Top Ten Zambia Attractions

Top Ten Zambia Attractions

       Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighboring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of the country. The population is concentrated mainly around the capital Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt to the northwest. Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region of what is now Zambia was reached by the Bantu expansion by the 12th century. After visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia became the British colony of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the 19th century. For most of the colonial period, the country was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company. On 24 October 1964, the country declared independence from the UK and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the first head of state.Zambia was governed by Kenneth Kaunda of the socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) from 1964 until 1991. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP the sole legal political party. From 1991 to 2002,Zambia was governed by president Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy during which the country saw a rise in social-economic growth and increased decentralization of government. Levy Mwanawasa was the third President of Zambia. He presided over the country from January 2002 until his death in August 2008. He is credited with having initiated a campaign to rid the country of corruption, and increasing standards of living from the levels left by Frederick T.J. Chiluba. The World Bank in 2010 named Zambia as one of the world’s fastest economically reforming countries. The headquarters of COMESA are in the capital Lusaka.

  1. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls

           Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (“the Smoke that Thunders”) is a waterfall located in southern Africa on the Zambezi River between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are the largest in the world.
    Links: Top Ten Natural Wonders of the World, Top Ten Waterfalls, Top Ten Unique Swimming Destinations, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_Falls, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/509,
  2. Mwela Rock Paintings

           The Mwela Rock Paintings are a national monument of Zambia, about 7 kilometers (4 miles) east of Kasama. This site was re-added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on March 10, 2009, in the Mixed category.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mwela_Rock_Paintings,
  3. Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Settlement Site

           Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River is a 772 ft. (235m) single drop waterfall on the border of Zambia and Tanzania at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. The falls are some of the tallest uninterrupted falls in Africa (after South Africa’s Tugela Falls, Ethiopia’s Jin Bahir Falls and some more waterfalls). Downstream of the falls the Kalambo Gorge which has a width of about 1 km and a depth of up to 300 m runs for about 5 km before opening out into the Lake Tanganyika rift valley. Initially it was assumed that the height of falls exceeds 300 m, but later measurements in 1956 gave a result 221 m. Archaeologically, Kalambo Falls is one of the most important sites in Africa. It has produced a sequence of past human activity stretching over more than 250,000 years. It was first excavated in 1953 by John Desmond Clark who recognized archaeological activity around a small basin lake upstreams from the falls. Late Acheulian stone tools, hearths and well preserved organic objects were found there including a wooden club and digging sticks and evidence of fruit consumption. Tools excavated from Kalambo Gorge have been dated to around 300,000 BC, and the hearths indicate people were using fire systematically there some 60,000 years ago. The Acheulian industry was superseded by the Sangoan and then Lupemban industries related to those found in the Congo. Around 10,000 years ago the site was occupied by the Magosian culture which in turn gave way to Wilton activity. Finally, around the 4th century AD, a more industrialized Bantu people began to farm and occupy the area.
    Links: Top Ten Waterfalls, Top Ten Skeletons, Top Ten Skulls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalambo_Falls,
  4. Zambezi Source

           The Zambezi is the 4th longest river in Africa, and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square km (540,000 sq mi), slightly less than half that of the Nile. The 3,540 km long river (2,200 mi) has its source in Zambia and flows through Angola, along the borders of Namibia, Botswana, Zambia again, and Zimbabwe, to Mozambique, where it empties into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi’s most spectacular feature is the beautiful Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, and Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river. These are the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe and the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique which provides power to both Mozambique and South Africa. There is also a smaller power station at Victoria Falls.
    Links: Rivers,
  5. The Barotse Cultural Landscape

           Barotseland is a region in the western part of Zambia, and is the homeland of the Lozi people or Barotse who were previously known as Luyi or Aluyi. Its heartland is the Barotse Floodplain on the upper Zambezi River, also known as Bulozi or Lyondo, but it includes the surrounding higher ground of the plateau comprising all of what is now the Western Province of Zambia. In pre-colonial times, Barotseland included some neighboring parts of what are now the Northwestern, Central and Southern Province as well as Caprivi in northeastern Namibia and parts of southeastern Angola beyond the Cuando or Mashi River. The traditional monarch of Barotseland is the Paramount Chief, called the Litunga meaning “keeper or guardian of the earth,” who is directly descended from the ancient Litunga Mulambwa who ruled at the turn of the 19th century and through his grandson, the late great Litunga Lewanika who ruled from 1878-1916, with one break in 1884-5, who restored the traditions of the Lozi political economy in the arena of recent invasion by the Makololo, internal competition, external threats such as that posed by the Matabele and the inexorable spread of European colonialism. Historically, Barotseland’s status at the onset of the colonial era differed from the other regions which became Zambia. It was the first territory north of the Zambezi to sign a minerals concession and protectorate agreement with the British South Africa Company (BSAC) of Cecil Rhodes. Later Lewanika protested to London and to Queen Victoria that the BSAC agents had misrepresented the terms of the concession, but his protests fell on deaf ears, and in 1900 Britain formally annexed the territory as a protectorate and governed it as part of North-Western Rhodesia. Barotseland continued to lobby to be treated as a separate state and was given substantial autonomy within the later states, Northern Rhodesia and independent Zambia. At the pre-Independence talks, the Barotse simply asked for a continuation of “Queen Victoria’s protection.” A desire to secede was expressed from time to time, causing some friction with the government of Kenneth Kaunda, reflected in the latter changing its name from Barotseland Province to Western Province. According to Barotse views, the government in Lusaka also starved Barotseland of development, it has only one tarred road into the center, from Lusaka to the provincial capital of Mongu, and lacks the kind of state infrastructure projects found in other provinces. Electricity supplies are erratic, relying on an aging connection to the hydroelectric plant at Kariba. Consequently secessionist views are still aired from time to time. The Government of Barotseland is the Kuta, presided over by the Ngambela (Prime Minister).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barotseland,
  6. Chirundu Fossil Forest

           Chirundu, Zambia is a town in Zambia at the border with Zimbabwe and is a key point on the Great North Road. It is the site of two of the five major road or rail bridges across the Zambezi river, the Chirundu Bridges. The Chirundu Petrified Forest is an area of fossil trees 21 km west of Chirundu, lying just south of the Chirundu-Lusaka road near the Kariba turn-off. It is a listed National Monument of Zambia. Chirundu was the home to the local cult leader and faith healer Emmanuel Sadiki roughly from the year 1988 to 1989.
    Links:
  7. Dag Hammarskjoeld Memorial (Crash site)

           The Dag Hammarskjold Memorial Crash Site marks the place of the plane crash in which Dag Hammarskjöld, the second and then-incumbent United Nations Secretary General (1953-1961) was killed on the September 17, 1961, while on a mission to the Congo Republic (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). The Site is located 10 km from Ndola, in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dag_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld_Crash_Site_Memorial,
  8. Links: Top Ten Zambian Hotels, http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/zm,