Top Ten Mongolian Attractions

Top Ten Mongolian Attractions


       Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only 38 km (24 mi) from Kazakhstan’s eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia’s political system is a parliamentary republic. The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks and others. The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. After the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols returned to their earlier pattern of constant internal conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence from the Republic of China, and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, it came under strong Russian and Soviet influence; in 1924, the Mongolian People’s Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as the Soviet politics of the time. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own Democratic Revolution in early 1990, which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and transition to a market economy. At 1,564,116 square km (603,909 sq mi),Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of around 2.75 million people. It is also the world’s second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state’s citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west.

  1. Ulan Bator
    Ulan BatorUlan Bator1Ulan Bator2Ulan Bator5Ulan Bator3Ulan Bator4
           Ulan Bator is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. An independent municipality, the city is not part of any province, and its population as of 2008 is just over one million. Located in north central Mongolia, the city lies at an elevation of about 1,310 m (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the cultural, industrial, and financial heart of the country. It is the center of Mongolia’s road network, and is connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a movable (nomadic) Buddhist monastic center  In 1778 it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that it changed location 28 times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the 20th century, Ulan Bator grew into a major manufacturing center.
  2. Khara-Khoto
           Eji Nai City (Tangut language, transcribed into Chinese as Yijinai), paraphrased to Mongolian as Khara-Khoto (Mongolian: “black city”) and to Chinese as Heishui City (Chinese: Hēichéng “black city” or Hēishuǐchéng, “black water city”), was a Tangut city in the Ejin khoshuu of Alxa League, in western Inner Mongolia, near the former Gashun Lake. It has been identified as the city of Etzina, which appears in The Travels of Marco Polo. The present banner Ejin Banner is named after this city.
  3. Genghis Khan Equestrian Statue
    Genghis Khan Equestrian StatueGenghis Khan Equestrian Statue1Genghis Khan Equestrian Statue2
           The Genghis Khan Statue complex is located 54 km from Ulan Bator, Mongolia, on the bank of the Tuul River, in a place called Tsonjin Boldog, where Genghis Khan had found a golden whip according to legend. The complex was designed by sculptor D. Erdembileg and architect J. Enkhjargal. A 40 m high statue on horseback was erected on a 10 m high base, covered by stainless steel and surrounded by 36 columns. Those 36 columns are meant for the memorial of 36 kings from Genghis until Ligdan Khan. A recreation area, restaurants, souvenir shop and conference hall occupy the base structure. From here, visitors will ascend to the exhibition hall using an elevator at the back of the horse. The visitors will walk to the head of the horse through chest and back neck of the horse, where they can have a panoramic view over the complex area. The main statue area will be surrounded by 200 yurt camps, designed and arranged like the pattern of the horse brand marks that were used by the 13th century Mongol tribes. The cost of the complex is reported to be $4.1 million.
    Links: Sculptures, Top Ten Warlords,,
  4. Deer Stones
    Deer StonesDeer Stones1Deer Stones2Deer Stones3Deer Stones4Deer Stones5Deer Stones6
           Deer stones are Mongolian ancient megaliths carved with symbols. The name comes from their carved depictions of flying deer. Their purpose and creators are unknown.
  5. Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai
    Petroglyphic Complexes of the Mongolian Altai
    Links: Relieves and Petroglyphs,
  6. Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape
    Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape
           Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. It was inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List as representing evolution of nomadic pastoral traditions spanning more than two millennia.
  7. Uvs Nuur Basin (shared with Russian Federation)
    Uvs Nuur BasinUvs Nuur Basin1Uvs Nuur Basin2
           Uvs Nuur, Lake Uvs or Uvs Lake is a highly saline lake in an endorheic basin, Uvs Nuur Basin, in Mongolia with a small part in Russia. It is the largest lake in Mongolia by surface area, covering 3,350 km² at 759 m above sea level. The northeastern tip of the lake is situated in the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation. The largest settlement near the lake is Ulaangom. This shallow and very saline body of water is a remainder of a huge saline sea which covered a much larger area several thousand years ago.
  8. Links: Top Ten Mongolian Artifacts,,

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