Top Ten Oceanic Cities

Top Ten Oceanic Cities

  1. Sydney, Australia

           Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia’s south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people. Inhabitants of Sydney are called Sydneysiders, comprising a cosmopolitan and international population. The site of the first British colony in Australia, Sydney was established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, commodore of the First Fleet as a penal colony. The city is built on hills surrounding Port Jackson which is commonly known as Sydney Harbour, where the iconic Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge feature prominently. The hinterland of the metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and the coastal regions feature many bays, rivers, inlets and beaches including the famous Bondi Beach. Within the city are many notable parks, including Hyde Park and the Royal Botanic Gardens. In 2010, Sydney was ranked 7th in Asia and 28th globally for economic innovation in the Innovation Cities Top 100 Index by innovation agency 2thinknow. Sydney also ranks among the top 10 most livable cities in the world according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting, The Economist and Monocle and is considered among the top fashion capitals in the world. Sydney ranks among the top 10 world centers. It has hosted major international sporting events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, the 2000 Summer Olympics, and the final match of the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The main airport serving Sydney is Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, Top Ten Opera Houses, Top Ten Concert Halls, Top Ten AquariumsTop Ten Cathedrals, Top Ten Bridges, BeachesTop Ten Oceanic BeachesTop Ten Australian Beacheshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney,
  2. Auckland, New Zealand

           The Auckland metropolitan area, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with 1,354,900 residents, 31% of the country’s population. Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world. In Māori Auckland’s name is Tāmaki Makaurau, or the transliterated version of Auckland, Ākarana. The 2010 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Auckland 4th equal place in the world on its list, while The Economist’s World’s Most Livable Cities index of 2010 ranked Auckland in 10th place. In 2008, Auckland was classified as an Alpha World City in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough University. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, and the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbor on the Tasman Sea and the Waitemata Harbor on the Pacific Ocean. It is one of the few cities in the world to have harbors on two separate major bodies of water.
    Links: Top Ten New Zealand Attractions, Top Ten Clock Towershttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auckland,
  3. Wellington, New Zealand
    CroppedImage1136665-Wellington-City-Dawn-homepagelanding-Dillon-AndersonFile:Pou Whenua in Mount Victoria, Wellington, New Zealand.jpgFile:Wellington-27-05-08.jpgWellington Cable CarFile:Parlamento da Nova Zelândia.jpg
    Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand after Auckland. It is at the southwestern tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. It is home to 393,400 residents. The Wellington urban area is the major population center of the southern North Island, and is the seat of the Wellington Region, which in addition to the urban area covers the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa. The urban area includes four cities: Wellington, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbor  contains the central business district and about half of Wellington’s population; Porirua on Porirua Harbor to the north is notable for its large Māori and Pacific Island communities; Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt are largely suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the Hutt Valley. Wellington also holds the distinction of being the world’s southernmost capital city. In 2008, Wellington was classified as a Gamma World City in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough University. The 2010 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. In 2011 Lonely Planet Best in Travel 2011 named Wellington as fourth in its Top 10 Cities to Visit in 2011, referring to the New Zealand capital as the “coolest little capital in the world.”
    Links: Top Ten New Zealand Attractions, Cities, Museums and Galleries, Top Ten Oceanic Museumshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wellington,
  4. Melbourne, Australia

           Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the 2nd most populous city in Australia with approximately 4 million inhabitants (2009). The Melbourne City Center is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division, of which “Melbourne” is the common name. The metropolis is located on the large natural bay known as Port Phillip, with the city center positioned at the estuary of the Yarra River (at the northern-most point of the bay). The metropolitan area then extends south from the city center, along the eastern and western shorelines of Port Phillip, and expands into the hinterland. Melbourne was founded in 1835 (47 years after the European settlement of Australia) by settlers from Van Diemen’s Land. It was named by governor Richard Bourke in 1837, in honor of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, the 2nd Viscount Melbourne. Melbourne was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847. In 1851, it became the capital city of the newly created colony of Victoria. During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850’s, it was transformed into one of the world’s largest and wealthiest cities. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it then served as the interim seat of government of the newly created nation of Australia until 1927. Often referred to as the “cultural capital of Australia,” Melbourne is the birthplace of cultural institutions such as Australian film (as well as the world’s first feature film), Australian television, Australian rules football, the Australian impressionist art movement (known as the Heidelberg School) and Australian dance styles such as New Vogue and the Melbourne Shuffle. It is also a major center for contemporary and traditional Australian music. Melbourne was ranked as the world’s most livable city in the World’s Most Livable Cities ratings by the Economist Group’s Intelligence Unit in August, 2011. It was also ranked in the top 10 Global University Cities by RMIT’s Global University Cities Index (since 2006) and the top 20 Global Innovation Cities by the 2thinknow Global Innovation Agency (since 2007). The metropolis is also home to the world’s largest tram network.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, Top 100 FilmsTop Ten Paintings by the Heidelberg School, Sculptures, Top 100 Oceanic Sculptureshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne,
  5. Perth, Australia

           Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the 4th most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000. The metropolitan area is located in the South West Division of Western Australia, between the Indian Ocean and a low coastal escarpment known as the Darling Range. The central business district and suburbs of Perth are situated on the banks of the Swan River. Shortly after the establishment of the port settlement of Fremantle, Perth was founded on June 12, 1829 by Captain James Stirling as the political center of the Swan River Colony. As the business and administration center for the resource-rich state, Perth has grown consistently faster than the national average. Perth became known worldwide as the “City of Light” when city residents lit their house lights and streetlights as American astronaut John Glenn passed overhead while orbiting the earth on Friendship 7 in 1962. The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle in 1998. Perth is tied for 8th place in The Economist’s 2011 list of the World’s Most Livable Cities.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, Top Ten Towers, Top Ten Astronautshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perth,_Western_Australia,
  6. The Gold Coast, Australia

           Gold Coast is a coastal city located in South East Queensland, Australia. The city is 94 km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 (2010), it is the 2nd most populous city in the state, the 6th most populous city in the country, and also the most populous non-capital city in Australia. The Gold Coast also holds the title of the largest cross-state population of any metropolitan area in Australia, due to its close proximity to Tweed Heads which is located in New South Wales. The total metropolitan area of the region is over 600,000 people, many of whom cross the border daily. In addition, the urban area of the Gold Coast has almost joined with the urban areas of Logan and Brisbane, some 50 km north. While the origin of the city’s name is debatable, it earned a reputation as being the “gold coast” area by real estate investors. The first settlement of the area of Queensland was as a penal colony at Redcliffe. The Gold Coast urban area remained largely uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland’s red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. Later in 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and quickly grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for the upper class Brisbane residents. The region of the Gold Coast grew significantly after the establishment of the Surfers Paradise hotel in the late 1920’s. The area boomed in the 1980’s as a leading tourist destination and by 1994, Queensland decided to amalgamate the city with Albert Shire to develop it as one of Australia’s “super cities.” This amalgamation made Gold Coast the 2nd largest municipality in Australia after Brisbane. Its new boundaries extend south to Coolangatta on the border with New South Wales, west to Mount Tamborine in the remote interior, and north to Beenleigh of Brisbane. Gold Coast is today known as a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate, surfing beaches, canal and waterway systems, its high-rise dominated skyline, nightlife and rainforest hinterland, making tourism one of its most significant industries. Gold Coast will host the 2018 Commonwealth Games.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, Top Ten Surf Spots,
  7. Canberra, Australia

           Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia’s largest inland city and the 8th largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney, and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a “Canberran.” The site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation’s capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia’s two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an entirely planned city. Following an international contest for the city’s design, a blueprint by the Chicago architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913. The Griffins’ plan featured geometric motifs such as circles, hexagons and triangles, and was centered around axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city’s design was heavily influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the “bush capital.” The growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a sequence of bodies that were to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after WWII, as Prime Minister Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the federal government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority. As the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army’s officer corps are trained at the Royal Military College, Duntroon and the Australian Defence Force Academy is also located in the capital. As the city has a high proportion of public servants, the federal government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra. As the seat of government, the unemployment rate is lower and the average income higher than the national average, while property prices are relatively high, in part due to comparatively restricted development regulations. Tertiary education levels are higher, while the population is younger.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canberra,
  8. Adelaide, Australia
    File:Adelaide nth tce1.8.jpg
    Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia and the fifth-largest city in Australia. According to the 2011 census, Adelaide has a population of 1.23 million. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St. Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km (56 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honor of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide’s founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light’s design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parkland. Early Adelaide was shaped by religious freedom and a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties, which led to the moniker “City of Churches.” As South Australia’s seat of government and commercial center  Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city center along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food, wine and culture, its long beachfronts, and its large defense and manufacturing sectors. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist’s World’s Most Liveable Cities index in 2010 and being ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011 and again in 2012.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide,
  9. Brisbane, Australia

            Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the 3rd most populous city in Australia. Brisbane’s metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centered around Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River approximately 23 kilometers from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River valley between the bay and the Great Dividing Range. While the metropolitan area is governed by several municipalities, a large proportion of central Brisbane is governed by the Brisbane City Council which is Australia’s largest Local Government Area by population. Brisbane is named after the river on which it sits which, in turn, was named after Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales from 1821 to 1825. The first European settlement in Queensland was a penal colony at Redcliffe, 28 kilometers (17 mi) north of the Brisbane central business district, in 1824. That settlement was soon abandoned and moved to North Quay in 1825. Free settlers were permitted from 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales in 1859. The city played a central role in the Allied campaign during WWII as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur. Brisbane has hosted many large cultural and sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo ‘88 and the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Brisbane is the largest economy between Sydney and Singapore and in 2008 it was classified as a Beta world city in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory by Loughborough University. It was also rated the 16th most livable city in the world in 2009 by The Economist.
    Links: Top Ten Australian Attractions, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brisbane,
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