.  The Vegans were a darker or ‘blue’ skinned group of humans, and were likely the ‘blue race’ of advanced humans mentioned in various Vedic texts, and from whom the Hindu gods Vishnu and Krishna derived. The Brazilian contactee, Jefferson Souza, claims that he met the Vegans of Lyra, who he described as looking very similar to natives of India. According to Alex Collier, Vega was the first star sytem in Lyra to be populated by humans. In addition to the Nordic looking humans from Lyra, the Vegans played an important colonising role throughout the Galaxy. The first extraterrestrials who came to Earth were …  humans from worlds that exist within another dimension in the area of the Lyra and Vega systems. The first Lyrians, together with the Vegans, came to Earth initially 22 million years ago. Their stay here was very brief and they continued their travels to other star clusters and planets. Their history is largely obscure, even though assault groups occasionally continued to return to Earth. Approximately 389,000 years ago, several million Lyrians and Vegans again left their native worlds, entered our order of space and time in this dimension, and came to Earth where they mingled with the Earthlings. Significantly, the results of the Vegans and Lyrans interbreeding with humans paralleled events described in the Book of Enoch where the ‘Nephilim’ intermarried with humans and produced a race of giants that eventually died off.  Meier describes these events as follows. They procreated in the normal manner and through the manipulation of genes by genetic engineers. The results of the genetic engineering produced beings that were part human, part animal, and included giants, titans, and other creatures. In the course of hundreds and thousands of years these creatures were displaced once again, and eventually died out because they could not reproduce or because conditions for their life forms proved fatal for them. Further parallelling events described in the Book of Enoch where the leaders of the Nephilim were punished for their activities on Earth, Meier describes how the ringleaders of the Vegans and Lyrans were responsible for numerous transgressions against the native peoples of Earth and other worlds: The many millions of Lyrians and Vegans, who had left their native worlds, were headed by 144,207 leaders and sub-leaders, etc., who reigned over their followers in a rather hierarchic manner. The leaders also transferred this behavior to Earth humans with whom they had intermingled in the past to create human descendants of various types. These 144,207 leaders and their subordinates were, indeed, the ringleaders who were essentially responsible for the misdeeds, false teachings, and false religions which were absorbed and imitated by humans on Earth. Not everything the leaders brought to Earth was evil, false, or criminal, however; many valuable items and ideas were presented to the Earthlings with regard to crafts, professions, philosophies, ways of thinking, medicine, technology, and many other things. According to Lyssa Royal, the Vegans and Lyrians were strategic competitors when it came to the colonizing of other worlds, and eventually began a devastating civil war in the Lyra constellation – the Lyran wars. Alex Collier also refers to a devastating galactic war in Lyra but its cause was external rather than an internal civil war between the Lyrans and the Vegans. According to Meier, the Vegans returning to Earth in the present era, are attempting to assist humanity, atone for past mistakes and to assist Vegan starseeds.  Like the Lyrans, the global solutions the Vegans provide include accurate information about human history and the Vegan heritage, understanding galactic history, discovery of the human essence, diplomacy and conflict resolution, and global education.
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  • Sirian A’s

    Now the next group of extraterrestrials are described as coming from Sirius which is a binary star system that allegedly harbors advanced life around its two main stars, Sirius A and B. Sirius A is a blue white star that is approximately 8.6 light years from Earth, twenty times brighter than the sun, and is the most brilliant star in the night sky. In contrast, Sirius B is a white dwarf sun that ranges between 8 to 32 astronomical units from Sirius A in a highly elliptical orbit. Collier, describes the extraterrestrials from Sirius A as follows: There is a race of beings on Sirius A, the humans there are called the Katayy. They are considered benevolent. Many of the human races there are red-skinned. Their ancestry is some of the first Lyraens that escaped with the women and children during the war. In their oceans they have whales, octopus and sharks. They are a race that is artistic. They have music and are connected to nature. They are builders and not very political. Their governments are based on “spiritual technology,” which uses sound and color. The racial characteristics of the Sirians suggest that they were originally colonists from Vega. If the Sirians were originally Vegans escaping some cataclysmic interplanetary war in the constellation of Lyra, then it might well be understandable how they developed an interest in building, since the building of a new civilization on new world in the relative young star system of Sirius A, would have been an urgent requirement. Collier refers to the Sirians using sound and color as a kind of ‘spiritual technology’ which suggests that they specialize in terraforming planets and making them suitable for the evolution of life by altering the ‘bio-magnetic energy’ grid. The following telepathic communication provides more information on the Sirians as builders of new planetary structures in terms of altering the ‘bio-magnetic energy grid’ that assist the evolution of humans and other life forms: They are the original builders of your grid, the architecture on which your planet was based. So therefore they are useful in discerning the sacred geometry and discerning the physical laws of your home world. They can help you also in constructing the new grid, in constructing a new system that is appropriate for your next challenges. So we would say that the Sirians are excellent allies in the strategic design work that lies ahead. Alex Collier claims that the intervention of the Sirians A is due to mistakes made by those from Sirius B in terms of technology transfers and other forms of assistance given to humanity: “My understanding is that those from the Sirius A system are trying to be beneficial and assist, because they feel responsibility in that those who colonized Sirius B system were originally from Sirius A.” In conclusion, the main activity that can be attributed to those extraterrestrials from Sirius A is to assist in building a suitable ecological system for (human) evolution on Earth by altering the ‘bio-magnetic energy grid’ of the planet. Those from Sirius A can assist in global solutions such as environmental protection, promoting biodiversity, assist in consciousness raising; and evolution of the biosphere.
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  • Sirian B’s
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    Alex Collier describes extraterrestrials from Sirius B as follows: “The cultures around Sirius B have a very controlling vibration. Some of the humans are red, beige and black-skinned. The planets around Sirius B are very arid and generally occupied by reptilian and aquatic-type beings… The society is more obsessed with political thought patterns instead of spiritual attributes.” Amazingly, an African tribe called the Dogon, had an intricate understanding of this elliptical orbit of Sirius B around the main star, Sirius A. This knowledge was apparently given to their ancestors by advanced extraterrestrials from the Sirius star system. The Dogon described the Sirians as Amphibians from a planet around Sirius B, which is consistent with Collier’s claim that one of the planets around Sirius B is “generally occupied by reptilian and aquatic-type beings.” The racial characteristics of the humans from Sirius B suggests that these are descendants from the star system Vega. Preston Nichols claims to be a ‘whistleblower’ who participated in a clandestine project at Montauk that involved a number of extraterrestrial groups. An independent investigator found Nichols “to be a very reliable and solid witness and that for myself, his information checked out across the board–right down the line; to the extent that it was at all possible to verify particular information.” The humans from Sirius B, according Nichols played a role in providing exotic technology such as time/inter-dimensional travel to clandestine government agencies involved in both the Philadelphia Experiment and Montauk Project. Alex Collier explains the role of this group of extraterrestrials in technology exchanges with national security agencies: “those from Sirius B have come here and really messed with our heads, and they are the ones who originally gave our government the Montauk technology.” This exotic technology was provided for the purpose of encouraging national security agencies to develop offensive military capabilities vis-à-vis possible extraterrestrial threats. This technological assistance even involved biological weapons research according to Collier who claims: “the biological material that has been added to the Ebola [virus] was given to the government by the humanoids from Sirius B. I don’t know if if was one of their viruses that they picked up somewhere or whether it is actually from them.” According to Daniel Salter another whistleblower with long military service which included a period in the National Reconnaissance Office, extraterrestrial related issues drive human-extraterrestrial cooperation in a clandestine organization in the National Security Agency called the Advanced Contact Intelligence Organization (ACIO). According to leaked information from an alleged whistleblower on a popular website called the Wingmakers, information which Salter affirms to be accurate, ACIO is cooperating with a consortium of extraterrestrials to develop sophisticated time travel technologies for future extraterrestrial threats. According to the Wingmakers website: Blank Slate Technology or BST is a form of time travel that enables the re-write of history at what are called intervention points. Intervention points are the causal energy centers that create a major event like the break-up of the Soviet Union or the NASA space program. BST is the most advanced technology and clearly anyone who is in possession of BST, can defend themselves against any aggressor. It is, as Fifteen [leader of the Labyrinth] was fond of saying, the freedom key. Remember that the ACIO was the primary interface with extraterrestrial technologies and how to adapt them into mainstream society as well as military applications. Some of these extraterrestrials scared the hell out of the ACIO. It is likely that this consortium of extraterrestrials includes those from Sirius B who allegedly provided some time travel/inter-dimensional travel technology for the Montauk Project, and assistance in researching biological weapons. The Sirians do not appear to be closely connected to the Gray or Reptilian groups that have been the main extraterrestrial groups involved in technology transfers. The Sirian interaction with the shadow government appears to have been an independent initiative designed to provide an alternative source of extraterrestrial technology. Nevertheless, Collier’s description of humans from Sirians B co-habiting their worlds with Reptilians suggests a deep historical experience with Reptilians. This suggests that concern with the Reptilian/Gray technology exchange agreements may have been a major factor in the Sirians efforts. In conclusion, this human extraterrestrial group from Sirius B is mainly active in technology exchange programs that have assisted the government in the acquisition of various technologies that have had military applications. This appears to be aimed at promoting military cooperation to potential extraterrestrial threats against Earth, both through subversion and external intervention. The global problems that the humanoids from Sirius B have contributed to include: covert weapons research, use of exotic technologies, and abuse of civilians used in time travel experiments.
    Links: Top Ten Black Op Projects,
  • Pleaidians

    Billy Meier further described how the Pleiadians, descendents of the Nordic looking Lyrans, had migrated between a number of star systems before finally settling in the Pleiades constellation: The ancient history of the early Pleiadian ancestors in another home sun system was also described and how they came to travel to the Pleiades. A much earlier migration to this solar system is also described and how and why it failed. The one third survivors of the Pleiadian ancestors’ original planet, after its devastation, evolved a new technology, and designed and built the great-spacer evacuation arks in just 900 years, and began to launch them everywhere for many hundreds of years more. The extraterrestrials visiting Switzerland are the descendants of one of those space arks which occupied one of the three planets engineered for human habitation, in one of the sun-systems in what we call the Pleiades today. They have experienced great gains and great losses many times over since that time. In a very real sense, we are descendants of their earliest colonists attempting to settle in this solar system, together with an assortment of aborigines and human exiles from a number of places. The particular star system from which Meier’s Pleiadians originate is Taygeta and the main planet is Erra. The Pleiadians from Taygeta identified Meier as one of their chosen ‘representatives’ with a mission to bring the truth of the extraterrestrial presence to humanity. Semjase, the Pleiadian female who made contact with Meier, described the Pleiadians as follows: “We are neither guardians of Earth beings nor God-sent angels or similar. Many persons suggest we are watching over Earth and her beings and would control their fates. This is not true, because we only perform a self-selected mission which has nothing to do with supervising or regulating Earth fates. Thus it is wrong to expose us as superterrestrial messengers and guardians.” The Pleiadians identified a key aspect of their mission is to warn humanity of the Grays which they described as follows: “There are also different life forms that have acquired much knowledge and have freed themselves from their environment. They travel through space and occasionally come to Earth. Many of them are rather unpleasant creatures and live in a type of barbarism that frequently is nearly as bad as the terrestrials. You should be aware of them because they often attack and destroy everything that gets in their way. Many times they have even destroyed whole planets or forced their inhabitants into bondage. It is one of our missions to warn the people on Earth of these creatures. Let this be known to the Earth people because the time is approaching when a conflict with these degenerate human creatures [Grays] becomes unavoidable.” According to Collier, the Grays and Pleiadians are involved in armed skirmishes in the solar system and other systems such as Sirius B. Other key aspects of the Pleiadian mission according to Meier, are to assist in the uplift of human consciousness and to promote the unity of religion. Interestingly, Collier claimed that some Pleiadians groups such as those from Alcyone operate with ‘hidden agendas,’ while those from Teygeta (e.g., Meier’s Pleiadians) are described as genuinely assisting humanity.  Despite the possible ‘hidden agenda’ of some Pleiadians, most testimony and evidence points to Pleiadians in general having positive interactions with humans, and that they do much to assist in the elevation of human consciousness and assisting humanity in finding freedom from Gray/Reptilian influence. In conclusion, the main activity of the Pleiadians appears to be helping humanity find freedom from oppressive structures through education and consciousness raising. The Pleiadians can assist in find global solutions such as universal human rights, participatory democratic systems, the evolution of human consciousness and global education.
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  • Ummites

    The Ummites are described as extraterrestrials from the planet Ummo which is claimed to be 14.6 light years away, and possibly located in the star system Wolf 424. They played a significant role in disseminating scientific technical literature and objects through Spain and then relayed to the rest of Europe in the 1960’s and 1970’s from a hidden base near a small town in the French province of ‘Basses Alps’ (Lower Alps). The Ummites contacted a select number of individuals and distributed to them detailed technical information on different technologies and revolutionary theories that would expand scientific knowledge beyond the prevailing orthodoxies. The only physical contact the Ummites had with anybody, aside from phone calls and sending technical information by regular mail, was with a hired typist who described how he worked for and eventually discovered the identities of the Ummites: Between 1967 and 1975 the members of the Madrid group [Spanish UFO researchers aware of the Ummites] received a letter from a man who claimed to be the Ummites’ typist. Apparently, he had advertised for work in a newspaper and had subsequently been visited by two tall, fair-haired respectable dressed men. They told him that they were Danish doctors and asked if he could type out scientific material for them on a regular basis. Initially all went well, until the day he read the following sentence: ‘We come from a celestial body named Ummo which is 14.6 light years from the Earth. – He took this at its face value and questioned the doctors – eventually they admitted that they were not Danish doctors at all, but extra-terrestrial visitors. To prove their identity they produced a tiny sphere just an inch or so in diameter, which one of them placed in mid-air before the typist. He looked into it and to his amazement saw a scene that had taken place in that same office on the preceding day when his wife, fearing that the Danish doctors might be spies. There was however a well recorded public event in the form of an Ummo spacecraft that landed near Madrid on June 10, 1967 that was announced by the Ummites several days before to a select group of UFO researchers. The Ummite’s approach appears to be one of helping scientists develop innovative technologies and theories that assist in addressing global problems that require technical solutions. In 1973, due to the uncertainty over a nuclear war on Earth, the Ummites terminated their residence on Earth and departed. They subsequently sent the following message in 1980 to Dr Antonio Ribera, one of the Spanish UFO researchers that had taken up their case: “For 30 years we have studied your science, your culture, history and civilizations All this information we have carried from your Earth to Ummo in our titanium crystals codified with data. We HAVE DEMONSTRATED to you our culture and our technology in purely descriptive form – so you cannot convert them or realize them practically. We have done this because we note with sadness that you employ your sciences primarily for war and the destruction of your own selves, which cont[inue] as your principal objective. You are like children playing with terrible and dangerous toys which will destroy you. WE CAN DO NOTHING! A cosmic law says that each world must take its own path, to survive or to perish. You have chosen the second. You are destroying your planet – annihilating your species, and contaminating your atmosphere and your seas until now this is irreversible. With sadness we contemplate your insanity, and understand that the remedy is only in yourselves. We can not look forward a great distance into your future because your psyche are completely unpredictable and capricious bordering on paranoia. As your elder brothers in this cosmos, we urgently desire with all our hearts your salvation. Do not destroy your beautiful blue planet, a rare atmospheric world that floats so majestically in space, so full of life. IT IS YOUR CHOICE. While it cannot be known exactly how influential the Ummites assistance has been since it was largely covert, it certainly appears to have been significant in sparking innovative scientific initiatives by range of technically competent professionals and private citizens. It can be concluded that the Ummite’s main activity lies in sharing technical information, transforming scientific culture, and global education. The Ummites can assist in global solutions surrounding the transformation of scientific paradigms, development of environmentally friendly technologies, and educational reform.
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  • Alpha Centaurians

    Another extraterrestrial race that appears to be playing a significant role in human affairs is from the Alpha Centauri star system. Alex Collier claims the Alpha Centaurians are one of the races visiting the Earth. The most compelling testimony supporting the presence of the Alpha Centaurians is Elizabeth Klarer who had high level responsibilities within the British military to monitor UFO reports. Klarer was apparently contacted by the Alpha Centaurians and eventually taken to Alpha Centauri for a few months to have a child fathered by the Alpha Centaurian, Akon. Klarer’s description of the Alpha Centaurians gives a vivid account of how technology can be wisely used to benefit both humanity and the ecosystem. The Alpha Centaurians were argued to be benevolent and genuinely desiring to assist humanity in dealing with its evolution. An alleged former employee of the covert Montauk and Philadelphia projects, Al Bielek, discussed a number of extraterrestrials including the Alpha Centaurians. Bielek’s testimony is perhaps one of the most bizarre and controversial cases in UFO research yet his testimony is coherent and consistent, and according to an independent investigator, John Quinn, Bielek is very credible and there is much evidence to support his claims. The Alpha Centaurians, according to Bielek, apparently provide a form of sanctuary and protection to humans that desire assistance in dealing with the repressive policies of the shadow government. Bielek stated the nature of this agreement with the Alpha Centaurians in an interview:
    AB [Al Bielek].There are shuttles regularly from this planet to Alpha Centauri 4 which by agreement is a safe haven for people wanted by the U.S. Government. There’s a treaty. It takes about 12 hours to get them. Apparently they took all of their family which meant sisters, brothers, father, mother, whatever, with them. As far as I know they’re still there.
    SS [questioner]: Who runs the shuttle?
    AB: Presumably the Alpha Centauri Government, but I don’t know. But it’s on a regular basis twice a week. The landing point I have no idea where it is. Of course they guard it secret.
    SS: What is their body form like?
    AR: Alpha Centauri? Like humans, exactly the same. There’s a much lower population on their planet. They’re not overpopulated. They’re an advanced civilization, a little ahead of us – not a great deal, but somewhat ahead of us. They don’t like things like government headbashing and that sort of thing and the way they treat some of the government agents they no longer have any use for or whatever, if they are approached, and I don’t know how it’s done, if they are approached and asked for asylum, if they issue the card, you just get on the shuttle and that’s it, you’re there. Beyond that I don’t know. I haven’t seen them since.
    This role of providing sanctuary to humans threatened by the shadow government indicates that the Alpha Centaurians are very interested in social justice and helping in the transition of Earth towards a more trusting and nurturing global society. This is a theme elaborated upon in the following telepathic communication from an independent source: “Those from [Alpha] Centaurus have an open society, a trusting and loving one, so they would be useful to you as you begin to design the social rules for an alternative to a combative or competitive social structure.” The main activity of the Alpha Centaurians can therefore be inferred as promoting social justice and human freedom, and the responsible use of advanced technology. The Global solutions that can be promoted by the Alpha Centaurians include social justice at a global level, creating zones or peace or peace sanctuaries, human rights and sustainable development.
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  • Tau Centians

    Other human populated worlds are apparently the star systems of Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. The researcher, Frank Crawford, interviewed a number of individuals who had physical contact with the Tau Cetians. The first and most significant was an alleged whistleblower who participated in crash retrievals of UFOs; a live occupant was captured and interrogated by U.S. national security officials from a crash near Phoenix, Arizona in 1961. ‘Oscar,’ the pseudonym used by the whistleblower, described to Frank Crawford the origins of the captured extraterrestrial who was nicknamed ‘Hank.’ It was later confirmed by Hank that the stars of origin of his people were Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. In later sessions Oscar discussed some reasons for the presence of the aliens. He said the[y] do not like the situation with some of the small grey aliens. He corrected us when we used the term ‘grey’ and said that they are actually white. The Tau Cetians feel that the abductions being carried out by some of the Greys are a great injustice to humanity. ‘They are a parasitic race that has and is preying on human civilizations throughout the universe, Oscar relayed. He added that our government’s involvement with the grays is very dangerous and out of control. The Tau Cetians have been preyed upon by these aliens before and they are working with other races and communities that were also victims. (Oscar) wants people to know that if they are contacted by the Tau Cetians (humans such as he described) to not be afraid because they are here to help. The revelations by ‘Hank’ suggest that the Tau Cetians are present to help deal with the covert strategies and activities of the Grays. They in particular are very concerned about the nature of the agreements reached with them by the U.S. ‘shadow government,’ and in helping individual ‘abductees.’ According to ‘Oscar’ the Tau Cetian, ‘Hank’, was tortured and that this nearly caused an incident with other Tau Cetians who wanted to militarily intervene on behalf of their captured colleague. The events described by Oscar are consistent with the main activity of the Tau Cetians as described in the following telepathic communication: “One of the races is from Tau Ceti. They’re specialists in intrigue and determining motivations of cloaked societies. They understand the ways that subterfuge can cripple a system. So they would be excellent contacts for undercover work.” The second individual who had physical contact with Tau Cetians was an abductee, Jill Waldport, who described to Frank Crawford how she had been contacted by two sets of extraterrestrials, the Grays and a human looking race that attempted to help her in dealing with the Grays: Jill informed me that the aliens told her they didn’t like what some of the aliens were doing to her without her consent. They had come to help her learn how to overcome the DECEPTIONS of the Grays and to protect herself. They explained that she needed to psychically build a shield around herself, like a brick wall, when they came for her. This would help keep her from being deceived by their MIND TRICKS. She tried it the next time the Grey’s came or her and it ‘seemed’ to work. Crawford then revealed how Jill described the origins of the benevolent extraterrestrials as Tau Cetians: At this point the correlation counter in my mind was working overtime, so I decided to go for gold and ask her if they told her where they were from. Believe it or not she replied, ‘Tau Seat-eye, does that make any sense?’ Later I mentioned to Oscar that I was investigating a case that involved intense interaction with Grays and Tau Cetians showing up to help. He asked where the case was from and I told him near Springfield, Illinois. He rattled off a very accurate description of Jill and said he was aware that she had been contacted. In conclusion, the Tau Cetians main activities lies in raising awareness of how to deal with the subversion of societies by extraterrestrial races, identifying corrupt elites and institutions, uplifting human consciousness, and developing strategies for negating advanced mind control techniques. The global solutions they can assist in include exposing government/financial corruption and elite manipulation, monitoring extraterrestrial infiltration, deprogramming mind control and implant removal, promoting multidimensional consciousness, diplomacy and conflict resolution.Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani are said to be a major ‘convergence’ of exterran ‘human’ activity, and are said to be in alliance with the Pleiadeans (who in turn, according to contactees, have ‘Federated’ alliances with the Vegans, the Ummites, and others.).
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  • Centaurians/Ytlians

    These are Nordic-Human types from Centaurus B, only 4.2 light years from earth, they live on an earth like planet, the second planet orbiting their sun. The friendly human race of Centaurus have not been associated with our world in the past, but today with the current situation here have made them concerned for our future as a race. they would like to help us grow spiritually. There are, to my knowledge very few of them living here and seeking to help us make the shift into 4th/5th density. They are also known to communicate with some of our scientists in order to advance our understanding with advanced physics and, higher spiritual science, as well to help us find a cure for many of our illnesses and diseases. They are considered benevolent and, a part of the galactic federation. their home world Ytlis is a lot like earth and technologically they are on very similar level as we are, with the help of the federation and their technology they are able to visit our world. The people of Centaurus are currently more spiritually mature than we are as of now, they have less countries and more unity, they often live simple lives of farming communities, while others are into scientific development to be used for helping their own community among other purposes. They are a lot like us in appearance, although not exactly the same, often they have similar appearance as for the scandinavians, tall blonde and pale, but they also can have other characteristics to their appearance. They do not share common ancestry with humans of earth other than being members of the same universe, as there are many human civilizations who have evolved indigenously in this universe, while others were created by genetic engineering by advanced races of people, we could refer them as co creators.
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  • Telosians

    The subterranean ‘extraterrestrials’ are described to be remnants of previous human civilizations on the Earth’s surface such as Lemuria and Atlantis and are thus genetically related to humanity. The most famous description of one of these ancient races is found in the posthumously published ‘diaries’ of Admiral Richard Byrd who describes a secret expedition to the North Pole where he was taken into the subterranean dwelling of an advanced race with Nordic physical characteristics. He was shown some of the wondrous technology of this society and also met the leader of this advanced subterranean race who allegedly said: ‘We have let you enter here because you are of noble character and well-known on the Surface World, Admiral’ … you are in the domain of the Arianni, the Inner World of the Earth…. Admiral, I shall tell you why you have been summoned here. Our interest rightly begins just after your race exploded the first atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. It was at that alarming time we sent our flying machines, the “Flugelrads”, to your surface world to investigate what your race had done…. You see, we have never interfered before in your race’s wars, and barbarity, but now we must, for you have learned to tamper with a certain power that is not for man, namely, that of atomic energy. Our emissaries have already delivered messages to the powers of your world, and yet they do not heed. Now you have been chosen to be witness here that our world does exist. You see, our Culture and Science is many thousands of years beyond your race, Admiral.’ While there continues to be controversy over the veracity of Admiral Byrd’s diaries, there are a number of reported encounters with representatives of an advanced subterranean human race. A large subterranean city called Telos is argued to lie below Mt Shasta, California and has been described by individuals who have either physically traveled to this city and witnessed it, or those who claim to have telepathically communicated with the occupants of this city. Prominent UFO researcher, William Hamilton, claims to have met representatives of Telos who described to him the advanced technology and structure of Telos and their connection to the former civilization of Lemuria. Hamilton described a Telosian, ‘Bonnie’, and her family as follows: “Bonnie, her mother (Rana Mu), her father (Ra Mu), her sister Judy, her cousins Lorae and Matox, live and move in our society, returning frequently to TELOS for rest and recuperation. Bonnie relates that her people use boring machines to bore tunnels in the Earth. These boring machines heat the rock to incandescence, and then vitrify it, thus eliminating the need for beams and supports. A tube transit tunnel is used to connect the cities that exist in various subterranean regions in our hemisphere. The tube trains are propelled by electromagnetic impulses up to speeds of 2,500 mph. One tube connects with one of their cities in the Matto Grosso jungle of Brazil. They grow food hydroponically under full-spectrum lighting with their gardens attended by automatons. The food and resources of Telos are distributed in plenty to the million-and- a-half population that thrives on a no-money economy.” According to the Dianne Robbins, who claims to have telepathically communicated with the Telosians, they are the remnants of the Ancient Lemuria who made Mt Shasta their home after the destruction of their continent. Originally numbering 15,000, this Lemurian remnant has apparently flourished in the underground caverns of Mt Shasta and grown to a population of 1.5 million where psychotronic technologies, involving crystals and the highly developed mental abilities of the Telosians, are used to maintain an incredibly advanced society that interacts with extraterrestrials from a number of star systems. The Telosians are reported to specialize in maintaining human longevity, and integrating harmonious technologies and belief systems for surface based humans. The Telosians and other subterranean ‘extraterrestrials’ seek to curtail the most damaging aspects of human-extraterrestrial technological agreements while assisting in the evolutionary growth in human consciousness. The main activities of the Telosians can be inferred to be in helping surface humanity learn of its ancient Earth history, restore human longevity, changing unhealthy belief systems and protecting the environment. The global solutions provided by the Telosians include: environmental protection; promoting bio-diversity; restoring human health and longevity; and recovery of lost historical knowledge. The ‘off-world’ human looking extraterrestrial have been claimed to have provided some of the genetic material for human evolution, and that many of these extraterrestrials have allowed some of their personnel to incarnate as ‘star seeds’ on Earth in human families. These ‘star seeds’, ‘star children’ or ‘star people’ are described by Brad and Francie Steiger as individuals whose ‘souls’ were formally incarnated on the worlds of other star systems and then traveled to Earth and decided to incarnate here in order to boost the evolutionary development of humanity. Most of humanity would consider this group of extraterrestrials to be ‘benevolent’ as described by ‘contactees’ such as George Adamski, Orfeo Angelucci, George Van Tassell, Howard Menger, Paul Villa, Billy Meier and Alex Collier who each explain the nature of their voluntary interactions with these human looking extraterrestrials. These contactees often provide physical evidence in the form of photographs, film and/or witnesses of their contacts with extraterrestrial races. The most extensively documented and researched contactee is Eduard ‘Billy’ Meier who provided much physical evidence for investigators. These off world human extraterrestrial races appear to have different ‘specialties’ as a result of unique histories and planetary migrations due to galactic upheavals and conflicts. It is worth exploring the main activities of each race to understand how they either currently interact with humanity or how they may better interact with humanity to address global problems.
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  • Mammalian Humanoid (Cyrus A)

    Mammalian humanoid. Humans aren’t the only mammalian species existing through out the cosmos. Not much is known about these beings, but they’re supposed to be registered part of the 57 recorded visitors. They are not cat people, their appearance only reminds that of a cat, they most likely evolved from a mammalian species that never existed on earth, or could be a result of genetic engineering by other race. Some of these beings might be workers/subservient to the Sirians from Sirius B.
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  • The Mook

    The Mook is a Feline or mammalian creature, which is 1.3 meters in size. This information was recovered from a ufo crash site: IACT/26, OBR-32 – AC 204 (BANTY)
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  • Cygnus Alphans/Iargans

    These are aquatic beings who’s home planet Iarga resides in the system of Cygnus, 10 light years from earth. This race is benevolent and members of the Galactic Federation and their civilization is a couple thousand years ahead of us. They have made contact with select people, one of those who went public with their story was a Dutch man named Stefan Danaerde who made contact with these beings in the late 60’s. The Iargans developed from a life-form which probably never existed on earth, a sort of giant otter (oter) which could walk on four: legs and which, when swimming, held their two back legs pressed against each other, the whole body in a waving movement like a dolphin. The wide webbed ‘feet’ functioned as a tail and the front legs were folded against the body so that the webbed ‘hands’ worked as front fins. They were very fast swimmers which could glide, but could also walk on land. From this line of evolution the Iargan race eventually developed. They still swim in exactly the same way but they walk upright and have developed much stronger arms. In their faces one can still recognize something of the otter-type.
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  • Para-Terrestrial
    The Para-Terrestrial come from several different parallel universes from the Multiuniverse. When they accelerate or decelerate the frequency of vibration of their atomic structure they are able to exist at our 3rd dimension. This information was recovered from IACT/26, OBR-32 – AC 204 (BANTY), as well as other crash sites.
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  • Links: Extraterrestrials, Top Ten Artifacts Depicting Extraterrestrials,  http://www.tarrdaniel.com/documents/Ufology/extraterrestrial_races.html,

To Infinity and Beyond!

Exoplanets Believed to be Inhabited

Exoplanets Believed to be Inhabited

These exoplanets are believed to be inhabited by intelligent, space traveling beings who are believed to have already made contact with Earth.

  • Altair Aquila System (Believed to be Inhabited by an Alliance of Humanoid Beings)

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  • Draconis Star System
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    The most controversial ‘whistleblower’/’contactee’ reports concern an off-world ‘master Reptilian race’ described as the Draco-Reptilians who are claimed to originate from the Alpha Draconis star system which is 215 light years distant and was formerly the pole star. According to Alex Collier, the Draconians or Dracos have two main castes, the first of which is a warrior caste that are in the 7-8 foot range, who are apparently feared throughout the galaxy for their fighting abilities. The second caste are a ‘royal line’ of Draco Reptilians that he describes as ‘Ciakars’ which, because of their alleged size, psychic ability and alleged wings, might be confused as the proverbial Dragon if Collier is correct: “The Draconians are a very large reptilian race, otherwise known as “the Dracs.”.There is royal line of the reptilian race called the Ciakar. They range from 14 to 22 feet tall and can weigh up to 1,800 pounds. They do have winged appendages and they are awesome beings. They’re extremely clairvoyant and extremely clever, and they can also be extremely sinister.” Collier claims that according to the Draconian world view, they were the first intelligent species in the galaxy and seeded many worlds with their biological off-spring. The Draco Reptilians therefore see themselves as the natural rulers of Reptilian ‘controlled’ worlds such as Earth, and view humans as an inferior species. The Draconians are interested in harvesting the Earth’s resources while ensuring that these resources are efficiently exploited. There appears to be a strict hierarchy involving the Draco-Reptilians and other extraterrestrial races so far described in this group. According to Thomas Castello, Reptilians from Alpha Draconis, the ‘Dracos’, are in command of the Earth based Reptilians. Earth based Reptilians are in turn in command of the ‘tall Grays,’ who are in command of the short Grays. Interestingly, Castello also describes the Draconian ruling caste as Ciakars who are winged and therefore could be easily confused as dragons. Jefferson Souza, a Brazilian UFO researcher confirms the existence of a hierarchy involving the Grays and a Master Reptilian race.
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  • Zeta Reticuli (Inhabited by a Group of Greys)

    Zeta Reticuli is a binary star system located about 39 light-years (12 pc) away from Earth. It is located in the constellation Reticulum, and is visible to the unaided eye under very dark skies. Because of the southerly location of the system, it is not visible north of the tropics.
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  • Orion’s Belt
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    The second prominent race in this group of extraterrestrials are the ‘tall Grays’ described by Robert Dean as  “a very large group, I say large, they were 6-8 maybe sometimes 9 feet tall and they were humanoid, but they were very pale, very white, didn’t have any hair on their bodies at all.” Tall Grays are described to originate from the Orion constellation, and according to Dr Arthur Horn play an overseeing role vis-à-vis short Grays: “The short greys are overseen within their own ranks by the taller seven to eight foot tall greys. These greys are the ones that actually carry out “diplomatic” missions, such as secretly negotiating treaties with heads of human governments. As mentioned the greys in general, and the small three to five foot greys in particular, have been likened to mercenaries.” Support for the diplomatic role played by the ‘tall Grays’ comes from William Cooper, former Navy Intelligence Advisor, who claims he saw classified documents where the ‘tall Grays’ did negotiate agreements with the Eisenhower administration in meetings beginning in 1954. Later in 1954 the race of large nosed Gray Aliens which had been orbiting the Earth landed at Holloman Air Force Base. A basic agreement was reached. This race identified themselves as originating from a Planet around a red star in the Constellation of Orion which we called Betelgeuse. They stated that their planet was dying and that at some unknown future time they would no longer be able to survive there. The meeting at Holloman Air force base in New Mexico has reportedly been the site of subsequent extraterrestrial meetings with tall Grays. In 1972-73, for example, the producers Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler, had allegedly been offered and witnessed actual Air force film footage of a meeting involving tall Grays that occurred at Holloman Air force base in 1971. When it comes to the abduction phenomenon, Dr David Jacobs concludes from an exhaustive analysis of sixty case studies in Secret Life that the tall Grays play an overseeing role in these. The tall grays were found to be present in many abductions that Jacobs examined through hypnotic regression of abductees, and were in command of the short grays who performed most of the abductions. Recently a former U.S. Air Force serviceman published his memoirs where he disclosed extensive interactions with a variety of ‘tall Grays’ which he called ‘tall Whites’ due to their very white chalky skin and white hair. Hall was stationed at Nellis Airforce base from 1965-67 where his duty was to use weather balloons for the Air Force from the Indian Springs location on the base. He describes his interactions with ‘Tall Whites’ beginning in 1965 and how he and other servicemen coped with their disturbing presence. Hall described a catalogue of incidents where the ‘tall Whites’ terrorized other military servicemen who didn’t understand them, surprised them or threatened them in some way. Hall for example describes one ‘tall White’ who wanted to kill a military servicemen who accidentally hit her child with a stone and broke her arm. The incident led to the ‘tall White’ threatening the servicemen with death if he didn’t leave immediately and promise to never return. Other servicemen had similar negative encounters with the ‘tall Whites’ where their lives were threatened if they frightened ‘tall White’ children or didn’t follow orders to the letter. Significantly, these dire consequences were given approval by the Pentagon which monitored the tall Whites interactions with Hall and other military servicemen. Only Hall was spared this kind of intimidating treatment since he had the intelligence and courage to interact with the ‘tall Whites’ in a friendly way. Furthermore, he had apparently saved the life of a ‘tall White’ child and this led to him being befriended by the ‘tall Whites’ and incorporated him into a project to study human-tall White interaction. This is where the Tall Whites display more positive qualities such as friendship and superior technical knowledge in their interactions with Hall. Significantly, the ‘Tall Whites’ began to be seen in the Mojave desert area in 1954 indicating that they were associated with the agreement(s) reached between the ‘tall Grays’ and the Eisenhower administration in 1954. Hall further describes regularly seeing them in the presence of Airforce generals and other senior officials who recognized the ambassadorial status of the Tall White leader. The ‘tall Grays/Whites’ intimidate humans in a variety of reported interactions, and behave in an almost clinical manner reminiscent of a medical doctor conducting an experiment. The tall Grays/Whites are most involved in genetic experiments, creating a hybrid human-Gray race, mind control and diplomatic agreements with the ‘shadow government.’ Global problems that are influenced by the tall Grays/Whites include genetically modified humans, implants for monitoring humans, an overly passive population due to hypnotic mind control, influence over elite decision makers, the infiltration of national security agencies, and human rights abuses of civilians and military personnel.
    As in all situations, the actions of individual members of a species cannot be taken to reflect the intent of all members of that species.
    Links: Top Ten Crop Circles, Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten Constellations
  • Pleiades Star System (Home to the Pleaideans) (Exoplanets: Erra, Semjase, Ptaah and Quetzal)
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           Pleiadians come from the planet Erra near the star Taygeta and are extra-terrestrials that most resemble humans. In astronomy, the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters (Messier object 45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. Pleiades has several meanings in different cultures and traditions. The cluster is dominated by hot blue and extremely luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Dust that forms a faint reflection nebulosity around the brightest stars was thought at first to be left over from the formation of the cluster (hence the alternate name Maia Nebula after the star Maia), but is now known to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium that the stars are currently passing through. Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.
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  • Hyadeans (Hyades Star Cluster) (Inhabit Many Planets)
    67The Hyades Star Cluster
    Hyadean Aliens are extraterrestrials that make their home in the Hyades Star Cluster in the constellation Taurus the Bull.  The Hyades Star Cluster consists of 300 to 400 stars and is approximately 151 light years from the planet earth. The Hyadeans populate a number of planets throughout the star systems present in this part of the galaxy that stretches over 80 light years in diameter. Many associate the largest star in the apparent direction, Aldebaran, with the Hyades systems but in reality has nothing to do with the neighborhood of planets and is much closer to earth. The star systems of the Hyades stretch into what is called the Hyades stream which is a number of star systems many of which contain extraterrestrial life. The Hyades stream nearly stretches half way to the Pleiades star cluster which is approximately 440 light years from earth with a diameter of 43 light years.  The Pleiades also harbor a great amount of extra terrestrial life through its star systems.  Paranormal researchers often call this part of the universe the “band of life” as significant amount of life of extra terrestrial beings are said to reside in this part of the galaxy. The Hyadeans are refugees of the constellation Lyra after the first great galactic conflict.  When the Lyran home world Avalon was brutally savages by Reptilian aggressors, the inhabitants of that star system fled throughout the galaxy. While a great many fled to the Pleiades and other star systems some of these Lyrans made their way to the Hyades Star Cluster to start a new home. The Hyadeans have remained much less active in galactic diplomacy then their brothers the Pleiadians. Little is known about the race of Hyadeans although they have been reported to be contactees channeling individuals on earth. The Hyadean aliens are humanoid said to look very similar to Pleiadians and have a similar “nordic” look.  The Hyadean civilization stood as a “frontier” territory for the lyrans seeking refuge from their invaders.  Since, the Hyadean civilization has grown and prospered spreading life throughout the Hyades stream.
    Links: http://arcturi.com/PleiadianAliens/Hyadeans.html,
  • Siruis B (Home to the Nomos/Sirians)
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    According to the Dogan Tribe of Eastern Africa their oral tradions have passed down a story throughout the millennia of a race of extraterrestrials that visited them in the ancient past and came from a planet orbiting Sirius B. They spoke of both Sirius A and B, of which B was only recently found by modern astronomers in 1852. In visible light Sirius A (Alpha Canis Majoris) is the brightest star in the night sky, a closely watched celestial beacon throughout recorded history. Part of a binary star system only 8 light-years away, it was known in modern times to have a small companion star, Sirius B. Sirius B is much dimmer and appears so close to the brilliant Sirius A that it was not actually sighted until 1862, during Alvan Clark’s testing of a large, well made optical refracting telescope. For orbiting x-ray telescopes, the Sirius situation is exactly reversed, though. A smaller but hotter Sirius B appears as the overwhelmingly intense x-ray source in this Chandra Observatory x-ray image (lines radiating from Sirius B are image artifacts). The fainter source seen at the position of Sirius A may be largely due to ultraviolet light from the star leaking into the x-ray detector. With a surface temperature of 25,000 kelvins, the mass of the Sun, and a radius just less than Earth’s, Sirius B is the closest known white dwarf star. In addition to the above extraterrestrials, there are a number of human looking extraterrestrials from Sirius B which is part of a binary star system. Alex Collier describes extraterrestrials from Sirius B as follows: “The cultures around Sirius B have a very controlling vibration. Some of the humans are red, beige and black-skinned. The planets around Sirius B are very arid and generally occupied by reptilian and aquatic-type beings… The society is more obsessed with political thought patterns instead of spiritual attributes.” The Dogon described the Sirians as Amphibians from a planet around Sirius B, which is consistent with Collier’s claim that one of the planets around Sirius B is “generally occupied by reptilian and aquatic-type beings.” The racial characteristics of the humans from Sirius B suggests that these are descendants from the star system Vega. Preston Nichols claims to be a ‘whistleblower’ who participated in a clandestine project at Montauk that involved a number of extraterrestrial groups. An independent investigator found Nichols “to be a very reliable and solid witness and that for myself, his information checked out across the board–right down the line; to the extent that it was at all possible to verify particular information.” The humans from Sirius B, according Nichols played a role in providing exotic technology such as time/inter-dimensional travel to clandestine government agencies involved in both the Philadelphia Experiment and Montauk Project. Alex Collier explains the role of this group of extraterrestrials in technology exchanges with national security agencies: “those from Sirius B have come here and really messed with our heads, and they are the ones who originally gave our government the Montauk technology.” This exotic technology was provided for the purpose of encouraging national security agencies to develop offensive military capabilities vis-à-vis possible extraterrestrial threats. This technological assistance even involved biological weapons research according to Collier who claims: “the biological material that has been added to the Ebola [virus] was given to the government by the humanoids from Sirius B. I don’t know if if was one of their viruses that they picked up somewhere or whether it is actually from them.” According to Daniel Salter another whistleblower with long military service which included a period in the National Reconnaissance Office,  extraterrestrial related issues drive human-extraterrestrial cooperation in a clandestine organization in the National Security Agency called the Advanced Contact Intelligence Organization (ACIO). According to leaked information from an alleged whistleblower on a popular website called the Wingmakers, information which Salter affirms to be accurate, ACIO is cooperating with a consortium of extraterrestrials to develop sophisticated time travel technologies for future extraterrestrial threats. According to the Wingmakers website: Blank Slate Technology or BST is a form of time travel that enables the re-write of history at what are called intervention points. Intervention points are the causal energy centers that create a major event like the break-up of the Soviet Union or the NASA space program. BST is the most advanced technology and clearly anyone who is in possession of BST, can defend themselves against any aggressor. It is, as Fifteen [leader of the Labyrinth] was fond of saying, the freedom key. Remember that the ACIO was the primary interface with extraterrestrial technologies and how to adapt them into mainstream society as well as military applications. Some of these extraterrestrials scared the hell out of the ACIO. It is likely that this consortium of extraterrestrials includes those from Sirius B who allegedly provided some time travel/inter-dimensional travel technology for the Montauk Project, and assistance in researching biological weapons. The Sirians do not appear to be closely connected to the Gray or Reptilian groups that have been the main extraterrestrial groups involved in technology transfers. The Sirian interaction with the shadow government appears to have been an independent initiative designed to provide an alternative source of extraterrestrial technology. Nevertheless, Collier’s description of humans from Sirians B co-habiting their worlds with Reptilians suggests a deep historical experience with Reptilians. This suggests that concern with the Reptilian/Gray technology exchange agreements may have been a major factor in the Sirians efforts. In conclusion, this human extraterrestrial group from Sirius B is mainly active in technology exchange programs that have assisted the government in the acquisition of various technologies that have had military applications. This appears to be aimed at promoting military cooperation to potential extraterrestrial threats against Earth, both through subversion and external intervention. The global problems that the humanoids from Sirius B have contributed to include: covert weapons research, use of exotic technologies, and abuse of civilians used in time travel experiments.
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  • Alpha Centaurians

    Another extraterrestrial race that appears to be playing a significant role in human affairs is from the Alpha Centauri star system. Alex Collier claims the Alpha Centaurians are one of the races visiting the Earth. The most compelling testimony supporting the presence of the Alpha Centaurians is Elizabeth Klarer who had high level responsibilities within the British military to monitor UFO reports. Klarer was apparently contacted by the Alpha Centaurians and eventually taken to Alpha Centauri for a few months to have a child fathered by the Alpha Centaurian, Akon. Klarer’s description of the Alpha Centaurians gives a vivid account of how technology can be wisely used to benefit both humanity and the ecosystem. The Alpha Centaurians were argued to be benevolent and genuinely desiring to assist humanity in dealing with its evolution. An alleged former employee of the covert Montauk and Philadelphia projects, Al Bielek, discussed a number of extraterrestrials including the Alpha Centaurians. Bielek’s testimony is perhaps one of the most bizarre and controversial cases in UFO research yet his testimony is coherent and consistent, and according to an independent investigator, John Quinn, Bielek is very credible and there is much evidence to support his claims. The Alpha Centaurians, according to Bielek, apparently provide a form of sanctuary and protection to humans that desire assistance in dealing with the repressive policies of the shadow government. Bielek stated the nature of this agreement with the Alpha Centaurians in an interview:
    AB [Al Bielek].There are shuttles regularly from this planet to Alpha Centauri 4 which by agreement is a safe haven for people wanted by the U.S. Government. There’s a treaty. It takes about 12 hours to get them. Apparently they took all of their family which meant sisters, brothers, father, mother, whatever, with them. As far as I know they’re still there.
    SS [questioner]: Who runs the shuttle?
    AB: Presumably the Alpha Centauri Government, but I don’t know. But it’s on a regular basis twice a week. The landing point I have no idea where it is. Of course they guard it secret.
    SS: What is their body form like?
    AR: Alpha Centauri? Like humans, exactly the same. There’s a much lower population on their planet. They’re not overpopulated. They’re an advanced civilization, a little ahead of us – not a great deal, but somewhat ahead of us. They don’t like things like government headbashing and that sort of thing and the way they treat some of the government agents they no longer have any use for or whatever, if they are approached, and I don’t know how it’s done, if they are approached and asked for asylum, if they issue the card, you just get on the shuttle and that’s it, you’re there. Beyond that I don’t know. I haven’t seen them since.
    This role of providing sanctuary to humans threatened by the shadow government indicates that the Alpha Centaurians are very interested in social justice and helping in the transition of Earth towards a more trusting and nurturing global society. This is a theme elaborated upon in the following telepathic communication from an independent source: “Those from [Alpha] Centaurus have an open society, a trusting and loving one, so they would be useful to you as you begin to design the social rules for an alternative to a combative or competitive social structure.” The main activity of the Alpha Centaurians can therefore be inferred as promoting social justice and human freedom, and the responsible use of advanced technology. The Global solutions that can be promoted by the Alpha Centaurians include social justice at a global level, creating zones or peace or peace sanctuaries, human rights and sustainable development.
    Links:
  • Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani

    Other human populated worlds are apparently the star systems of Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. The researcher, Frank Crawford, interviewed a number of individuals who had physical contact with the Tau Cetians. The first and most significant was an alleged whistleblower who participated in crash retrievals of UFOs; a live occupant was captured and interrogated by U.S. national security officials from a crash near Phoenix, Arizona in 1961. ‘Oscar,’ the pseudonym used by the whistleblower, described to Frank Crawford the origins of the captured extraterrestrial who was nicknamed ‘Hank.’ It was later confirmed by Hank that the stars of origin of his people were Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani. In later sessions Oscar discussed some reasons for the presence of the aliens. He said the[y] do not like the situation with some of the small grey aliens. He corrected us when we used the term ‘grey’ and said that they are actually white. The Tau Cetians feel that the abductions being carried out by some of the Greys are a great injustice to humanity. ‘They are a parasitic race that has and is preying on human civilizations throughout the universe, Oscar relayed. He added that our government’s involvement with the grays is very dangerous and out of control. The Tau Cetians have been preyed upon by these aliens before and they are working with other races and communities that were also victims. (Oscar) wants people to know that if they are contacted by the Tau Cetians (humans such as he described) to not be afraid because they are here to help. The revelations by ‘Hank’ suggest that the Tau Cetians are present to help deal with the covert strategies and activities of the Grays. They in particular are very concerned about the nature of the agreements reached with them by the U.S. ‘shadow government,’ and in helping individual ‘abductees.’ According to ‘Oscar’ the Tau Cetian, ‘Hank’, was tortured and that this nearly caused an incident with other Tau Cetians who wanted to militarily intervene on behalf of their captured colleague. The events described by Oscar are consistent with the main activity of the Tau Cetians as described in the following telepathic communication: “One of the races is from Tau Ceti. They’re specialists in intrigue and determining motivations of cloaked societies. They understand the ways that subterfuge can cripple a system. So they would be excellent contacts for undercover work.” The second individual who had physical contact with Tau Cetians was an abductee, Jill Waldport, who described to Frank Crawford how she had been contacted by two sets of extraterrestrials, the Grays and a human looking race that attempted to help her in dealing with the Grays: Jill informed me that the aliens told her they didn’t like what some of the aliens were doing to her without her consent. They had come to help her learn how to overcome the DECEPTIONS of the Grays and to protect herself. They explained that she needed to psychically build a shield around herself, like a brick wall, when they came for her. This would help keep her from being deceived by their MIND TRICKS. She tried it the next time the Grey’s came or her and it ‘seemed’ to work. Crawford then revealed how Jill described the origins of the benevolent extraterrestrials as Tau Cetians: At this point the correlation counter in my mind was working overtime, so I decided to go for gold and ask her if they told her where they were from. Believe it or not she replied, ‘Tau Seat-eye, does that make any sense?’ Later I mentioned to Oscar that I was investigating a case that involved intense interaction with Grays and Tau Cetians showing up to help. He asked where the case was from and I told him near Springfield, Illinois. He rattled off a very accurate description of Jill and said he was aware that she had been contacted. In conclusion, the Tau Cetians main activities lies in raising awareness of how to deal with the subversion of societies by extraterrestrial races, identifying corrupt elites and institutions, uplifting human consciousness, and developing strategies for negating advanced mind control techniques. The global solutions they can assist in include exposing government/financial corruption and elite manipulation, monitoring extraterrestrial infiltration, deprogramming mind control and implant removal, promoting multidimensional consciousness, diplomacy and conflict resolution.Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani are said to be a major ‘convergence’ of exterran ‘human’ activity, and are said to be in alliance with the Pleiadeans (who in turn, according to contactees, have ‘Federated’ alliances with the Vegans, the Ummites, and others.).
    Links:
  • Antares Solar System
  • Links: Extraterrestrials, Extraterrestrial Civilizations, Top Ten Exoplanets

To Infinity and Beyond!

Top Ten Comets

Top Ten Comets

CometsComets1Comets2

       A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere) and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei are themselves loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across. Comets have been observed since ancient times and have historically been considered bad omens.

  1. 103P/Hartley
    103PHartley
           Comet Hartley 2, officially designated 103P/Hartley, is a small periodic comet with an orbital period of 6.46 years. It was discovered by Malcolm Hartley in 1986 at the Schmidt Telescope Unit in Siding Spring, Australia. Its diameter is estimated to be 1.2 to 1.6 km. It will be the subject of a flyby by the Deep Impact spacecraft on November 4, 2010, with a closest approach of 700 kilometers. This is part of the EPOXI mission. The comet will pass within 0.12 AU of the Earth on October 20, 2010, only eight days before coming to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on October 28, 2010.During this passage, the comet may be visible to the naked eye at apparent magnitude 5, in the constellation Auriga, near its open clusters, if an observer knows where to look and is viewing from a dark sky location. Binoculars should make it an easy target.
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  2. 1991 VG

           Perhaps the most controversial comet, it was discovered on November 6, 1991, by James Scotti. There has been much speculation about the object as when it was first detected it had a tendency to “wink,” becoming roughly three times brighter, then dark again, every seven and one-half minutes, behavior akin to that of a rotating artificial satellite. This led scientists to speculate that it may be an expended rocket booster drifting through interplanetary space, perhaps from an old Saturn V booster from the Apollo moon-launch days of the late 1960’s and early ’70s, or more interesting yet, that it may actually be an artificial satellite sent here by extraterrestrials. The object’s orbit was found to be very similar to Earth’s and it was recognized that it would make a close approach to Earth just a month after discovery. Given such an Earth-like orbit, the dynamical lifetime of such an object is relatively short with the object quickly either impacting Earth or being perturbed by Earth onto a different orbit. The similarity of its orbit with Earth is also very difficult to explain from natural sources, with ejecta from a recent Lunar impact or non-gravitational perturbations such as the Yarkovsky effect having been suggested. The uncertainty of the object’s origin, combined with rapid variation in the object’s brightness in images obtained during its close passage with Earth in early December 1991, led some to speculate that 1991 VG might be artificial in origin. 1991 VG has absolute magnitude H=28.5 which would correspond to an asteroid between about 6 and 12 meters diameter and it is therefore far too faint for further study, apart from during close approaches to Earth.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1991_VG,
  3. Halley’s Comet
    Halley’s CometHalley’s Comet1Halley’s Comet2Halley’s Comet3
           Halley’s Comet or Comet Halley is the best-known of the short-period comets, and is visible from Earth every 75 to 76 years. Halley is the only short-period comet that is clearly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and thus the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime. Other naked-eye comets may be brighter and more spectacular, but will appear only once in thousands of years. Halley’s returns to the inner solar system have been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC, and perhaps as early as 466 BC. Clear records of the comet’s appearances were made by Chinese, Babylonian, and medieval European chroniclers, but were not recognized as reappearances of the same object at the time. The comet’s periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named. Halley’s Comet last appeared in the inner Solar System in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061. During its 1986 apparition, Halley became the first comet to be observed in detail by spacecraft, providing the first observational data on the structure of a comet nucleus and the mechanism of coma and tail formation. These observations supported a number of longstanding hypotheses about comet construction, particularly Fred Whipple’s “dirty snowball” model, which correctly surmised that Halley would be composed of a mixture of volatile ices, such as water, carbon dioxide and ammonia, and dust. However, the missions also provided data which substantially reformed and reconfigured these ideas; for instance it is now understood that Halley’s surface is largely composed of dusty, non-volatile materials, and that only a small portion of it is icy.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1P/Halley,
  4. Great Comet of 1744

           The Great Comet of 1744, whose official designation is C/1743 X1, and which is also known as Comet de Chéseaux or Comet Klinkenberg-Chéseaux, was a spectacular comet that was observed during 1743 and 1744. It was discovered independently in late November 1743 by Jan de Munck, in the 2nd week of December by Dirk Klinkenberg and, 4 days later, by Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux. It became visible with the naked eye for several months in 1744 and displayed dramatic and unusual effects in the sky. Its absolute magnitude, or intrinsic brightness, of 0.5 was the 6th highest in recorded history. Its apparent magnitude may have reached as high as -7, leading it to be classified among what are called the “Great Comets.” This comet is noted especially for developing a ‘fan’ of 6 tails after reaching its perihelion. The tail structure was a puzzle to astronomers for many years. Although other comets had displayed multiple tails on occasion, the 1744 comet was unique by having 6. It has been suggested that the ‘fan’ of tails was generated by as many as three active sources on the cometary nucleus, exposed in turn to solar radiation as the nucleus rotated. It also has been proposed that the tail phenomenon was a very prominent example of the “dust striae” seen in the tails of some comets, such as Comet West and Comet McNaught.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C/1743_X1,
  5. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
    Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9Comet Shoemaker-Levy 91Comet Shoemaker-Levy 92
           Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2, nicknamed String of Pearls for its appearance) was a comet that broke apart and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of solar system objects. This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media, and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its role in reducing space debris in the inner solar system. The comet was discovered by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene M. Shoemaker and David Levy. Shoemaker-Levy 9, at the time captured by and orbiting Jupiter, was located on the night of March 24, 1993, in a photograph taken with the 40 centimeters (1 ft 4 in) Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. It was the first comet observed to be orbiting a planet, and had probably been captured by the planet around 20–30 years earlier. Calculations showed that its unusual fragmented form was due to a previous closer approach to Jupiter in July 1992. At that time, the orbit of Shoemaker-Levy 9 passed within Jupiter’s Roche limit, and Jupiter’s tidal forces had acted to pull the comet apart. The comet was later observed as a series of fragments ranging up to 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter. These fragments collided with Jupiter’s southern hemisphere between July 16 and July 22, 1994, at a speed of approximately 60 km/s (37 mi/s). The prominent scars from the impacts were more easily visible than the Great Red Spot and persisted for many months.
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  6. Comet West

           Comet West formally designated C/1975 V1, 1976 VI, and 1975n, was a spectacular considered by some to qualify for the status of “great comet.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_West,
  7. Caesar’s Comet

           Caesar’s Comet (C/-43 K1), also the Great Comet of 44 BC, was a comet appearing during antiquity. The bright, daylight-visible comet appeared suddenly during the festival known as the Ludi Victoriae Caesaris, for which the 44 BC iteration was long considered to have been held in the month of September (a conclusion drawn by Sir Edmund Halley). The dating has recently been revised to a July occurrence in the same year, some four months after the assassination of Julius Caesar, as well as Caesar’s own birth month. A powerful symbol in the political propaganda that launched the career of Caesar’s great-nephew (and adoptive son) Augustus, the 7 day visitation was taken by Romans as a sign of the deification of the dead Caesar. The Temple of Divus Iulius (Temple of the Deified Julius) was built and dedicated by Augustus (29 BC) for purposes of fostering a “cult of the comet.” It was also known as the “Temple of the Comet Star.”
    Links: Top Ten Emperors, Top 100 Coins, Top 100 European Coins, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Caesar,
  8. Comet Donati

           Comet Donati, or Donati’s Comet, formally designated C/1858 L1 and 1858 VI, was a comet named after the Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Donati who first observed it on June 2, 1858. The comet is considered a non-periodic comet. After the Great Comet of 1811, it was the most brilliant comet that appeared in the 19th century. It was also the first comet to be photographed. It was nearest the Earth on October 10, 1858 and is expected to return in the 39th century. Abraham Lincoln, then a candidate for a seat in the U.S. Senate, sat up on the porch of his hotel in Jonesboro, Illinois to see “Donti’s Comet” on September 14, 1858, the night before the 3rd of his historic debates with Stephen Douglas. Donati’s Comet appears as a streak and star in the early evening sky of a painting by William Dyce, A Recollection of October 5th, 1858.
    Links: Top Ten Presidents, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Donati,
  9. The Great Comet of 1861 (C/1861 J1)

           The Great Comet of 1861 formally designated C/1861 J1 and 1861 II, was a comet that was visible to the naked eye for approximately 3 months. It was categorized as a Great Comet, one of eight in the 19th century. It was discovered by John Tebbutt of Windsor, New South Wales, Australia, on May 13, 1861, with an apparent magnitude of +4, a month before perihelion (June 11). It was not visible in the northern hemisphere until June 29, but it arrived before word of the comet’s discovery. The comet of 1861 interacted with the Earth in an almost unprecedented way. For two days, when the comet was at its closest (0.1326 AU), the Earth was actually within the comet’s tail, and streams of cometary material converging towards the distant nucleus could be seen. By day also the comet’s gas and dust even obscured the Sun. By the middle of August the comet was no longer visible to the naked eye, but it was visible in telescopes until May 1862. An elliptical orbit with a period of about 400 years was calculated, which would indicate a previous appearance about the middle of the 15th century, and a return in the 23rd century. As of 1992 this Great Comet had traveled more than 100 AU from the Sun, making it even further away than dwarf planet Eris. It will come to aphelion around 2063. I. Hasegawa and S. Nakano suggest that this comet is identical with C/1500 H1.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Comet_of_1861,
  10. Comet of 1729

           The Comet of 1729, also known as C/1729 P1 or Comet Sarabat, was a non-periodic comet with an absolute magnitude of −3, the brightest ever observed for a comet; it is therefore considered to be the largest comet ever seen.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_of_1729,
  11. Elinin

    Description:
    Links:
  12. Great Comet of 1577
    Great Comet of 1577Great Comet of 15771
           The Great Comet of 1577 (official designation: C/1577 V1) was a comet that passed close to Earth during the year 1577 AD. It was viewed by people all over Europe, including famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. From his observations of the comet, Brahe was able to discover that comets and similar objects travel above the Earth’s atmosphere. The most recent intelligence suggests that the comet is currently about 300 AU from the Sun (24 of Brahe’s observations spanning 74 days from 13 November 1577 to 26 January 1578 used for this estimate).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Comet_of_1577,
  13. Comet Hale-Bopp
    Comet Hale-BoppComet Hale-Bopp1
           Comet Hale-Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) was arguably the most widely observed comet of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades. It was visible to the naked eye for a record 18 months, twice as long as the previous record holder, the Great Comet of 1811. Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995, at a great distance from the Sun, raising expectations that the comet would brighten considerably by the time it passed close to Earth. Although predicting the brightness of comets with any degree of accuracy is very difficult, Hale-Bopp met or exceeded most predictions when it passed perihelion on April 1, 1997. The comet was dubbed the Great Comet of 1997. The passage of Hale-Bopp was notable also for inciting a comet-related panic. Rumors that an alien spacecraft was following the comet gained remarkable currency, and inspired a mass suicide among followers of the Heaven’s Gate cult.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Hale-Bopp,
  14. Comet Swift-Tuttle

           Comet Swift-Tuttle (formally designated as 109P/Swift-Tuttle) is a comet that was independently discovered by Lewis Swift on July 16, 1862 and by Horace Parnell Tuttle on July 19, 1862. The comet made a return appearance in 1992, when it was rediscovered by Japanese astronomer Tsuruhiko Kiuchi and became visible with binoculars. Its solid nucleus is about 27 kilometers (16.8 miles) across, considerably larger than the 10 km object hypothesized to have wiped out the dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. It is the parent body of the Perseid meteor shower, perhaps the best known shower and among the most reliable in performance. An unusual aspect of its orbit is that it is presently captured into a 1:11 orbital resonance with Jupiter; it completes one orbit for every 11 of Jupiter. The comet is on an orbit which puts it close to the Earth and the Moon. Upon its 1992 rediscovery, the comet’s date of perihelion passage was off from the then-current prediction by 17 days. It was then noticed that, if its next perihelion passage (August 14, 2126) was also off by another 15 days, the comet would very likely strike the Earth or Moon.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/109P/Swift-Tuttle,
  15. Kohoutek
    KohoutekKohoutek1
           First noted by astrologers in March 1973, and coming within 75 million miles of Earth in January, 1974, the Kohoutek comet is somewhat a mystery as astrologers calculate that it reappears anywhere from 7,500 to 75,000 years.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Kohoutek,
  16. Lexell’s Comet

           D/1770 L1, popularly known as Lexell’s Comet after its orbit computer Anders Johan Lexell, was a comet discovered by astronomer Charles Messier in June 1770. It is notable for having passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of only 0.015 astronomical units (2,200,000 kilometers (1,370,000 mi)), or roughly 6 times the radius of the moon’s orbit. The comet has not been seen since 1770 and is currently considered a lost comet.
    Links:
  17. Tempel 1
    Tempel 1Tempel 11
           Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel), is a periodic comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867. It currently completes an orbit of the Sun every 5.5 years. Tempel 1 was the target of the Deep Impact space mission, which photographed the deliberate high-speed impact upon the comet.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9P/Tempel,
  18. 81P/Wild
    81PWild
           Comet 81P/Wild, also known as Wild 2, is a comet named after Swiss astronomer Paul Wild, who discovered it in 1978 using a 40-cm Schmidt telescope at Zimmerwald. For most of its 4.5 billion-year lifetime, Wild 2 probably had a more distant and circular orbit. In September 1974, it passed within less than one million kilometers of the planet Jupiter, whose strong gravitational pull perturbed the comet’s orbit and brought it into the inner Solar System. Its orbital period changed from 43 years to about 6 years, and its perihelion is now about 1.59 AU (astronomical unit). NASA’s Stardust Mission launched a spacecraft, named Stardust, on February 7, 1999. It flew by Wild 2 on January 2, 2004, and collected particle samples from the comet’s coma, which were returned to Earth along with interstellar dust it collected during the journey. 72 close-up shots were taken of Wild 2 by Stardust. They revealed a surface riddled with flat-bottomed depressions, with sheer walls and other features that range from very small to up to 2 kilometers across. These features are believed to be caused by impact craters or gas vents. During Stardust’s flyby, at least 10 gas vents were active. The comet itself has a diameter of 5 kilometers.
    Links:
  19. Links: Top Ten Asteroids, Top Ten Exoplanets, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet, 

Extraterrestrials

Extraterrestrials

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