Top Ten German Attractions

Top Ten German Attractions

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       Germany consists of 16 states with its capital and largest city being Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 square km (137,847 sq mi.) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 80.3 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state in the European Union. Germany is the major economic and political power of the European continent and a historic leader in many cultural, theoretical and technical fields. Various Germanic tribes occupied what is now northern Germany and southern Scandinavia since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented by the Romans before AD 100. During the Migration Period that coincided with the decline of the Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes expanded southward and established kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the center of the Protestant Reformation. Occupied during the Napoleonic Wars, the rise of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation resulted in the unification of most of the German states in 1871 into the German Empire, which was dominated by Prussia. After the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the subsequent military surrender in WWI, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic in 1918, with some of its territory partitioned in the Treaty of Versailles. Despite its lead in many scientific and cultural fields at this time, Germany nonetheless endured significant economic and political instability, which intensified during the Great Depression and contributed to the establishment of the Third Reich in 1933. The subsequent rise of fascism led to WWII. After 1945, Germany was divided by allied occupation, and evolved into two states, East Germany and West Germany. In 1990, the country was reunified. Germany has the world’s 4th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 5th largest by purchasing power parity. Known for its rich cultural and political history, Germany has been the home of many influential philosophers, music composers, scientists, and inventors.

  1. Berlin
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            Berlin is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million people, Berlin is Germany’s largest city and is the 2nd most populous city proper and the 7th most populous urban area in the European Union. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes. Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–33) and the Third Reich (1933–45). During the 1920’s, Berlin was the third largest municipality in the world. After WWII, the city, along with the German state, was divided – into East Berlin, capital of the German Democratic Republic, colloquially identified in English as East Germany, and West Berlin, a political exclave (surrounded by the Berlin Wall from 1961 to 1989) and a de facto (although not de jure) state of the Federal Republic of Germany, known colloquially in English as West Germany from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science, hosting 147 foreign embassies. Its economy is primarily based on high-tech industries and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues. Significant industries include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, electronics, traffic engineering, and renewable energy. Berlin is home to renowned universities, research institutes, orchestras, museums, and celebrities and is host to many sporting events. Its urban setting and historical legacy have made it a popular location for international film productions. The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, public transportation networks, and an extremely high quality of living.
    Links: Cities, Top Ten Cities, Top Ten European Cities, Top Ten Party Cities, Top Ten Opera Houses,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin,
  2. Munich
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    Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria. It is located on the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the 3rd largest city in Germany, behind Berlin and Hamburg. About 1.5 million people live within the city limits. Its inhabitants are sometimes called Munichers in English. Its native name, München, is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning “by the monks’ place.” The city’s name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city’s coat of arms. Black and gold, the colors of the Holy Roman Empire, have been the city’s official colors since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes, it was an imperial residence from 1328 and in 1506 became the sole capital of Bavaria. Munich is home to many national and international authorities and major universities, major museums and theaters. By a large number of architecture worth seeing, international sports events, exhibitions and congresses and the Munich Oktoberfest is an attraction for tourism. The city’s motto is “München mag dich” (Munich loves you). Before 2006, it was “Weltstadt mit Herz” (Cosmopolitan city with a heart). Modern Munich is a financial and publishing hub, and a frequently top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location in livability rankings. Munich is one of the economically most successful and fastest growing cities in Germany and the seat of numerous corporations and insurance companies. For economic and social innovation, the city was ranked 15th globally out of 289 cities in 2010.
    Links: Cities, Top Ten Cities, Top Ten European Cities, Top Ten Arenas,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich,
  3. Frankfurt
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    Frankfurt am Main, commonly known as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the 5th largest city in Germany, with a 2012 population of 687,775. Frankfurt is the largest financial center in continental Europe and ranks among the world’s leading financial centers. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks. The European Central Bank is the central bank of the eurozone, consisting of 17 EU member states that have adopted the euro (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world’s largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for over 90% of the turnover in the German market. Frankfurt is therefore considered a global city (alpha world city) as listed by the Loughborough University group’s 2010 inventory. Among financial centers it was ranked 7th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2012 and 10th by the Global Financial Centers Index 2013. Due to its central location within Germany and Europe, Frankfurt is a major air, rail and highway transport hub. Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU with approximately 320,000 cars daily. Major trade fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world’s largest motor show, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world’s largest book fair. Frankfurt is also home to many cultural and educational institutions including the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University and Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, many museums (e.g. Städel, Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Goethe House), and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten, which is Germany’s largest, and the Botanical Garden of the Goethe University. In 2011, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual “Quality of Living” survey of cities around the world. A unique feature of Frankfurt is its significant number of skyscrapers and high-rise buildings in the city center which form the Frankfurt skyline.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankfurt,
  4. Hamburg
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    Hamburg is the 2nd largest city in Germany and the 9th largest city in the European Union. It is home to over 1.8 million people, while the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (including parts of the neighboring Federal States of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) has more than 5 million inhabitants. On the river Elbe, the port of Hamburg is the 2nd largest port in Europe (after the Port of Rotterdam) and 10th largest worldwide. The official name reflects its history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, and that it is a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the stringent civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Hamburg is a major transport hub and is one of the most affluent cities in Europe. It has become a media and industrial center, with plants and facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm + Voss and Aurubis. Hamburg has been an important financial center for centuries, and is the seat of the world’s 2nd oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. The city is a major tourist destination for both domestic and overseas visitors; it ranked 17th in the world for livability in 2012, and in 2010 it ranked 10th in the world.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamburg,
  5. Cologne
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    Cologne is Germany’s 4th largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area. Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city’s famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne and the University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe’s oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in the first century AD, as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in Ubii territory. It was the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of the military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished as one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and renaissance times. Up until WWII the city had undergone several other occupations by the French and also the British. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during WWII. The bombing reduced the population by 95% and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural center of the Rhineland; it is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom, and the Photokina.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cologne,
  6. Düsseldorf
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           Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and center of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial center and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the city is headquarters to five Fortune Global 500 and several DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organizes nearly one fifth of all world‘s premier trade shows. Culturally, Düsseldorf is known for its academy of fine arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, e.g. Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Andreas Gursky), its pioneering influence on electronic music (Kraftwerk) and its large Japanese community. As a city by the river Rhine, Düsseldorf is a stronghold for Rhenish Carnival celebrations. Every year in July more than 4.5 million people visit the city’s Largest Fair on the Rhine funfair. As the 7th most populous city in Germany by population within city limits and an urban population of 1.5 million, Düsseldorf is one of the country’s five global cities. The Mercer’s 2011 Quality of Living survey of cities with the highest quality of life ranked Düsseldorf 5th worldwide and 2nd in Germany.
    Links: Cities, Top Ten Cities, Top Ten European Citieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dusseldorf,
  7. Stuttgart
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    Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The 6th largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 613,392 (December 2011) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008). Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyards), valleys and parks – unusual for a German city and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the ‘cradle of the automobile.’ The city of Stuttgart ranked 30th globally in Mercer’s 2010 liveability rankings, and 7th in Germany behind top-ranked cities such as Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Munich. For economic and social innovation, the city was ranked 11th globally, second in Germany after Hamburg and 7th in Europe in 2009 out of 256 cities. Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, describing itself as “Das neue Herz Europas” (“The new heart of Europe”). For business, it describes itself as “Standort Zukunft,” “Where business meets the future”), and in 2007, the Bürgermeister marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as “The creative power of Germany.”
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuttgart,
  8. Dresden
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    Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area with 2.4 million inhabitants. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city center. The controversial British and American bombing of Dresden in WWII towards the end of the war killed at least 25,000 civilians and destroyed the entire city center. The impact of the bombing ruined the face of the city, as did for other major German cities. After the war Restoration work has helped to reconstruct the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Semper Oper and the Dresdner Frauenkirche as well as the suburbs. The city now is fully restored to its former glory. Before and Since German reunification in 1990, Dresden was and is one of the most cultural, educational, political and economic centers of Germany and Europe. The Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
    Links: Cities, Top Ten CitiesTop Ten European Cities, Sculptures, Top 100 Sculptures, Top 100 European SculpturesPalaces, Top Ten Palaces, Top Ten European Palaceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dresden,
  9. Walhalla Temple, Bavaria
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           The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history, politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue. The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology. It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I. Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze. The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history, the earliest person honored is Arminius, victor at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD).
    Links: Temples, Top Ten Temples, Top Ten European Temples, Top 100 Sculptors, Top 100 European Sculptures, Top Ten German Sculptures, Top 100 Busts, Top 100 Scientist, Top Ten Scientific Theories, Top Ten Composers, Top Ten Compositions by Beethoven, Top Ten Friezes, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walhalla_temple,
  10. Oktoberfest
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    ‘Octoberfest is the world’s largest fair held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16-day festival running from late September to the first weekend in October with more than 6 million people from around the world attending the event every year. To the locals, it is not called Oktoberfest, but “die Wies’n,” after the colloquial name of the fairgrounds (Theresienwiese) themselves. The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since 1810. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations, modeled after the original Munich event. The Munich Oktoberfest originally took place during the 16 days up to, and including, the first Sunday in October. In 1994, the schedule was modified in response to German reunification so that if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or 2nd, then the festival would go on until October 3 (German Unity Day). Thus, the festival is now 17 days when the first Sunday is October 2 and 18 days when it is October 1. In 2010, the festival lasted until the first Monday in October, to mark the anniversary of the event. The festival is held in an area named the Theresienwiese (field, or meadow, of Therese), often called Wiesn for short, located near Munich’s center. Visitors may also enjoy a wide variety of traditional food such as Hendl (roast chicken), Schweinebraten (roast pork), Schweinshaxe (grilled ham hock), Steckerlfisch (grilled fish on a stick), Würstl (sausages) along with Brezen (pretzel), Knödel (potato or bread dumplings), Käsespätzle (cheese noodles), Reiberdatschi (potato pancakes), Sauerkraut or Rotkohl/Blaukraut (red cabbage) along with such Bavarian delicacies as Obatzda (a spiced cheese-butter spread) and Weisswurst (a white sausage). Probst!
    Links: Events, Top Ten Oktoberfests, Top 100 Events of the Year, Top Ten Fairs,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oktoberfest,
  11. Aachen
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           Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favored residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost city of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km (40 mi) west of Cologne. RWTH Aachen University, one of Germany’s Universities of Excellence, is located in the city. Aachen’s predominant economic focus is on science, engineering, information technology and related sectors. In 2009, Aachen was ranked 8th among cities in Germany for innovation.
    Links: The Pineal Gland, Sun Gazing, DMT and OM, Top Ten Cathedrals, Top Ten Dome Interiors, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aachen,
  12. Bremen
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    The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. A commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region (2.4 million people). Bremen is the 2nd most populous city in Northern Germany and 10th in Germany. Bremen is some 60 km (37 mi) south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea. With Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bremen,
  13. Rhine Gorge
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    The Rhine Gorge is a popular name for the Upper Middle Rhine Valley, a 65 km section of the River Rhine between Koblenz and Bingen in Germany. The region’s rocks were laid down in the Devonian period and are known as Rhenish Facies. The gorge was carved out during a much more recent uplift to leave the river contained within steep walls 200 m high, the most famous feature being the Loreley. The gorge produces its own microclimate and has acted as a corridor for species not otherwise found in the region. Its slopes have long been terraced for agriculture, in particular viticulture which has good conditions on south-facing slopes. Most of the vineyards belong to the wine region Mittelrhein, but the southernmost parts of the Rhine Gorge fall in Rheingau and Nahe. The river has been an important trade route into central Europe since prehistoric times and a string of small settlements has grown up along the banks. Constrained in size, many of these old towns retain a historic feel today. With increasing wealth, many castles appeared and the valley became a core region of the Holy Roman Empire. It was at the center of the Thirty Years’ War, which left many of the castles in ruins, a particular attraction for today’s cruise ships which follow the river. At one time forming a border of France, in the 19th Century the valley became part of Prussia and its landscape became the quintessential image of Germany. This part of the Rhine features strongly in folklore, such as a legendary castle on the Rhine being the setting for the opera Götterdämmerung. The annual Rhine in Flames festivals include spectacular firework displays at Sankt Goar in September and Koblenz in August, the best view being from one of a convoy of boats.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhine_Gorge,
  14. Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe
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           Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe is a unique landscape park in Kassel, Germany. Art historian Georg Dehio (1850–1932), inspirator of the modern discipline of historic preservation, described the park as “possibly the most grandiose combination of landscape and architecture that the Baroque dared anywhere.” The area of the park is 2.4 square km (590 acres), making it the largest European hillside park, and 2nd largest park on a mountain slope in the world. Construction of the Bergpark, or “mountain park,” began in 1696 at the behest of the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel and took about 150 years.
    Links: Top Ten Parks, Pyramids, Top Ten Pyramids, Top Ten European Pyramids,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergpark_Wilhelmsh%C3%B6he,
  15. Margravial Opera House
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    The Margravial Opera House or Margrave’s Opera House is a Baroque opera house in the town of Bayreuth, Germany, built between 1744 and 1748 by Joseph Saint-Pierre. It is one of Europe’s few surviving theaters of the period and has been extensively restored. The interior was designed by Giuseppe Galli Bibiena and his son Carlo of Bologna in the late Baroque style. Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia, wife of the Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, participated here as writer, player, composer, actor and director. Today she features in a sound-and-light presentation for tourists. The stage’s great depth (27 m) attracted Richard Wagner, who later had his Bayreuth Festspielhaus built north of the town. Each September from the year 2000 to 2009, the theater hosted the Bayreuther Baroque festival, with performances of early operatic rarities. The 2009 festival included performances of Andrea Bernasconi’s festa teatrale, L’Huomo, to a libretto by the Margravine Wilhelmine. The theater will close in August of 2012 for extensive refurbishment and redevelopment, a process which is expected to take several years to complete.
    Links: Top Ten Opera Houses, Top Ten Operas by Richard Wagner,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margravial_Opera_House,
  16. Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces
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    The Augustusburg and Falkenlust palaces is a historical building complex in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. They are connected by the spacious gardens and trees of the Schlosspark. Augustusburg Palace and its parks also serve as a venue for the Brühl Palace Concerts. The Max Ernst Museum is located nearby. The palaces were built at the beginning of the 18th century by the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Clemens August of Bavaria of the Wittelsbach family. The architects were Johann Conrad Schlaun and François de Cuvilliés. The main block Augustusburg Palace is a U-shaped building with three main stories and two levels of attics. The magnificent staircase was designed by Johann Balthasar Neumann. The gardens were designed by Dominique Girard. An elaborate flower garden for an area south of the palaces was also designed, but it was restructured by Peter Joseph Lenné in the 19th century and turned into a landscape garden. Attempts to renovate the area have proven difficult, due to poor source material availability. Falkenlust was built from 1729 to 1740, in the style of the Amalienburg hunting lodge in the park of Nymphenburg Palace by François de Cuvilliés. From shortly after WWII until 1994, Augustusburg was used as a reception hall for guests of state by the German President, as it is not far from Bonn, which was the capital of Germany at that time.
    Links: Palaces, Top Ten Palaces, Top Ten European Palaces,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustusburg_and_Falkenlust_Palaces,_Br%C3%BChl,
  17. Berlin Wall
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    The Berlin Wall was a concrete barrier built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) that completely enclosed the city of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany. The Wall included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the “death strip”) that contained anti-vehicle trenches, “fakir beds” and other defenses. The separate and much longer Inner German border demarcated the border between East and West Germany. Both borders came to symbolize the Iron Curtain between Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc. Before the Wall’s erection, 3.5 million East Germans had avoided Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin. From West Berlin, emigrants could travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. During its existence from 1961 to 1989, the Wall stopped almost all such emigration and separated the GDR from West Berlin for more than a quarter of a century. After its erection, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with estimates of the resulting death toll varying between around 100 and 200. The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the “Anti-Fascist Protection Wall” by the communist GDR authorities, implying that neighboring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified. The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the “Wall of Shame,” a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt while condemning the wall’s restriction on freedom of movement. In 1989, there were a radical series of Eastern Bloc political changes associated with the liberalization of the Bloc’s authoritarian systems. After several weeks of local civil unrest following the erosion of political power of the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary, the East German government announced on November 9, 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, a euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of the rest. The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification.
    Links: Top Ten Walls, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Berlin_Wall,
  18. Quedlinburg
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    Quedlinburg is a town located north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. In 1994 the medieval court and the old town was set on the UNESCO world heritage list. Until 2007 it was the capital of the district of Quedlinburg. Some places in town with Romanesque architecture are part of the holiday route Romanesque Road, such as St. Servatius’ church at the castles hill, St. Wigbert’s church down the valley and St Marie’s church on the Montsion’s hill (Münzenberg).
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quedlinburg,
  19. Weimar
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    Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany, 170 km (106 miles) west of Dresden. Weimar is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history. The city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading characters of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt made a music center of Weimar and later, artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Walter Gropius came to the city and found the Bauhaus, the most important German design school of interwar period. Weimar is the place where Germany’s first democratic constitution was signed after the WWI, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics (1918–1933), as well as one of the cities that got mystified by the National Socialist propaganda. Next to the city was, Buchenwald, one of the largest Nazi concentration camps in Germany. Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites (either as part of the Weimar Classicism complex or as part of the Bauhaus complex) and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and two leading courts of Thuringia (Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court). In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar,
  20. Würzburg Palace
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    The Würzburg Residence is a palace in Würzburg, southern Germany. Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt and Maximilian von Welsch, representatives of the Austrian/South German Baroque were involved in the construction, as well as Robert de Cotte and Germain Boffrand, who were followers of the French Style. Balthasar Neumann, architect of the court of the Bishop of Würzburg, was the principal architect of the Residenz, which was commissioned by the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg Johann Philipp Franz von Schönborn and his brother Friedrich Carl von Schönborn in 1720, and completed in 1744. The Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, assisted by his son, Domenico, painted frescoes in the building. Interiors include the grand staircase, the chapel, and the grand salon. The building was dubbed the “nicest parsonage in Europe” by Napoleon. It was heavily damaged during WWII, and restoration has been in progress since 1945.
    Links: Palaces, Top Ten Palaces, Top Ten European Palaces,   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%BCrzburg_Residence,
  21. Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm
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    The Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm, also known as the English Grounds of Wörlitz, is one of the first and largest English parks in Germany and continental Europe. It was created in the late 18th century under the regency of Duke Leopold III of Anhalt-Dessau (1740-1817), returning from a Grand Tour to Italy, the Netherlands, England, France and Switzerland he had undertaken together with his friend architect Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff. Both strongly influenced by the ideals of The Enlightenment, they aimed to overcome the formal garden concept of the Baroque era in favor of a naturalistic landscape as they had seen at Stourhead Gardens and Ermenonville. Today the cultural landscape of Dessau-Wörlitz encompasses an area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi) within the Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
    Links: Top Ten Gardens, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dessau-W%C3%B6rlitz_Garden_Realm,
  22. Bamberg
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    Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany, located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Town_of_Bamberg,
  23. Wartburg Castle
    3Eisenach, Wartburg2911Wartburg Castle41218107
    The Wartburg is a castle situated on a 1230-foot (410-m) precipice to the southwest of, and overlooking the town of Eisenach, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. In 1999 UNESCO added Wartburg Castle to the World Heritage List as an “Outstanding Monument of the Feudal Period in Central Europe,” citing its “Cultural Values of Universal Significance.”
    Links: Castles, Top Ten Castles, Top Ten European Castleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wartburg_Castle,
  24. Speyer Cathedral
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    The Speyer Cathedral, officially the Imperial Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption and St Stephen, in Speyer, Germany, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Speyer and is suffragan to the Archdiocese of Bamberg. The cathedral, which is dedicated to St. Mary, patron saint of Speyer and St. Stephen is generally known as Kaiserdom zu Speyer (Imperial Cathedral of Speyer). Pope Pius XI raised Speyer Cathedral to the rank of a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church in 1925. Begun in 1030 under Conrad II, with the east end and high vault of 1090-1103, the imposing triple-aisled vaulted basilica of red sandstone is the “culmination of a design which was extremely influential in the subsequent development of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries.” As the burial site for Salian, Staufer and Habsburg emperors and kings the cathedral is regarded as a symbol of imperial power. With the Abbey of Cluny in ruins, it remains the largest Romanesque church. It is considered to be “a turning point in European architecture,” one of the most important architectural monuments of its time and one of the finest Romanesque monuments.
    Links: Top Ten Cathedrals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speyer_Cathedral,
  25. Frontiers of the Roman Empire
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    Hadrian’s Wall was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the Roman Empire from “barbarians.” The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian’s Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd century, ranging from Antonine’s Wall in the north to Trajan’s Wall in eastern Europe.
    Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Germany,
  26. Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany,