Top Ten Bissau-Guinean Attractions

Top Ten Bissau-Guinean Attractions

       The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is a country in West Africa bordered by Senegal, Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It covers 36,125 square km (nearly 14,000 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,600,000. Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were part of the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. It then became the Portuguese colony of Portuguese Guinea in the 19th century. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognized in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country’s name to prevent confusion with the Republic of Guinea. Only 14% of the population speaks the official language, Portuguese. The majority of the population (44%) speaks Kriol, a Portuguese-based Creole language and the remainder speak native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam, and there is a Christian (mostly Catholic) minority. The country’s per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.

  1. Bissau
    File:Bissau city center.jpgFile:Guinea-bissau-bissau-1.jpgFile:Bissau monument.jpg
    Bissau is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. The city’s borders are conterminous with the Bissau Autonomous Sector. In 2007, the city had an estimated population of 407,424 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Censos. The city which is located on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean, is the country’s largest city, major port, administrative and military center.
  2. Cacheu

           Cacheu is a town in northwestern Guinea-Bissau, lying on the Cacheu River. Its population was estimated to be 9,849 as of 2008. The town of Cacheu is situated in territory of the Papel people. Cacheu was one of the earliest European colonial settlements in sub-saharan Africa, due to its strategic location on the Cacheu river. Cacheu developed a European/Afro-European population from the late 15th century through informal settlement of Cape Verdian and Portuguese traders, adventurers and outcasts (lancados). The authorities in mainland Portugal also sent to Cacheu degredados – people condemned to exile for a variety of offences. For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, Cacheu was the official slave trading point for the Portuguese in the Upper Guinea region – the point at which duties on all slaves exported had to be paid. Notable buildings in Cacheu include the Portuguese-built 16th century fort, dating from the period when Cacheu was a centre for the slave trade. Roads in the town are paved with oil palm kernels. Other attractions in the town include the Tarafes de Cacheu Natural Park mangrove swamp and a regular market.
    Links: Sculptures,,
  3. Links:,

Top Ten Liberian Attractions

Top Ten Liberian Attractions

       Liberia is a country in West Africa bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire. Liberia’s coastline is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the more sparsely populated inland consists of forests that open to a plateau of drier grasslands. The country possesses 40% of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest. Liberia has a hot equatorial climate, with significant rainfall during the May to October rainy season and harsh harmattan winds the remainder of the year. Liberia covers an area of 111,369 square km (43,000 sq mi) and is home to about 3.7 million people. English is the official language, while over 30 indigenous languages are spoken within the country. Liberia is one of only two modern countries in Sub-Saharan Africa without roots in the European Scramble for Africa. Beginning in 1820, the region was colonized by freed American slaves with the help of the American Colonization Society, a private organization that believed ex-slaves would have greater freedom and equality in Africa. Slaves freed from slave ships were also sent there instead of being repatriated to their countries of origin. In 1847, these colonists founded the Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that of the US and naming the capital city Monrovia after James Monroe, the 5th president of the US and a prominent supporter of the colonization. The colonists, known as Americo-Liberians, monopolized the political and economic sectors of the country despite comprising only a small percentage of the largely indigenous population. The country began to modernize in the 1940’s following investment by the US during WWII and economic liberalization under President William Tubman. Liberia was a founding member of the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity. A military coup overthrew the Americo-Liberian establishment in 1980, marking the beginning of political and economic instability and two successive civil wars that left approximately 250,000 people dead and devastated the country’s economy. A 2003 peace deal led to democratic elections in 2005. Today,Liberia is recovering from the lingering effects of the civil war and related economic dislocation, with about 85% of the population living below the international poverty line.

  1. Monrovia

           Monrovia is the capital city of the West African nation of Liberia. Located on the Atlantic Coast at Cape Mesurado, it lies geographically within Montserrado County, but is administered separately. The city is governed as a metropolitan city called Greater Monrovia District, which had a population of 970,824 as of the 2008 census, containing 29% of the total population of Liberia and is the country’s most populous city. Monrovia is the cultural, political and financial hub for the entire country. The body that administers the government of Greater Monrovia District is the Monrovia City Corporation. Founded in 1822, Monrovia is named in honor of U.S. President James Monroe, a prominent supporter of the colonization of Liberia. Along with Washington, DC, it is one of two national capitals to be named after a US President. Monrovia was founded thirty years after Freetown, Sierra Leone, the first permanent Black American settlement in Africa. The city’s economy is dominated by its harbor, and government offices. Monrovia’s harbor was significantly expanded by US forces during the Second World War and the main exports include latex and iron ore. Materials are also manufactured on-site, such as cement, refined petroleum, food products, bricks and tiles, furniture and chemicals. Located near the confluence of the Mesurado and Saint Paul rivers, the harbor also has facilities for storing and repairing vessels.
  2. Links:,


Top Ten Sierra Leonean Attractions

Top Ten Sierra Leonean Attractions

       Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa bordered by Guinea, Liberia, and the Atlantic Ocean. Sierra Leone covers a total area of 71,740 square km (27,699 square mi) and has a population of 6.4 million. It was a colony under the auspices of the Sierra Leone Company from March 11, 1792 until it became a British colony in 1808. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. The country is divided into four geographical regions: the Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; which are further divided into 14 districts. Freetown is the capital, largest city and economic and financial center. The other major cities are Bo, Kenema, Koidu Town and Makeni. Sierra Leone is now a constitutional republic, with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature, known as the House of Parliament. The president is the head of state and the Head of government. The country has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base and is among the top 10 diamond producing nations in the world, with mineral exports remaining as the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, and a major producer of gold. The country has one of the world’s largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is also home to the 3rd largest natural harbor in the world; where shipping from all over the globe berth at Freetown’s famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay. Despite this natural wealth, over 70% of its people live in poverty. Sierra Leone is home to 15 ethnic groups, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Mende and Temne. The Mende are predominantly found in South-Eastern Sierra Leone; the Temne likewise predominate in the Northern Sierra Leone. Although English is the official language of Sierra Leone, the Krio language (derived from English and several indigenous African languages) is the most widely spoken language in virtually all parts of Sierra Leone. The Krio language is spoken by 97% of the country’s population and unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other. Sierra Leone is a predominantly Muslim nation, though with a large Christian minority. Sierra Leone is ranked as one of the most religiously tolerant nations in the world. People are often married across tribal and religious boundaries. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other peacefully and religious violence is extremely rare. Between 1991 and 2002 the Sierra Leone Civil War devastated the country leaving more than 75,000 people dead, much of the country’s infrastructure and over two million people displaced in neighboring countries; mainly to Guinea, which was home to more than 600,000 Sierra Leonean refugees. The war was resolved in 2002 after the Nigerian-led ECOMOG troops were heavily reinforced by a British force spearheaded by 1st Bn The Parachute Regiment, supported by the British Royal Navy. The arrival of this force resulted in the defeat of rebel forces and restored the civilian government elected in 1998. On January 18, 2002 President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah declared the civil war officially over. Early inhabitants of Sierra Leone included the Sherbro, Temne and Limba peoples, and later the Mende, who knew the country as Romarong, and the Kono who settled in the east of the country. In 1462, it was visited by the Portuguese explorer Pedro da Cintra, who dubbed it Serra de Leão, meaning “Lion Mountains.” Sierra Leone later became an important center of the transatlantic trade in slaves until March 11, 1792 whenFreetown was founded by the Sierra Leone Company as a home for formerly enslaved African Americans. In 1808,Freetown became a British Crown Colony, and in 1896, and the interior of the country became a British Protectorate; in 1961, the two regions combined and gained independence.

  1. Freetown

           Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone. It is a major port city on the Atlantic Ocean located in the Western Area of the country and with a population of 1.2 million. The city’s economy revolves largely around its harbor, occupying a part of the estuary of the Sierra Leone River in one the world’s largest natural deep water harbors. Queen Elizabeth II Quay is capable of receiving oceangoing vessels and handles Sierra Leone’s main exports. The population of Freetown is ethnically and culturally diverse. The city is home to significant numbers of all of the country’s ethnic groups, although it is the primary home of the Sierra Leone Creole people, known as Krios (descendant of freed Liberated Africans, African-Americans and West Indians). The city is politically dominated by the Krio. Many of the Freetown local city council city are held by ethnic Krios, including the mayor of Freetown, a position mainly held by Krios or Europeans since the city was founded. As in virtually all parts of Sierra Leone, the Krio language (a native language of the Krio people who only make up 5% of country’s population) is by far the most widely spoken language in the city. The population of Freetown is almost equally divided between Muslims and Christians. The city of Freetown was founded by Lieutenant John Clarkson and freed American slaves, called the Nova Scotian Settlers, who were transported to Sierra Leone by the Sierra Leone Company in 1792. Freetown is the oldest capital to be founded by freed American slaves, having been founded 30 years before Monrovia, Liberia. The oldest part of Freetown is Settler Town which was established by the Nova Scotians in 1792, after their namesake ‘The Settlers.’ The Maroons founded Maroon Town in 1800, thereby establishing another historical area in Freetown. The suburbs of Freetown were founded by the Liberated Africans between 1809 and 1827, and presently they are the most affluent areas of the Freetown peninsula.
  2. Kenema

           Kenema is the 3rd largest city in Sierra Leone (after Freetown and Bo) and the largest city in the Eastern Province. The city is a major trade center and is the capital and largest city of Kenema District. The city lies approximately 200 miles east of Freetown and about 50 miles south of Bo). The municipality of Kenema had a population of 128,402 in the 2004 census and a more recent estimate of 182,106. Kenema is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in Sierra Leone and is home to significant numbers of many of the country’s ethnic groups. The Krio language is widely spoken in the city and is the primary language of communication in the city. The city of Kenema is one of Sierra Leone’s six municipalities and is governed by a directly elected city council form of government, headed by a mayor, in whom executive authority is vested. The mayor is responsible for the general management of the city. Like the rest of Sierra Leone, Football is by far the most popular sport in the city. The Sierra Leone professional club called the Kamboi Eagles, which is based in Kenema, represent the city in the Sierra Leone National Premier League. The city has a history of producing some of Sierra Leone’s most popular footballers, including The country’s most successful footballer Mohamed Kallon; Others include Paul Kpaka, Kemokai Kallon, Kei Kamara and Musa Kallon. The city grew along with a now-closed railway, around the logging and carpentry industries, and recently with diamond mines first discovered in 1931.
  3. Koidu Town
           Koidu Town (also known commonly as Koidu, or Sefadu) is the fourth largest city in Sierra Leone (after Freetown, Bo and Kenema) and the capital, largest city, and economic center of the diamond-rich Kono District in the Eastern Province. The city is a major business, commercial and diamond trade center. Koidu Town is the second largest city in Eastern Sierra Leone (after Kenema), and lies approximately 275 miles east of Freetown. Koidu Town is one of Sierra Leone’s six municipalities and is locally governed by a directly elected city council, headed by a mayor, in whom local executive authority is vested. The city’s municipality is officially known as Koidu–New Sembehun. The municipality of Koidu–New Sembehun had a population of 82,899 in the 2004 census (a 2006 estimate being 111,800). Koidu Town is one of the most ethnically, and religiously diverse cities in Sierra Leone and is inhabited by significant numbers of many of the country’s ethnic groups. Most of the foreign diamond workers in Kono District reside in the city. The Krio language is by far the most widely spoken language in Koidu Town and is primarily used as the language of communication in the city. Like the rest of Sierra Leone, football (soccer) is by far the most popular sport in the city. The Sierra Leonean professional football club known as the Diamond Stars of Kono, which is based in Koidu Town, represent the city and the entire Kono District in the Sierra Leone National Premier League.
  4. Makeni

           Makeni is the largest city and economic center of the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. The city is the capital and administrative center of Bombali District. Makeni is the 5th largest city in Sierra Leone by population (after Freetown, Bo, Kenema and Koidu Town) and lies approximately 137 km (85 miles) east of Freetown. Makeni is a major commercial, educational, tranportational and economic center. The city had a population of 80,840 in the 2004 census and a current estimate of 109,112. The city is home to the University of Makeni, the largest private university in Sierra Leone. Makeni is home to the St. Francis Secondary School, one of the most prominent secondary schools in Sierra Leone and is widely known for producing some of Sierra Leone’s most gifted students. The city is also home to Makeni Teacher’s College. Makeni is one of Sierra Leone’s six municipalities and is governed by a directly elected city council, headed by a mayor, in whom executive authority is vested. The mayor is responsible for the general management of the city. Makeni is the home town of Sierra Leone’s president Ernest Bai Koroma, as he was born and raised in the city. The city is a political stronghold of the ruling All People’s Congress (APC) political party. Football is by far the most popular sport in the city. The Sierra Leone professional football club the Wusum Stars, that is based in Makeni, represent the city in the Sierra Leone National Premier League. The population of Makeni is ethnically diverse, though the Temne people make up the largest ethnic group.. The Krio language is used as the primary language of communication among the different ethnic groups in the city, though the Temne language is also widely understood in the city.
  5. Links: Top Ten Diamonds,

Top Ten Réunion Attractions

Top Ten Réunion Attractions


       La Réunion is a French island with a population of about 800,000 located in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar, about 200 km (120 mi) south west of Mauritius, the nearest island. Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas départements of France. Like the other overseas departments, Réunion is also one of the 27 regions of France(being an overseas region) and an integral part of the Republic with the same status as those situated on the European mainland. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, is part of the Eurozone.

  1.  Saint-Denis
           Saint-Denis is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. It is located at the island’s northernmost point, close to the mouth of the Rivière Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is the most populous commune in the French overseas departments. At the 1999 census, there were 158,139 inhabitants in the urban area of Saint-Denis, 131,557 of whom lived in the city (commune) of Saint-Denis proper and the remainder in the neighbouring commune of Sainte-Marie.
  2. Saint-Leu
           Saint-Leu is a commune in the French overseas department of Réunion. It is located on the west side of the island of Réunion. It is a famuos surf spot. Various surfing competitions have been held in Saint-Leu, including World Qualifying Series (WQS) and ASP World Tour (WCT) competitions. It is well known for its famous left wave. There is a paragliding base at Colimaçons. Paragliding World Cup races have been held in Saint-Leu in 2003 and 2006, and Pre World Cup Tour race in 2010
    Links: Top Ten Surf Spots,_R%C3%A9union,
  3. Piton de la Fournaise

           Piton de la Fournaise, “Peak of the Furnace,” is a shield volcano on the eastern side of Réunion island. It is currently one of the most active volcanoes in the world, along with Kīlauea in the Hawaiian Islands (Pacific Ocean), Stromboli, Etna (Italy) and Mount Erebus in Antarctica. A previous eruption began in August 2006 and ended in January 2007. The volcano erupted again in February 2007, and on 21 September 2008. Most recently, an eruption occurred on 9 December 2010 and lasted for two days. Piton de la Fournaise is often known locally as le Volcan (The Volcano) and is a major tourist attraction on Réunion island.
    Links: Top Ten Volcanoes,
  4. Saint-Pierre
           Saint-Pierre is the third-largest commune in the French overseas department of Réunion. It is located on the southwest side of the island of Réunion.
  5. Salazie
    File:Réunion TrouDeFer Fall.JPGFile:Domaine-de-Mare-à-Citrons.jpgFile:Église-Salazie.JPG
            Salazie is a volcanic caldera and commune (administrative division) in the department and region of Réunion. The first settlement of the area took place in 1829 after a cyclone had devastated the nearby coast, and the municipality of Salazie was formed in 1889. The name of the commune is potentially derived from the Malagasy word salazy, meaning ‘good encampment.’
  6. L’Étang-Salé
    File:Brisants Etang-sale.jpgÉtang-salé-les-bains-plage03.jpg
    L’Étang-Salé (French for The Salty Pond) is a commune in the department and region of Réunion. It is bordered by the communes of Les Avirons and Saint-Louis. Within the commune is the Etang-Salé forest. There is also a beach with black sand in the commune that is a popular surfing spot.
    Links: Top Ten Surf Spots,
  7. Links: Top Ten Réunion Hotels, Top Ten Réunion RestaurantsTop Ten French Attractions,,

African Attractions

African Attractions


Top Ten Zimbabwean Attractions

Top Ten Zimbabwean Attractions

       Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Zimbabwe has three official languages: English, Shona and Ndebele. Zimbabwe began as the British crown colony of Southern Rhodesia, created from land held by the British South Africa Company. President Robert Mugabe is the head of State and Commander in Chief of the armed forces. Morgan Tsvangirai is the Prime Minister. Mugabe has been in power since the country’s internationally recognized independence in 1980.

  1. Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas

           Mana Pools is a wildlife conservation area in northern Zimbabwe constituting a National Park. It is a region of the lower Zambezi River in Zimbabwe where the flood plain turns into a broad expanse of lakes after each rainy season. As the lakes gradually dry up and recede, the region attracts many large animals in search of water, making it one of Africa’s most renowned game-viewing regions. Mana means ‘four’ in Shona, in reference to the four large permanent pools formed by the meanderings of the middle Zambezi. These 2,500 square kilometers of river frontage, islands, sandbanks and pools, flanked by forests of mahogany, wild figs, ebonies and baobabs, is one of the least developed National Parks in Southern Africa. It was saved from a hydro-electric scheme in the early 1980’s which would have seen the flooding of this subsequent World Heritage site. It has the country’s biggest concentration of hippopotamuses and crocodiles and large dry season mammal populations of elephant and buffalo.
    Links: National Parks,,,
  2. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls

           Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (“the Smoke that Thunders”) is a waterfall located in southern Africa on the Zambezi River between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are the largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Natural Wonders of the World, Top Ten Waterfalls,,,
  3. Matobo National Park

           The Matobo National Park forms the core of the Matobo or Matopos Hills, an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 35 km south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe. The Hills were formed over 2,000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, this has eroded to produce smooth “whaleback dwalas” and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation. Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning ‘Bald Heads.’ The Hills cover an area of about 3,100 km², of which 424 km² is National Park, the remainder being largely communal land and a small proportion of commercial farmland. The park covers some beautiful scenery including some spectacular balancing rocks and impressive views along the Thuli, Mtshelele, Maleme and Mpopoma river valleys. Part of the national park is set aside as a 100 km² game park, which has been stocked with game including black and white rhinoceros. The highest point in the hills is the promontory named Gulati (1549 m) just outside the north-eastern corner of the park. Administratively, Matobo National Park incorporates the Lake Matopos Recreational Park, being the area around Hazelside, Sandy Spruit and Lake Matopos.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten African National Parks,,,
  4. Great Zimbabwe National Monument

           Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city that was once the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe, which existed from 1100 to 1450 AD during the country’s Late Iron Age. The monument, which first began to be constructed in the 11th century and which continued to be built until the 14th century, spanned an area of 722 hectares (1,784 acres) and at its peak could have housed up to 18,000 people. Great Zimbabwe acted as a royal palace for the Zimbabwean monarch and would have been used as the seat of their political power. One of its most prominent features was its walls, some of which were over five meters high and which were constructed without mortar. Eventually the city was largely abandoned and fell into ruin. The ruins were first being encountered by Europeans may have been in the late 19th century with investigation of the site starting in 1871. The monument caused great controversy among the archaeological world, with political pressure being placed upon archaeologists by the then white supremacist government of Rhodesia to deny that it could have ever been produced by native Zimbabweans. Great Zimbabwe has since been adopted as a national monument by the Zimbabwean government, with the modern state being named after it. The word “Great” distinguishes the site from the many hundreds of small ruins, known as Zimbabwes, spread across the Zimbabwe Highveld. There are 200 such sites in southern Africa, such as Bumbusi in Zimbabwe and Manekweni in Mozambique, with monumental, mortarless walls and Great Zimbabwe is the largest.
  5. Khami Ruins National Monument

           Khami is a ruined city located in what is now Zimbabwe. It was once the capital of the Kingdom of Butua. It is located 22 km west of the modern city of Bulawayo, capital of the province of Matabeleland North. Its ruins are now a national monument in Zimbabwe.
  6. Ziwa National Monument

           Ziwa, or Ziwa ruins (formerly Van Niekerk ruins) is the name used to describe the remains of a vast late Iron Age agricultural settlement that has been dated to the 17th century. The site is located in Nyanga, Zimbabwe. Ziwa was declared a National Monument in 1946 and is currently under consideration for World Heritage listing. The site contains a large variety of stonework structures including stone terraces running along contours of hills and steep landscapes. Archaeological investigations have also engendered important aspects of pottery and rock art. Before the declaration of the site as a National Monument, Ziwa had been part of the commercial farms area and was thus under private ownership. A great deal of damage or degradation of antiquities may have been wrought during this period as the farmer used the property as a cattle ranch. Currently a site museum (with tourist facilities such as camping, guided tours, walking trails, bird viewing, etc.) has been established to represent the Ziwa heritage and other archaeological sites in the Nyanga district. Despite the abandonment of the site by its inhabitants in the 18th Century, Ziwa continued to be of significance to the later communities that settled in its neighborhood.
  7. Links: Top Ten Zimbabwean Hotels, Top 100 Flowers,,,

Top Ten Zambia Attractions

Top Ten Zambia Attractions

       Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighboring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest. Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region of what is now Zambia was reached by the Bantu expansion by the 12th century. After visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia became the British colony of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the 19th century. For most of the colonial period, the country was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. On 24 October 1964, the country declared independence from the UK and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the first head of state.Zambia was governed by Kenneth Kaunda of the socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) from 1964 until 1991. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP the sole legal political party. From 1991 to 2002,Zambia was governed by president Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy during which the country saw a rise in social-economic growth and increased decentralization of government. Levy Mwanawasa was the third President of Zambia. He presided over the country from January 2002 until his death in August 2008. He is credited with having initiated a campaign to rid the country of corruption, and increasing standards of living from the levels left by Frederick T.J. Chiluba. The World Bank in 2010 named Zambia as one of the world’s fastest economically reforming countries. The headquarters of COMESA are in the capital Lusaka.

  1. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls

           Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (“the Smoke that Thunders”) is a waterfall located in southern Africa on the Zambezi River between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are the largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Natural Wonders of the World, Top Ten Waterfalls, Top Ten Unique Swimming Destinations,,,
  2. Mwela Rock Paintings

           The Mwela Rock Paintings are a national monument of Zambia, about 7 kilometers (4 miles) east of Kasama. This site was re-added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on March 10, 2009, in the Mixed category.
  3. Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Settlement Site

           Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River is a 772 ft. (235m) single drop waterfall on the border of Zambia and Tanzania at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. The falls are some of the tallest uninterrupted falls in Africa (after South Africa’s Tugela Falls, Ethiopia’s Jin Bahir Falls and some more waterfalls). Downstream of the falls the Kalambo Gorge which has a width of about 1 km and a depth of up to 300 m runs for about 5 km before opening out into the Lake Tanganyika rift valley. Initially it was assumed that the height of falls exceeds 300 m, but later measurements in 1956 gave a result 221 m. Archaeologically, Kalambo Falls is one of the most important sites in Africa. It has produced a sequence of past human activity stretching over more than 250,000 years. It was first excavated in 1953 by John Desmond Clark who recognized archaeological activity around a small basin lake upstreams from the falls. Late Acheulian stone tools, hearths and well preserved organic objects were found there including a wooden club and digging sticks and evidence of fruit consumption. Tools excavated from Kalambo Gorge have been dated to around 300,000 BC, and the hearths indicate people were using fire systematically there some 60,000 years ago. The Acheulian industry was superseded by the Sangoan and then Lupemban industries related to those found in the Congo. Around 10,000 years ago the site was occupied by the Magosian culture which in turn gave way to Wilton activity. Finally, around the 4th century AD, a more industrialized Bantu people began to farm and occupy the area.
    Links: Top Ten Waterfalls, Top Ten Skeletons, Top Ten Skulls,,
  4. Zambezi Source

           The Zambezi is the 4th longest river in Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square km (540,000 sq mi), slightly less than half that of the Nile. The 3,540 km long river (2,200 mi) has its source in Zambia and flows through Angola, along the borders of Namibia, Botswana, Zambia again, and Zimbabwe, to Mozambique, where it empties into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi’s most spectacular feature is the beautiful Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, and Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river. These are the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe and the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique which provides power to both Mozambique and South Africa. There is also a smaller power station at Victoria Falls.
    Links: Rivers,
  5. The Barotse Cultural Landscape

           Barotseland is a region in the western part of Zambia, and is the homeland of the Lozi people or Barotse who were previously known as Luyi or Aluyi. Its heartland is the Barotse Floodplain on the upper Zambezi River, also known as Bulozi or Lyondo, but it includes the surrounding higher ground of the plateau comprising all of what is now the Western Province of Zambia. In pre-colonial times, Barotseland included some neighboring parts of what are now the Northwestern, Central and Southern Province as well as Caprivi in northeastern Namibia and parts of southeastern Angola beyond the Cuando or Mashi River. The traditional monarch of Barotseland is the Paramount Chief, called the Litunga meaning “keeper or guardian of the earth,” who is directly descended from the ancient Litunga Mulambwa who ruled at the turn of the 19th century and through his grandson, the late great Litunga Lewanika who ruled from 1878-1916, with one break in 1884-5, who restored the traditions of the Lozi political economy in the arena of recent invasion by the Makololo, internal competition, external threats such as that posed by the Matabele and the inexorable spread of European colonialism. Historically, Barotseland’s status at the onset of the colonial era differed from the other regions which became Zambia. It was the first territory north of the Zambezi to sign a minerals concession and protectorate agreement with the British South Africa Company (BSAC) of Cecil Rhodes. Later Lewanika protested to London and to Queen Victoria that the BSAC agents had misrepresented the terms of the concession, but his protests fell on deaf ears, and in 1900 Britain formally annexed the territory as a protectorate and governed it as part of North-Western Rhodesia. Barotseland continued to lobby to be treated as a separate state and was given substantial autonomy within the later states, Northern Rhodesia and independent Zambia. At the pre-Independence talks, the Barotse simply asked for a continuation of “Queen Victoria’s protection.” A desire to secede was expressed from time to time, causing some friction with the government of Kenneth Kaunda, reflected in the latter changing its name from Barotseland Province to Western Province. According to Barotse views, the government in Lusaka also starved Barotseland of development, it has only one tarred road into the center, from Lusaka to the provincial capital of Mongu, and lacks the kind of state infrastructure projects found in other provinces. Electricity supplies are erratic, relying on an aging connection to the hydroelectric plant at Kariba. Consequently secessionist views are still aired from time to time. The Government of Barotseland is the Kuta, presided over by the Ngambela (Prime Minister).
  6. Chirundu Fossil Forest

           Chirundu, Zambia is a town in Zambia at the border with Zimbabwe and is a key point on the Great North Road. It is the site of two of the five major road or rail bridges across the Zambezi river, the Chirundu Bridges. The Chirundu Petrified Forest is an area of fossil trees 21 km west of Chirundu, lying just south of the Chirundu-Lusaka road near the Kariba turn-off. It is a listed National Monument of Zambia. Chirundu was the home to the local cult leader and faith healer Emmanuel Sadiki roughly from the year 1988 to 1989.
  7. Dag Hammarskjoeld Memorial (Crash site)

           The Dag Hammarskjold Memorial Crash Site marks the place of the plane crash in which Dag Hammarskjöld, the second and then-incumbent United Nations Secretary General (1953-1961) was killed on the September 17, 1961, while on a mission to the Congo Republic (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). The Site is located 10 km from Ndola, in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.
  8. Links: Top Ten Zambian Hotels,,

Top Ten Western Saharan Attractions

Top Ten Western Saharan Attractions

       The Western Sahara is a disputed territory in North Africa, bordered by Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania, and the Atlantic Ocean. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square km (103,000 square mi). It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, many of whom live in El Aaiún (also called Laayoune), the largest city in Western Sahara. A colony of Spain since the late 19th century, the Western Sahara has been on the UN’s list of non-self-governing territories since 1963. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, asking Spain to decolonize the territory. One year later, a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting Spain to organize a referendum on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the administrative control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco, which had formally claimed the territory since 1957, and Mauritania. A war erupted between those countries and the Sahrawi national liberation movement Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (exiled government in Tindouf, Algeria). Mauritania withdrew in 1979, and Morocco eventually secured effective control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources. Since a UN’s-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, most of the territory, including the entire Atlantic coast line, has been controlled by Morocco, strongly backed by France, and the remainder by the SADR, strongly backed by Algeria. Internationally, major powers such as theUS andRussia have taken a generally ambiguous and neutral position on each side’s claims, and have pressed both parties to agree on a peaceful resolution. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition, essentially from African, Asian and Latin American states in the developing world. The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 82 states, and was extended membership in the African Union, while Morocco has won recognition or support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Arab League. In both instances, recognitions have over the past two decades been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends.

  1. El Aaiún

           El-Aaiún, “El Ayun,” “The Springs,” is a city in Western Sahara founded by the Spanish in 1928. Administered by Morocco since 1976, El-Aaiún is the capital of what the Moroccan government called the region of Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, and POLISARIO called Occupied Territories. It is also claimed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as their capital.
  2. Links: Top Ten Deserts,,

Top Ten Ugandan Attractions

Top Ten Ugandan Attractions

       Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa, known as the “Pearl of Africa.” It is bordered by Kenya, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also bordered by Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompassed a portion of the south of the country including the capital Kampala. The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Uganda gained independence from Britain on October 9, 1962. The official languages are English and Swahili, although multiple other languages are spoken in the country.

  1. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

           Bwindi Impenetrable National Park is located in southwestern Uganda in East Africa. The park is part of the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, and is situated along the Democratic Republic of Congo border next to the Virunga National Park and on the edge of the western Great Rift Valley. It comprises 331 square km (128 square mi) of jungle forests and contains both montane and lowland forest and is accessible only on foot. The forest is one of the richest ecosystems in Africa and has a vast diversity of species. The park provides habitat for some 120 species of mammals, 348 species of birds, 220 species of butterflies, 27 species of frogs, chameleons, geckos and many endangered species. Floristically Bwindi is among the most diverse forests in East Africa, with more than 1,000 flowering plant species including 163 species of trees and 104 species of ferns. The northern (low altitude) sector is rich in species of the Guineo-Congolian flora. These include two species internationally recognized as endangered, Brown mahogany (Lovoa swynnertonii) and Brazzeia longipedicellata. In particular the area shares in the high levels of endemisms of the Albertine Rift. The park is a sanctuary for colobus monkeys, chimpanzees and many birds (such as hornbills and turacos). It is perhaps most notable for the 340 Bwindi gorillas, half the world’s population. There are four habituated Mountain Gorilla groups open to tourism: Mubare; Habinyanja; Rushegura near Buhoma; and the Nkuringo group at Nkuringo.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten African National Parks, Top 100 Birds, Top Ten Butterflies,,
  2. Rwenzori Mountains National Park

           Rwenzori Mountains National Park is a Ugandan national park located in the Rwenzori Mountains. Almost 1,000 km2 (386 sq mi) in size, the park has Africa’s 3rd highest mountain peak and many waterfalls, lakes and glaciers. The park is known for its beautiful plant life.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten African National Parks,  Top Ten Mountains, Top Ten African Mountains, Top 100 Flowers,,
  3. Kampala

           Kampala is the largest city and capital of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division and Lubaga Division. The city is coterminous with Kampala District.
  4. Ukerewe (Lake Victoria)

           Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza, also known as Ukerewe, The Eye of the Rhino, Nalubaale, Sango or Lolwe, is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named for Queen Victoria of the UK, by John Hanning Speke, the first European to visit this lake. With a surface area of 68,800 square km (26,600 square mi), Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake by area, is the largest tropical lake in the world, as well as being the world’s 2nd largest freshwater lake by surface area (only Lake Superior in North America is larger). In terms of its volume, Lake Victoria is the world’s 8th largest continental lake and contains about 2,750 cubic kilometers (2.2 billion acre-feet) of water. Lake Victoria receives most of its water from direct precipitation or from thousands of small streams. The largest stream flowing into this lake is the Kagera River, the mouth of which lies on the lake’s western shore. There are two rivers that leave the lake, the White Nile (known as the “Victoria Nile” as it leaves the lake), flows out at Jinja, Uganda on the lake’s north shore and the Katonga River flows out at Lukaya on the western shore connecting the lake to Lake George. Lake Victoria occupies a shallow depression in Africa and has a maximum depth of 84 meters (276 ft) and an average depth of 40 meters (130 ft). Its catchment area covers 184,000 square km (71,040 square mi). The lake has a shoreline of 4,828 km (3,000 mi), with islands constituting 3.7% of this length, and is divided among three countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Lake Victoria supports Africa’s largest inland fishery.
    Links: Top Ten Lakes, Top Ten African Lakes, Top Ten Kenyan Attractions, Top Ten Tanzanian Attractions,,
  5. Kasubi Tombs

           The Kasubi Tombs in Kampala, Uganda, is the site of the burial grounds for four kabakas (kings of Buganda). On March 16, 2010, some of the major buildings there were almost completely destroyed by a fire, the cause of which is under investigation. The outraged Buganda Kingdom has vowed to rebuild the tombs of their kings and President Museveni said the national government of Uganda would assist in the restoration of the site.
    Links: Top Ten Tombs, Top Ten Kings,,
  6. Links:,

Top Ten Tunisian Attractions

Top Ten Tunisian Attractions

       Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area is almost 165,000 square km (64,000 sq mi), with an estimated population of just over 10.4 million. Its name is derived from the capital Tunis located in the north-east. Tunisia is the smallest of the nations situated along the Atlas mountain range. The south of the country is composed of the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of particularly fertile soil and 1,300 km (810 mi) of coastline. Both played a prominent role in ancient times, first with the famous Phoenician city of Carthage, then as the Roman province of Africa, which was known as the “bread basket” of Rome. Later, Tunisia was occupied by Vandals during the 5th century AD, Byzantines in the 6th century, and Arabs in the 8th century. Under the Ottoman Empire, Tunisia was known as “Regency of Tunis.” It passed under French protectorate in 1881. After obtaining independence in 1956 the country took the official name of the “Kingdom of Tunisia” at the end of the reign of Lamine Bey and the Husainid Dynasty. With the proclamation of the Tunisian republic on July 25, 1957, the nationalist leader Habib Bourguiba became its first president. The country was governed by the authoritarian regime of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali from 1987 to 2011 before he fled during the Tunisian revolution. Tunisia, an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that has averaged 5% GDP growth since the early 1990’s, had suffered corruption benefiting the former president’s family.Tunisia has relations with both the European Union, with whom it has an association agreement, and the Arab world.Tunisia has established close relations with France in particular, through economic cooperation, industrial modernization, and privatization programs. The government’s approach to the Israel-Palestine conflict has also made it an intermediary in Middle Eastern diplomacy.

  1. El Djem

           El Djem is a town in Mahdia Governorate, Tunisia, population 18,302 (2004). It is home to some of the most impressive Roman remains in Africa.
    Links: Top Ten Stadiums,,
  2. Tunis

           Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia’s largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf of Tunis), behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Halq al Wadi), the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it. At the center of more modern development (from the colonial era and later) lies the old medina. Beyond this district lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, and Sidi Bou Said. The medina is found at the center of the city: a dense agglomeration of alleys and covered passages, full of intense scents and colours, boisterous and active trade, and a surfeit of goods on offer ranging from leather to plastic, tin to the finest filigree, tourist souvenirs to the works of tiny crafts shops. Just through the Sea Gate (also known as the Bab el Bahr and the Porte de France) begins the modern city, or Ville Nouvelle, transversed by the grand Avenue Habib Bourguiba (often referred to by popular press and travel guides as “the Tunisian Champs-Élysées”), where the colonial-era buildings provide a clear contrast to smaller, older structures. As the capital city of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life; it is also the centre of the country’s commercial activity. The expansion of the Tunisian economy in recent decades is reflected in the booming development of the outer city where one can see clearly the social challenges brought about by rapid modernization in Tunisia.
    Links: Top Ten Mosques,,
  3. Carthage

           Carthage is a major urban center that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC. It is currently a suburb of Tunis, Tunisia, with a population of 20,715 (2004). The first civilization that developed within the city’s sphere of influence is referred to as Punic (a form of the word “Phoenician”) or Carthaginian. The city of Carthage is located on the eastern side of Lake Tunis across from the center of Tunis. According to Roman legend it was founded in 814 BC by Phoenician colonists from Tyre under the leadership of Elissa (Queen Dido). It became a large and rich city and thus a major power in the Mediterranean. The resulting rivalry with Syracuse and Rome was accompanied by several wars with respective invasions of each other’s homeland. Hannibal’s invasion of Italy in the Second Punic War culminated in the Carthaginian victory at Cannae and led to a serious threat to the continuation of Roman rule over Italy; however, Carthage emerged from the conflict at its historical weakest after Hannibal’s defeat at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. After the Third Punic War, the city was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC. However, the Romans refounded Carthage, which became the Empire’s 4th most important city and the capital of the short-lived Vandal kingdom. It remained one of the most important Roman cities until the Muslim conquest when it was destroyed a second time in AD 698.
    Links: Top Ten Warriors, Top Ten Battles,,
  4. Sousse

           Sousse is a city in Tunisia. Located 140 km south of the capital Tunis, the city has 173,047 inhabitants (2004). Sousse is in the central-east of the country, on the Gulf of Hammamet, which is a part of the Mediterranean Sea. The name may be of Berber origin: similar names are found in Libya and in the south of Morocco (Bilād al-Sūs). The city is the capital of Sousse Governorate with 540,000 inhabitants (2005). Its economy is based on transport equipment, processed food, olive oil, textiles and tourism.
  5. Kairouan

           Kairouan, also known as Kirwan and Al Qayrawan, is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. Founded by Arabs around 670, Kairouan is referred to as the Islamic Cultural Capital. During the reign of Caliph Mu’awiya (661-680), it became an important centre for Islamic and Quranic learning, thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina. The holy Mosque of Uqba is situated in the city. It is considered by many Muslims to be Islam’s fourth holiest city. In 2003, the city had about 150,000 inhabitants.
    Links: Top Ten Spiritual Destinations, Top Ten Islamic Sites, Top Ten Mosques, Top 100 Islamic Artifacts, Top Ten Islamic Works of Art, Coins, Top 100 African Coins, Top 100 Gold Coins,,
  6. Dougga

           Dougga or Thugga is an ancient Roman city in northern Tunisia, included in a 65 hectare archaeological site. UNESCO qualified Dougga as a World Heritage Site in 1997, believing that it represents “the best-preserved Roman small town in North Africa”. The site, which lies in the middle of the countryside, has been protected from the encroachment of modern urbanization, in contrast, for example, to Carthage, which has been pillaged and rebuilt on numerous occasions. Thugga’s size, its well-preserved monuments and its rich Numidian-Berber, Punic, ancient Roman and Byzantine history make it exceptional. Amongst the most famous monuments at the site are a Punic-Libyan mausoleum, the capitol, the theatre, and the temples of Saturn and of Juno Caelestis.
  7. Kerkouane

           Kerkouane is a Punic city in northeastern Tunisia, near Cape Bon. This Phoenician city was probably abandoned during the First Punic War (250 BC), and as a result was not rebuilt by the Romans. It had existed for almost 400 years. Excavations of the town have revealed ruins from the 4th and 3rd Centuries BC. Around the site where the layout is clearly visible, many houses still show their walls, and the colored clay on the facades is often still visible. The houses were built to a standard plan, in accordance with a sophisticated notion of town planning. A sanctuary has some columns preserved, and in a small atrium parts of mosaics are found. Curbstones, doorsteps, thresholds, and floors of simple mosaic layers are found all over the ruins. Still archaeologists work on the Kerkouane site, but it is believed that the best parts have already been discovered. Kerkouane was one of the most important Punic cities, with Carthage, Hadrumetum (modern Sousse) and Utica.
  8. Ichkeul Lake

           Ichkeul Lake is a lake in northern Tunisia near the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. The lake and wetlands of Ichkeul National Park are an important stopping-over point for hundreds of thousands of migrating birds each year. Among the lake’s visitors are ducks, geese, storks and pink flamingoes. Dam construction on the lake’s feeder rivers has produced major changes to the ecological balance of the lake and wetlands. Because dams have sharply reduced the freshwater inflow to the lakes and marshes, the reedbeds, sedges and other fresh-water plant species have been replaced with salt-loving plants. These changes have produced a sharp reduction in the migratory bird populations, which depend on the mix of plants that used to exist. According to the UNESCO Website, the Tunisian government has undertaken some steps to retain freshwater and reduce salinity, and the lake was removed from UNESCO’s list of World heritage in danger in 2006. However some reports from the World Conservation Union suggest that the salinity has already become excessively high and the possibility for rehabilitation may be rapidly disappearing.
    Links: National Parks, Top Ten African National Parks, Top Ten Lakes,,
  9. Links: Top Ten Tunisian Hotels, Top Ten Tunisian Restaurants,